A through train(also through service, run-through service/train ) is a concept of rail transport (commuter rail, subway systems, and mass transit) that involves a change in the operating provider of the line, or a change in the identity (usually operational) of the line, at a specified boundary, on a regularly specified schedule (not random). This is usually accomplished through compatible infrastructure—identical track gauge and durability issues (although variable gauge trains do exist, they tend to be expensive), rolling stock dimensions, curve speed and signaling compatibility, train station dimensions (to avoid damage to rolling stock), tunnels and bridge dimensions and maximum weight, and power requirements. The exact terminology (and definition) vary as usage; in the case of National Rail of the UK, a through train is one which may be used by a passenger to make their entire journey without changing trains.
Chinese cities operate several through-train services (simplified Chinese :直通运行; traditional Chinese :直通運行; pinyin :zhítōng yùnxíng):
Several subway systems have through operation between lines. Although this is usually a service crossing between a somewhat arbitrary boundary between two lines.
Paris Réseau express régional:
In both cases, trains run contiguously, thus providing a one-seat ride across both SNCF and RATP networks. To achieve smooth network crossing, RATP and SNCF jointly designed and ordered specific MI 79 rolling stock (where MI stands for matériel d'interconnexion, French for "cross-network rolling stock.") Change of drivers was compulsory at network boundaries until 2008 when one-driver cross-network runs were introduced.
In Germany, such services are called Durchbindung.
Through services (直通運転, chokutsū unten) are regularly scheduled train services owned by an operator which runs over tracks which it does not own. Many urban railways in Japan operate such services to increase ridership, increase convenience and simplicity, and reduce time to destinations by eliminating transfers through seamless connection. One example is a Narita-to-Haneda service, which runs on four companies' tracks. Despite fewer new lines in recent years as the system is mature, more through services are proliferating to reduce cross metropolitan area connection time, at least in theory.
A 2016 MLIT study has shown that minor train delays are quite commonplace in Greater Tokyo during rush hour, at odds with Japan's image of train punctuality. The reason for this is that the subway lines in particular are subject to heavier loads, and thus more delay as riders rush in at the last minute, and forcing final door closings to be delayed. The proliferation of through-services has only magnified the problem, as it acts as a double-edged sword, though convenient in not having to switch trains, central Tokyo delays increasingly cause a ripple effect to through services on suburban lines.
Subway trains of Seoul Subway Line 1, Line 3 and Line 4 run through to Korail suburban lines.
Russia operates regular scheduled through services with other countries:
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Trains operating on the Metro-North Railroad in Westchester, New York run through to New York City tracks and switch from electric to diesel.
The Paris Métro, short for Métropolitain, is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the city limits, uniform architecture and unique entrances influenced by Art Nouveau. It is mostly underground and 214 kilometres (133 mi) long. It has 302 stations, of which 62 have transfers between lines. There are 16 lines, numbered 1 to 14 with two lines, 3bis and 7bis, which are named because they started out as branches of Line 3 and Line 7; later they officially became separate lines. Lines are identified on maps by number and colour, with the direction of travel indicated by the terminus.
A cross-platform interchange is a type of interchange between different lines at a metro station. The term originates with the London Underground; such layouts exist in other networks but are not commonly so named. In the United States, it is often referred to as a "cross-platform transfer".
The Tokyo Metro is a major rapid transit system in Tokyo, Japan. While it is not the only rapid transit system operating in Tokyo, it has the higher ridership among the two subway operators: in 2014, the Tokyo Metro had an average daily ridership of 6.84 million passengers, while the other system, the Toei Subway, had 2.85 million average daily rides. The company replaced the Teito Rapid Transit Authority, commonly known as Eidan or TRTA, on April 1, 2004.
