Thuận Hóa ( 順化 , IPA: [tʰwə̂nˀ hwǎː] ) was a historic territory in central Vietnam. It consisted of the modern provinces of Quảng Bình, Quảng Trị, and Thừa Thiên–Huế (historically, Thừa Thiên–Thuận Hóa).
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula. With an estimated 94.6 million inhabitants as of 2016, it is the 15th most populous country in the world. Vietnam shares its land borders with China to the north, and Laos and Cambodia to the west. It shares its maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia through the South China Sea. Its capital city is Hanoi, while its most populous city is Ho Chi Minh City.
Quảng Bình, formerly Tiên Bình under the reign of Lê Trung Hưng of the Lê Dynasty, is a province along Vietnam's north-central coast. The province has an area of 8,065.8 square kilometers and population of 857,818 inhabitants The province is bordered by the Laotian Khammouane Province to the west, the North Pacific Ocean to the east, Hà Tĩnh Province to the north and Quảng Trị Province to the south. Historically, this region belonged to Văn Lang and later the kingdom of Champa. Later it was claimed by both the Đại Việt and Champa and officially annexed into Đại Việt by Lý Thường Kiệt, a Lý Dynasty general.
Quảng Trị is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, north of the former imperial capital of Huế.
In 1306, the king of Champa, Che Man, offered Vietnam two Chăm prefectures, Ô and Lý, in exchange for a marriage with the Vietnamese princess Huyền Trân.The Vietnamese king Trần Anh Tông accepted this offer, then took and renamed Ô prefecture and Lý prefecture as Thuận prefecture and Hóa prefecture. These prefectures soon began to be referred to collectively as the Thuận Hóa region. From this time, Thuận Hóa was a territory where the Vietnamese, Chăms, and Lao frequently fought one another. In 1466, during the reign of king Lê Thánh Tông, Thuận Hóa became one of the 12 prefectures of Vietnam and later became a province of Vietnam.
Champa was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832. The kingdom was known variously as nagara Campa in the Chamic and Cambodian inscriptions, Chăm Pa in Vietnamese and 占城 (Zhànchéng) in Chinese records.
A prefecture is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, and in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect.
Princess Huyền Trân later Queen Paramecvariin of Champa, was a princess during the Trần Dynasty in the history of Vietnam.
The Mạc dynasty usurped the throne of the Lê family to create the Northern Court, whereupon descendant of the Lê kings was enthroned as de jure Southern court rulers by Nguyễn Kim. Shortly afterward, Nguyễn Kim, the leader of the Lê Dynasty loyalists and the de facto ruler of Vietnam, was poisoned by a Mạc Dynasty general. Kim's son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm, took over the leadership and assassinated Kim's eldest son, Nguyễn Uông, in order to secure his authority.Nguyễn Hoàng, another son of Nguyễn Kim, feared having a fate like his brother Nguyễn Uông so he pretended to have mental illness and asked his sister Ngoc Bao, who was a wife of Trịnh Kiểm, to entreat Kiểm to allow Hoàng to govern Thuận Hóa, the southernmost region of Vietnam at this time. Because Mạc Dynasty loyalists were still occupying Thuận Hóa while Trịnh Kiểm was busy fending off Mạc forces in northern Vietnam during this time, Ngoc Bao's request was approved and Nguyễn Hoàng went south. After Hoàng pacified Thuận Hóa, he and his successor Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên secretly made this region loyal to the Nguyễn family; then they rose against the Trịnh Lords. Vietnam erupted into a new civil war between two de facto ruling families: the clan of the Nguyễn lords and the clan of the Trịnh lords. The Nguyễn lords continuously developed the territory and turned it into a strong base for their war against the Trịnh Lord and their expansion to the south. During this time, Thuận Hóa territory spanned from Quảng Bình to Thừa Thiên–Huế.
The Mạc dynasty, as known as Mạc clan or House of Mạc ruled the whole of Đại Việt between 1527 and 1533 and the northern part of the country from 1533 until 1592, when they lost control over the capital Đông Kinh for the last time. Later Mạc representatives ruled over the province of Cao Bằng until 1677.
