Thubten Choekyi Nyima, 9th Panchen Lama

Last updated
Thubten Choekyi Nyima
ཐུབ་བསྟན་ཆོས་ཀྱི་ཉི་མ་
9thPanchen.jpg
Thubten Choekyi Nyima, the 9th Panchen Lama
Title9th Panchen Lama
Personal
Born(1883-02-19)19 February 1883
Dagpo, Tibet
Died1 December 1937(1937-12-01) (aged 54)
Gyêgu, Amdo Provence, Tibet
Resting place Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, Shigatse Tibet
Religion Tibetan Buddhism
Senior posting
Predecessor Tenpai Wangchuk
Successor Choekyi Gyaltsen
Thubten Choekyi Nyima
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 圖丹曲吉尼瑪
Simplified Chinese 图丹曲吉尼玛
Tibetan name
Tibetan ཐུབ་བསྟན་ཆོས་ཀྱི་ཉི་མ་
The Republic of China awarded Panchen Lama the Guarding the National Master Chop of Panchen Lama.JPG
The Republic of China awarded Panchen Lama the Guarding the National Master
Panchen Lama during his final stay in China 1934 9.PanchenLama inChina1934.jpg
Panchen Lama during his final stay in China 1934

Thubten Choekyi Nyima (Tibetan : ཐུབ་བསྟན་ཆོས་ཀྱི་ཉི་མ་, Wylie : Thub-bstan Chos-kyi Nyi-ma, ZYPY : Tubdain Qoigyi Nyima) (18831937), often referred to as Choekyi Nyima, was the ninth Panchen Lama of Tibet.

Contents

Thubten Choekyi Nyima is the 9th in his lineage, as recognized by Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, the traditional seat of Panchen Lamas. [1] To call Choekyi Nyima the 9th Panchen Lama is a misnomer, while in exile in China he signed pictures the 16th [2] Panchen Lama and the Tibetans regarded him as the 6th Panchen Lama [3] Hugh Richardson [4] "It is the habit of Chinese writers to describe the late Panchen Lama as the IXth. To the mass of Tibetans it is beyond question that he was the VIth in succession from Lobzang Chokyi Gyaltsen, the teacher whom the Vth Dalai Lama created Ist Panchen Lama." In the Historical Introduction of "The secret report of the 10th Panchen Lama" [5] Professor Dawa Norbu writes "The 10th Panchen Lama (actually the 7th of his line)". Charles Bell, on page 35 [6] "The young fifth Dalai Lama made his old teacher, named 'The banner of Religion's Victory,' who was abbot first at Ta-shi Lhun-po..." Jagou [7] "Thus the incarnation the Tibetans refer to as the Sixth Panchen Lama is known as the ninth Panchen Lama by the Chinese." When the Chinese Government forced the Tibetans to sign the 17 Point Agreement, they insisted on calling Choekyi Nyima the 9th Panchen Lama and this numbering was brought back to the west in the late 1980s until which time no such numbering had been used, outside of Tashi Lhunpo Monastery and Peking. [note 1]

In 1901, Choekyi Nyima was visited by the Mongolian Lama, Agvan Dorzhiev. Although he only stayed for two days at Tashilhunpo, Dorzhiev received some secret teachings from the Panchen Lama, as well as readings of the Prayer of Shambhala, written by Lobsang Palden Yeshe, the sixth (or third) Panchen Lama, concerning the Buddhist kingdom of Shambhala, which were of great importance to Dorzhiev's developing understanding of the Kalachakra ('Wheel of Time') tantric teachings. Choekyi Nyima also gave Dorzhiev gifts including some golden statues. [8]

In 1906, Sir Charles Alfred Bell, was invited to visit the 9th Panchen Lama at Tashilhunpo, where they had friendly discussions on the political situation. [9]

He fled to Inner Mongolia, China in 1924 after a dispute with the thirteenth Dalai Lama when he sensed that he might face threat after his own monastery’s monks were prohibited from holding any office in the Central Tibetan government and his officials were locked up in Lhasa. [10] [11] Among the Mongols, the 9th Panchen Lama became a well liked figure. [12] At the same time, study of documents did not confirm widespread claims that rebellions in the 1930s Mongolia were inspired or supported by the 9th Panchen Lama. [13] The Dalai Lama was attempting to collect revenue from the Panchen Lama's estate to cover a fourth of Tibet's military expenses, and to reduce the power of the Panchen Lama, who at the time enjoyed rule over an effectively autonomous region around Shigatse. [14]

In China, the ninth Panchen Lama worked on plans to develop Tibet along modern lines. [15] He also held a position in the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission.