The Beijing Subway is the rapid transit system of Beijing Municipality that consists of 23 lines including 19 rapid transit lines, two airport rail links, one maglev line and one light rail line, and 405 stations. The rail network extends 699.3 km (434.5 mi) across 12 urban and suburban districts of Beijing and into one district of Langfang in neighboring Hebei province. By route length in operation, the Beijing Subway is the world's longest metro system. With 3.8484 billion trips delivered in 2018, an average of 10.544 million trips per day, the Beijing Subway is the world's busiest metro system. Single-day ridership set a record of 13.7538 million on July 12, 2019.
The West Rail line is a rapid transit line that forms part of the Mass Transit Railway (MTR) system in Hong Kong. Coloured magenta on the MTR map, the line in its current form runs from Tuen Mun to Hung Hom, a total distance of 35.7 kilometres (22.2 mi), in 37 minutes. The railway connects the urban area of Kowloon and the new towns of Yuen Long, Tin Shui Wai and Tuen Mun in the northwestern New Territories.
The East Rail line is one of eleven rapid transit lines of the Mass Transit Railway (MTR) system in Hong Kong. It used to be one of the three lines of the Kowloon–Canton Railway (KCR) network. It was known as the KCR British Section (九廣鐵路英段) from 1910 to 1996, and the KCR East Rail (九廣東鐵) from 1996 to 2007. The East Rail was the only railway line of the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC) before the construction of KCR West Rail.
The Île-de-France tramways consists of a network of modern tram lines in the Île-de-France region of France. Ten lines are currently operational, with extensions and additional lines in the planning and construction stage. Although the system mainly runs in the suburban regions of Paris, lines T3a and T3b run entirely within Paris city limits, and line T2 also does so for part of its route. While the lines operate independently of each other and are generally unconnected, some connections do exist: between lines T2 and T3a, T3a and T3b, T1 and T5, T1 and T8 and T8 and T11 Express. However, the final design of the entire planned tram network is fairly integrated.
The Guangzhou–Kowloon through train is an inter-city railway service between Hong Kong and Guangzhou jointly operated by the MTR Corporation of Hong Kong and the Guangzhou Railway Group of mainland China. Services operate along the East Rail Line within Hong Kong territory, crossing the Hong Kong-Chinese border at Lo Wu, and continuing along the Guangmao Railway and Guangshen Railway in Guangdong province.
The Beijing–Kowloon through train is an intercity railway service between Hung Hom Station in Hong Kong and the Beijing West railway station, jointly operated by the MTR of Hong Kong and China Railway, China's national rail service. The train runs to Beijing and Hong Kong every other day. Services use the East Rail Line in Hong Kong, cross the boundary between Hong Kong and mainland China at Lo Wu and then continue along China's railway network via the Guangshen railway and the Jingguang railway to Beijing. Total journey time is approximately 23 hours, and the train uses 25T class train carriages.
KTT ) is a train set used by the MTR Corporation Limited in Hong Kong on the Guangdong Through Train (KCRC) route. The KTT is not the only service from Hong Kong to Guangdong. Service is also provided by the mainland Chinese railway operators.
The Tuen Ma line is a rapid transit line that forms part of the Mass Transit Railway (MTR) system in Hong Kong. Coloured brown on the MTR map, the line in its current form, designated as Tuen Ma Line Phase 1, runs from Kai Tak to Wu Kai Sha. When fully operational, the line will be 57 kilometres (35 mi) in length, making it the longest line of the entire MTR network. It will have a total of 27 stations, more than any other in the MTR system.
Line 4 of the Beijing Subway is a subway line in Beijing's mass transit network. It entered into operation on September 28, 2009, and runs from north to south, parallel and to the west of Line 5, through Haidian, Xicheng, and Fengtai Districts in the western half of the city. It runs from Anheqiao North in the north and ends at Gongyixiqiao in the south, but the 4-Daxing connected line runs all the way to Tiangongyuan in Daxing. All stations are underground except Anheqiao North. It is 28.2 km (17.5 mi) long with 24 stations. Riding on this line starts from a fare of RMB(¥) 3.00 depending on the distance traveled. Line 4's color isteal.