In law and government, de jure describes practices that are legally recognised, regardless whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, de facto describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised. The terms are often used to contrast different scenarios: for a colloquial example, "I know that, de jure, this is supposed to be a parking lot, but now that the flood has left four feet of water here, it's a de facto swimming pool". To further explain, even if the signs around the flooded parking lot say "Parking Lot" it is "in fact" a swimming pool.
Nguyen Kim was a Vietnamese statesman who was the ancestor of the famous Nguyễn Lords who later ruled south Vietnam. During his rule, the war with the Mạc Dynasty started.
After the foundation of Nguyễn Dynasty, emperor Gia Long made Thuận Hóa territory a part of Vùng Kinh kỳ (Capital territory), one of three administrative divisions of Vietnam at this time.
Gia Long, born Nguyễn Phúc Ánh or Nguyễn Ánh, was the first Emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam. Unifying what is now modern Vietnam in 1802, he founded the Nguyễn dynasty, the last of the Vietnamese dynasties.
In the 18th Century Thuận Hóa and Quảng Nam ceased producing much rice of their own and became dependent on shipments of cheaper rice from the Mekong Delta.
The Mekong Delta, also known as the Western Region or the South-western region is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties into the sea through a network of distributaries. The Mekong delta region encompasses a large portion of southwestern Vietnam of over 40,500 square kilometres (15,600 sq mi). The size of the area covered by water depends on the season. Before 1975, Mekong Delta is part of Republic of Vietnam. Mekong Delta is home of the IV Corps region during Vietnam War. IV Corps is the only corps in South Vietnam that VC didn't attack significantly until the last President Duong Van Minh surrender to North Vietnam.
In mid-1945; the name of Thuận Hóa was restored by Vietnamese prime minister Trần Trọng Kim but it was quickly abandoned after the decline of the Empire of Vietnam.
Trần Trọng Kim, courtesy name Lệ Thần, was a Vietnamese scholar and politician who served as the Prime Minister of the short-lived Empire of Vietnam, a state established with the support of Imperial Japan in 1945. This came after Japan had seized direct control of Vietnam from the Vichy French colonial forces during the Second World War. He was an uncle of Bui Diem.
The Empire of Vietnam was a short-lived puppet state of Imperial Japan governing the whole of Vietnam between March 11 and August 23, 1945.
In the West, Thuận Hóa was also known by the Portuguese, and later French, as Sinoa, Singoa, or Senna - reflecting European knowledge of Chinese pronunciations of the name (Chinese 順 化 Shunhua) possibly by contact with Chinese traders in Đàng Trong (Sino-Vietnamese 塘中, part of Cochinchina).
Huế (Vietnamese: [hwě] is a city in central Vietnam that was the capital of Đàng Trong Kingdom from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyễn Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. A major attraction is its vast, 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls. It encompasses the Imperial City, with palaces and shrines; the Forbidden Purple City, once the emperor's home; and a replica of the Royal Theater. The city was also the battleground for the Battle of Huế, which was one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.
The Nguyễn dynasty or House of Nguyễn was the last imperial family of Vietnam. Their ancestral line can be traced back to the beginning of the Common Era. However, only by the mid-sixteenth century the most ambitious family branch, the Nguyễn Lords had risen to conquer, control and establish feudal rule over large territory.
Đồng Khánh, born Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ (阮福膺祺) or Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Đường (阮福膺禟), also known as Chánh Mông (正蒙), was the ninth emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam. He reigned three years between 1885 and 1889. His royal temple name was Cảnh Tông (景宗).
Trịnh lords, also known as Trịnh clan or House of Trịnh, were a noble feudal clan who were the de facto rulers of northern Vietnam while Nguyễn lords ruled the southern Vietnam during the Later Lê dynasty. Both of two rulers referred to themselves as Chúa (lord) and controlled their countries while the Later Lê emperors did not have any real power, only maintained their title. The Trịnh lords traced their descent from Trịnh Khả, a friend and advisor to the 15th-century Vietnamese Emperor Lê Lợi. The Trịnh clan had officially 12 lords that ruled Northern Vietnam and the royal court of Later Lê dynasty for more than 2 centuries.
The Nguyễn lords, also known as Nguyễn clan or House of Nguyễn, were rulers of the Kingdom of Đàng Trong in Central and Southern Vietnam, as opposed to Đàng Ngoài or Outer Realm, ruled by the Trịnh lords.