The Panchen Lama was considered extremely "pro-Chinese", according to official Chinese sources. [16] [17] [18]

Choekyi adopted the ideas of Sun Yatsen like the Kham revolutionary Pandatsang Rapga. [19] It has been suggested he read the works of Sun Yatsen which were translated by Rapga. [20]

In 1936, a team of monks from Lhasa were on the way to north-eastern Tibet to search for the new reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, who had died in 1933. First, because of the historical close relationship between the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama, they visited the Panchen Lama in Kham, eastern Tibet, to seek his advice. He was staying in Jyekundo, a district of eastern Kham that had been annexed from Tibetan government control by the Chinese "during their invasion". [21] The Panchen Lama, being under Chinese power, was being held up there in his attempt to return to Central Tibet due to Chinese interference and insistence that he must be accompanied by a force of 500 armed Chinese soldiers; [22] naturally this condition was not at all acceptable to the Tibetan Government in Lhasa. While negotiations were going on between the Lhasa Government, the Panchen Lama and the Chinese authorities about this escort issue, he was stuck in Jyekundo. [23] He had therefore been busy investigating reports of unusual children born in the area, who might be the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama; the deep spiritual link between the two Lamas had never wavered despite apparent political difficulties and attempted Chinese interference. [24]

In fact, when the search team arrived to see him, the Panchen Lama had already identified three potential candidates. [21] He gave their details to the search party leader, Kewtsang Rinpoche, who then investigated further. One of these three candidates was already dead and another ran away crying when shown the objects belonging to the late Dalai Lama. [21] The third candidate, who lived in Taktser, was characterised as "fearless" and he was indeed found to be the true incarnation. Thus, it was this Panchen Lama Thubten Choekyi Nyima who first discovered and identified the 14th Dalai Lama. [25] [24]

In 1937, the Panchen Lama died in Gyêgu (Tibetan: Jyekundo; Chinese: Yushu) in Qinghai Province without being able to return to Tsang. [24] [26] [27] [28]

The tombs of the fifth through the ninth Panchen Lamas were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution and have been rebuilt by the tenth Panchen Lama with a huge tomb at Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse, known as the Tashi Langyar. [29]

Panchen Lama and entourage in Calcutta, 1906 Panchen Lama and entourage in Calcutta, 1906.jpg
Panchen Lama and entourage in Calcutta, 1906

See also

Notes

  1. In 1997 TIN released "A Poisoned Arrow" which was written by someone calling himself the 10th Panchen as explained above Professor Dawa Norbhu corrected this. However, the numbering seems to have changed due to this misunderstanding. In Melvyn Goldstein's otherwise excellent book he refers to Chokyi Nyima as the 9th Panchen. This is the first reference to him as such in the west(?) FACT the 5th Dalai Lama made his teacher the 1st Panchen.

Related Research Articles

Dalai Lama Tibetan Buddhist spiritual teacher

Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people for the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest of the classical schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso, who lives as a refugee in India.

Panchen Lama Prominent figure in Tibetan Buddhism

The Panchen Lama, is a tulku of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. Panchen Lama is one of the most important figures in the Gelug tradition, with its spiritual authority second only to Dalai Lama. "Panchen" is a portmanteau of "Pandita" and "Chenpo", meaning "Great scholar".

The foreign relations of Tibet are documented from the 7th century onward, when Buddhism was introduced by missionaries from India. The Tibetan Empire sparred with Tang China for control over territory, but relations became good with a peace marriage. Tibet was conquered by the Mongol Empire and that changed its internal system of government, introducing the Dalai Lamas, as well as subjecting Tibet to foreign hegemony under the Yuan Dynasty. Tibetan foreign relations during the Ming Dynasty are opaque, with Tibet being either a tributary state or under full Chinese sovereignty. But by the 18th century, the Qing Dynasty indisputably made Tibet a subject. In the early 20th century, after a successful invasion, Britain established a trading relationship with Tibet and was permitted limited diplomatic access to "Outer Tibet", basically Shigatse and Lhasa. Britain supported Tibetan autonomy under the 13th Dalai Lama but did not contest Chinese suzerainty; while "Inner Tibet", areas such as Amdo and Kham with mixed Chinese and Tibetan populations to the east and north, remained nominally under the control of the Republic of China although that control was seldom effective. Though the sovereignty of Tibet was unrecognized, Tibet was courted in unofficial visits from Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, and the United States during and after World War II. The foreign relations of Tibet ended with the Seventeen Point Agreement that formalized Chinese sovereignty over most all of political Tibet in 1951.

Chökyi Gyalpo, also referred to by his secular name Gyaincain Norbu, is considered the 11th Panchen Lama by the government of the People's Republic of China. He is also the vice president of the Buddhist Association of China.