The Daxing Line of the Beijing Subway is a rapid transit line that connects the southern Daxing District of the city with the subway network. It extends Line 4 south from its southern terminus at Gongyixiqiao, on the 4th Ring Road in Fengtai District, to Tiangongyuan, beyond the 6th Ring Road in Daxing District. The Daxing Line is about 21.76 km (13.52 mi) in length with 18 km (11 mi) underground. Daxing line contains 12 stations and is about 21.76 km (13.52 mi). Initially, the Daxing line was planned to have 4 ground stations. However, because of a lack of space, only Xihongmen was built above the surface. Full-scale construction began in 2007 and the line was opened on December 30, 2010, 14:00 local time.
The Hong Kong section of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link is a 26-km long stretch of high-speed rail that links Hong Kong to mainland China. It is one of the most expensive infrastructure undertakings in Hong Kong history. The line connects Kowloon with the high-speed rail network of China at Futian station in Shenzhen, then running north towards the commercial hub of Guangzhou.
Guangzhounan railway station, also known as New Guangzhou station (新广州站) or Shibi station (石壁站), is located in Shibi, Panyu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. It is a large modern rail terminal 17 kilometres south of central Guangzhou. For a brief time it was Asia's largest railway station when it officially started operation in early 2010.
Line 3 of the Guangzhou Metro is a 67.3-kilometer (41.8 mi) rapid transit line connecting Panyu Square to Tianhe Coach Terminal. The entire line, including all track and stations, is located in tunnels. Its 60.4 km (37.5 mi) main branch, excluding the 6.9 km (4.3 mi) branch between Tianhe Coach Terminal and Tiyu Xilu, is the longest continuous subway tunnel in the world, and the longest rail tunnel of any kind.
Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link (XRL), also known as “Guangshengang XRL”, is a high-speed railway line that connects Beijing and Hong Kong (Kowloon) via Guangzhou and Shenzhen.
Hong Kong's rail network mainly comprises public transport trains operated by the MTR Corporation Limited (MTRC). The MTRC operates the metro network of Hong Kong and the commuter rail network connecting the northeastern and northwestern New Territories to the urban area. The operations of the territory's two leading railway companies, MTRC and the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC), were merged in 2007 on grounds of economies of scale and cost effectiveness. The Hong Kong Government has an explicit stated transport policy of using the railway as its transport backbone.
Shenzhen Metro Line 11 opened on 28 June 2016. Line 11 has a length of 51.936 km (32.272 mi) and a total of 18 stations. It connects the CBDs of Futian, Nanshan and Qianhai to Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport and onward to Fuyong, Shajing and Songgang suburban areas. It serves as both a regional express line from the west coast of Shenzhen to the city core area and an airport rail link. Compared with the other lines of Shenzhen Metro, Line 11 has a longer spacing between stops for a higher speed service. Trains of Line 11 were designed to run at 120 km/h (75 mph), up to 50% faster than other lines, but currently limited to 80 km/h (50 mph) for infrastructure, tunnel wind pressure and noise reasons. Construction of Line 11 started in April 2012 and test running begun at the end of March 2016. Trains run at a 4-minute frequency between Futian and Airport North, 8-minute frequency for full length trains during morning rush hours, 5-minute interval for full length during evening rush hours, and 6-minute interval for non-peak hours. Currently it takes slightly more than half an hour to travel from Futian to the Airport. Line 11's color is violet.
The Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region Intercity Railway System is a regional higher-speed rail and commuter rail network being gradually constructed in the Pearl River Delta, People's Republic of China. The project's goal is to have every major urban center in the Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area to be within one-hour travel by rail to Guangzhou. On March 16, 2005, the State Council examined and approved plans for a regional high-speed commuter rail network for the Jingjinji, Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. According to the plan, by 2020, PRD MAIR network will have a total route mileage of about 600 kilometres (370 mi). In September 2009, the plan was expanded to 1,478 km (918 mi) of routes split up into 23 lines. In the long term vision network length will reach 1,890 km (1,170 mi) by 2030. By then the network will provide basic coverage to the Pearl River Delta region.
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