The Trịnh–Nguyễn Civil War was a long war waged between the two ruling families in Vietnam.
Trịnh Kiểm ruled northern part of Vietnam from 1545 to 1570. Trịnh Kiểm was the founder of the Trịnh Lords or House of Trịnh who ruled Dai Viet while a succession of figurehead Later Lê Emperors took the role as puppet government. During his rule, the war with the Mạc Dynasty continued. Although he was the de facto ruler of Dai Viet during his reign, he never claimed himself title of Lord, hence he is not the first official Trịnh Lord but his son Trịnh Tùng is the first. Later Trịnh Kiểm was posthumously proclaimed Trịnh Lord by his descendants.
Nguyễn Huệ, also known as Võ Hoàng Gia Bảo or Emperor Gia Bảo, was the second emperor of the Tây Sơn dynasty, reigning from 1788 until 1792. He was also one of the most successful military commanders in Vietnam's history, though he was known to have attained these achievements by ruthless, massive killing of especially the entire Nguyễn lords families. Nguyễn Huệ and his brothers, Nguyễn Nhạc and Nguyễn Lữ, together known as the Tây Sơn brothers, were the leaders of the Tây Sơn rebellion. As rebels, they conquered Vietnam, overthrowing the imperial Later Lê dynasty and the two rival feudal houses of the Nguyễn in the south and the Trịnh in the north.
The artillery of the Nguyễn lords, the family that ruled southern Vietnam from the late 16th to the late 18th centuries, and the precursor of the Nguyễn dynasty, was an important component of their military success in repelling attacks from the rival Trịnh lords, their northern contemporaries. Between 1627 and 1672, seven campaigns were waged by the Trịnh in an attempt to break the Nguyễn, without success, along a front line near the 17th parallel, which later divided North and South Vietnam, 1954 to 1975. The Nguyễn were much weaker than the Trịnh in terms of having an established state and administration, with a vastly smaller army and population from which to draw resources, but their fortification system and their superior artillery allowed them to repel attacks from a stronger enemy while at the same time pushing southwards in the Nam tiến which established Vietnam's modern-day territory.
Empress Thuận Thiên, born Trần Thị Đang in Văn Xá village, Hương Trà, Thừa Thiên, was the second wife of Emperor Gia Long of Vietnam and mother of Emperor Minh Mạng.
Phú Xuân (富春) was the historic capital of the Nguyễn lords, the Tây Sơn dynasty, and later became the Nguyễn dynasty's capital in Huế.
Đào Duy Từ (1572–1634) was a Vietnamese scholar, poet, military adviser, and mandarin who served under the reign of Nguyễn lord Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên.
Empress Thuận Thiên (1216–1248) was the second empress of Trần dynasty, she succeeded her younger sister Empress Chiêu Thánh in 1237 by an arrangement of Trần Thủ Độ in which Prince Hoài Trần Liễu was forced to give up his 3-month pregnant wife Princess Thuận Thiên to the Emperor Trần Thái Tông. Thuận Thiên was born in the royal family of the Lý dynasty as the first child of the Emperor Lý Huệ Tông and Lady Thuận Trinh Trần Thị Dung with whom she witnessed the turbulent time of the Late Lý and Early Trần Dynasty. She was mother of four princes including the second emperor of the Trần Dynasty Trần Thánh Tông and grand chancellor Prince Chiêu Minh Trần Quang Khải.
Love Case is a 2008 Vietnamese telefilm adapted from Hồ Văn Trung's July 1941 novel Cư kỉnh (居璟). The film was produced by Ho Chi Minh City Television and directed by Võ Việt Hùng.
The Tayson Gallantry is a 1991 Vietnamese 35mm wuxia film directed by Lê Hoàng Hoa in his art name Khôi Nguyên, adapted from Lê Hoàng Khải's 1990 novel The Jade Lamp martial art (玉盞神功).
Nguyen Dac Xuan is a Vietnamese novelist, researcher of Huế's culture, who is best known for his poetry and his books and his research on the culture and history of Nguyen Dynasty and Ancient Hue.
Nguyễn Phúc Miên Trinh, born Nguyễn Phúc Thư (阮福書), was a prince of Nguyễn dynasty, Vietnam.