4th Dalai Lama 4th Dalai Lama of Tibet

Yonten Gyatso or Yon-tan-rgya-mtsho (1589–1617), was a jinong and the 4th Dalai Lama, born in Mongolia on the 30th day of the 12th month of the Earth-Ox year of the Tibetan calendar. . As the son of the Khan of the Chokur tribe, Tsultrim Choeje, and great-grandson of Altan Khan of the Tümed Mongols and his second wife PhaKhen Nula, Yonten Gyatso was a Mongolian, making him the only non-Tibetan to be recognized as Dalai Lama other than the 6th Dalai Lama, who was a Monpa—but Monpas can be seen either as a Tibetan subgroup or a closely related people.

13th Dalai Lama 19th and 20th-century Dalai Lama of Tibet

Thubten Gyatso was the 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet.

Choekyi Gyaltsen, 10th Panchen Lama 10th Panchen Lama of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism

Lobsang Trinley Lhündrub Chökyi Gyaltsen, born Gönbo Cêdän, was the tenth Panchen Lama, officially the 10th Panchen Erdeni, of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism. He was often referred to simply as Choekyi Gyaltsen, although this is also the name of several other notable figures in Tibetan history.

2nd Dalai Lama Dalai Lama of Tibet

Gedun Gyatso, also Gendun Gyatso Palzangpo, was considered posthumously to be the second Dalai Lama.

Tashi Lhunpo Monastery building in Shigatse, China

Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, founded in 1447 by the 1st Dalai Lama, is a historic and culturally important monastery in Shigatse, the second-largest city in Tibet.

11th Panchen Lama controversy

The 11th Panchen Lama controversy is a dispute about the current legitimate holder of the Panchen Lama title, a political and religious leadership position in Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism. After the death of the 10th Panchen Lama, a dispute between the Chinese leadership and the exiled 14th Dalai Lama resulted in two competing candidates. The search committee process involving monks in Tibet under the strict supervision of the Chinese communist regime was disrupted when the Dalai Lama, according to the Tibetan tradition, unilaterally announced his selection of Gedhun Choekyi Nyima. The leadership in China took Nyima and his family into custody, allegedly to prevent his being taken to India by the Dalai Lama's supporters, and reverted to the Qing Dynasty's Golden Urn process to select Gyaincain Norbu. Neither Nyima nor his family has been seen since the abduction.

Gedhun Choekyi Nyima Tibetan religious leader, recognized as the 11th Panchen Lama by the 14th Dalai Lama

Gedhun Choekyi Nyima is the 11th Panchen Lama of Tibetan Buddhism according to the Dalai Lama. He was declared the 11th Panchen Lama by the 14th Dalai Lama on 14 May 1995. He was rejected by the search team appointed by the State Council of the People's Republic of China. He was born in Lhari County, Tibet Autonomous Region. After his selection, he was taken into what the PRC government described as protective custody and has not been acknowledged in public since 17 May 1995.

Lobsang Palden Yeshe, 6th Panchen Lama Panchen Lama

Lobsang Palden Yeshe (1738–1780) was the sixth Panchen Lama of Tashilhunpo Monastery in Tibet. He was the elder stepbrother of the 10th Shamarpa, Mipam Chödrup Gyamtso (1742–1793).

Palden Tenpai Nyima (1782–1853) was the seventh Panchen Lama of Tibet.

This is a list of topics related to Tibet.

Kumbum Monastery building in Haidong, China

Kumbum Monastery, also called Ta'er Temple, is a Tibetan gompa in Lusar, Huangzhong County, Xining, Qinghai, China. It was founded in 1583 in a narrow valley close to the village of Lusar in the historical Tibetan region of Amdo. Its superior monastery is Drepung Monastery, immediately to the west of Lhasa. It is ranked in importance as second only to Lhasa.

State Religious Affairs Bureau Order No. 5, officially named Measures on the Management of the Reincarnation of Living Buddhas, is an order from the State Administration for Religious Affairs, the People's Republic of China's agency charged with keeping religion under state control. Order No. 5 states that a Reincarnation Application must be filed by all Buddhist temples in that country before they are allowed to recognize individuals as tulkus.

Agvan Dorzhiev Russian Buddhist monk and diplomat, envoy and Finance Minister of Tibet

Agvan Lobsan Dorzhiev, also Agvan Dorjiev or Dorjieff and Agvaandorj, was a Russian-born monk of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism, sometimes referred by his scholarly title as Tsenyi Khempo. He was popularly known as the Sokpo Tsеnshab Ngawang Lobsang to the Tibetans.

Tsepon W. D. Shakabpa Tibetan politician

Tsepon Wangchuk Deden Shakabpa was a Tibetan aristocrat, scholar, statesman and former Finance Minister of the government of Tibet.

Shigatse Dzong building in Samzhubzê District, China

The Shigatse Dzong, also known as Samdruptse Dzong, is located in Shigatse, Tibet, China. It is spelt Rikaze Dzong.

Ganden Phodrang organization

The Ganden Phodrang or Ganden Podrang was the Tibetan government that was established by the 5th Dalai Lama with the help of the Güshi Khan of the Khoshut in 1642. Lhasa became the capital of Tibet in the beginning of this period, with all temporal power being conferred to the 5th Dalai Lama by Güshi Khan in Shigatse. After the expulsion of the Dzungars, Tibet was under administrative rule of the Qing dynasty between 1720 and 1912, but the Ganden Phodrang government lasted until the 1950s, when Tibet was incorporated into the People's Republic of China. Kashag became the governing council of the Ganden Phodrang regime during the early Qing rule.

References

Citations

  1. "Who is Panchen Rinpoche?". tashilhunpo.org. Tashilhunpo Monastery. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  2. Surkhang Case Western Reserve University Tibet Blog July 1st 2013
  3. Gelek Surkhang Wangchen (Tibet Journal Vol. 8 No. 1 Spring 1983 Tibet: The Critical Years (part 2) "The 6th Panchen Lama"
  4. Tibet & its History" 1st edition page 55
  5. TIN London 1997 page xxv
  6. Portrait of the Dalai Lama 1st edition
  7. The Ninth Panchen Lama, Fabienne Jagou English edition, p. 14.
  8. Snelling 1993, p. 77.
  9. Chapman 1940, p. 141
  10. Tuttle 2006
  11. China Tibetology. Office for the Journal China Tibetology. 2006. p. 16.
  12. Znamenski, Andrei (2011). Red Shambhala: Magic, Prophecy, and Geopolitics in the Heart of Asia (illustrated ed.). Quest Books. p. 35. ISBN   0835608913 . Retrieved 24 April 2014.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  13. Kuzmin S. The Activity of the 9th Panchen Lama in Inner Mongolia and Manchuria. – Far Eastern Affairs, no 1, 2014, pp. 123-137
  14. Powers 2004, p. 99.
  15. Jagou, pp. 156-159, 206-208.
  16. Chinese Materials Center (1982). Who's who in China, 1918-1950: 1931-1950. Volume 3 of Who's who in China, 1918-1950: With an Index, Jerome Cavanaugh. Chinese Materials Center. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  17. The China weekly review, Volume 54. Millard Publishing House. 1930. p. 406. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  18. China monthly review, Volume 56. Millard Publishing Co., Inc. 1931. p. 306. Retrieved 2011-06-05.
  19. Gray Tuttle (2007). Tibetan Buddhists in the Making of Modern China (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p.  153. ISBN   0-231-13447-9.
  20. Gray Tuttle (2007). Tibetan Buddhists in the Making of Modern China (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 152. ISBN   0-231-13447-9 . Retrieved 2011-12-27.
  21. 1 2 3 Bell 1946, p. 397.
  22. Shakabpa 1984, pp. 280-283.
  23. Richardson 1984, pp. 143-146.
  24. 1 2 3 Laird 2006, p. 265.
  25. Bell 1946, p. 398.
  26. Shakabpa 1984, p. 283.
  27. Bell 1946, p. 365.
  28. Richardson 1984, p. 146 http://www.xuehuile.com/thesis/Gelek Surkhang Wangchen (Tibet Journal Vol. 8 No. 1 Spring 1983 Tibet: The Critical Years (part 2) "The 6th Panchen Lama")
  29. Mayhew 2005, p. 175.

Sources

  • Bell, Sir Charles. Portrait of the Dalai Lama (1946) Wm. Collins, London, 1st edition. (1987) Wisdom Publications, London. ISBN   086171055X.
  • Chapman, Spencer. Lhasa: The Holy City (1940) Readers Union Ltd., London.
  • Jagou, Fabienne. Le 9e Panchen Lama (1883–1937): Enjeu des relations Sino-Tibetaines.
  • Laird, Thomas (2006). The Story of Tibet : Conversations with the Dalai Lama (1st ed.). New York: Grove Press. ISBN   978-0-8021-1827-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Goldstein "A History of Modern Tibet 1913–1951" University of California Press 1989.
  • Mayhew, Bradley and Kohn, Michael. Tibet 6th Edition (2005) Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN   1-74059-523-8.
  • Powers, John. History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles versus the People's Republic of China (2004) Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-517426-7.
  • Richardson, Hugh E. (1984). Tibet and its history (2nd ed., rev. and updated. ed.). Boston: Shambhala. ISBN   978-0877733768.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Shakabpa, Tsepon W.D. (1984), Tibet: A Political History. Singapore: Potala Publications. ISBN   0961147415.
  • Snelling, John. Buddhism in Russia: The Story of Agvan Dorzhiev: Lhasa's Emissary to the Tsar (1993) Element Books. ISBN   1-85230-332-8.
  • Tuttle, Gray. Review of Le 9e Panchen Lama (1883–1937): Enjeu des relations Sino-Tibetaines, JIATS, no. 2 (August 2006) Columbia University. THDL #T2726.