Thujopsis ( // )[ citation needed ] is a genus of conifers in the cypress family (Cupressaceae), the sole member of which is Thujopsis dolabrata. It is endemic to Japan, where it is named asunaro (あすなろ). It is similar to the closely related genus Thuja (arborvitae), differing in the broader, thicker leaves and thick cones. It is also called hiba, false arborvitae, or hiba arborvitae.
A popular allegory for the meaning behind asunaro is asu wa hinoki ni narou (明日はヒノキになろう), literally "tomorrow it will become a hinoki cypress", i.e. the tree looks like a smaller version of the common hinoki cypress.[ citation needed ] In Japan, other than being called asunaro, it also goes by the name hiba (ひば). There are also a few regional variations, with asunaro being called ate (貴, 阿天) in Ishikawa, and atebi on Sado island.[ citation needed ]
Thujopsis is a medium to large evergreen tree, reaching up to 40 m tall and 1.5 m trunk diameter, with red-brown bark which peels in vertical strips. The leaves are arranged in decussate pairs, scale-like, 3–10 mm long, glossy green above, and marked with vivid white stomatal bands below; they have a distinctive thick, almost fleshy texture. The seed cones are ovoid, 7–15 mm long and 6–10 mm diameter, with 6–12 thick scales, brown with a violet-white wax bloom when fresh.
There are two varieties:
The asunaro is a valued ornamental tree both in its native Japan, where it is commonly planted around temples as well as in gardens, and also in Europe and North America. In the latter two regions, planting is confined to areas with good rainfall or in gardens with reliable irrigation, as the species is not drought tolerant. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
It is also used to a small extent in forestry in Japan, grown for the valuable wood, which is durable and scented, similar to that of Thuja plicata .
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Cedrus, common English name cedar, is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae. They are native to the mountains of the western Himalayas and the Mediterranean region, occurring at altitudes of 1,500–3,200 m in the Himalayas and 1,000–2,200 m in the Mediterranean.
Thuja is a genus of coniferous trees in the Cupressaceae. There are five species in the genus, two native to North America and three native to eastern Asia. The genus is monophyletic and sister to Thujopsis. Members are commonly known as arborvitaes, thujas or cedars.
Cupressaceae is a conifer family, the cypress family, with worldwide distribution. The family includes 27–30 genera, which include the junipers and redwoods, with about 130–140 species in total. They are monoecious, subdioecious or (rarely) dioecious trees and shrubs up to 116 m (381 ft) tall. The bark of mature trees is commonly orange- to red- brown and of stringy texture, often flaking or peeling in vertical strips, but smooth, scaly or hard and square-cracked in some species.
Sciadopitys verticillata, the kōyamaki or Japanese umbrella-pine, is a unique conifer endemic to Japan. It is the sole member of the family Sciadopityaceae and genus Sciadopitys, a living fossil with no close relatives, and present in the fossil record for about 230 million years.
Juniperus communis, the common juniper, is a species of small tree or shrub in the genus Juniperus, in the family Cupressaceae. This evergreen conifer has the largest geographical range of any woody plant, with a circumpolar distribution throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic south in mountains to around 30°N latitude in North America, Europe and Asia. Relict populations can be found in the Atlas Mountains of Africa.
Thuja occidentalis, also known as northern white cedar, eastern white cedar, or arborvitae, is an evergreen coniferous tree, in the cypress family Cupressaceae, which is native to eastern Canada and much of the northcentral and northeastern United States. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant.
Platycladus is a monotypic genus of evergreen coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae, containing only one species, Platycladus orientalis, also known as Chinese thuja, Oriental arborvitae, Chinese arborvitae, biota or Oriental thuja. It is native to northeastern parts of East Asia and North Asia, but is also now naturalised as an introduced species in other regions of the Asian continent.
Pinus parviflora, also known as five-needle pine, Ulleungdo white pine, or Japanese white pine, is a pine in the white pine group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, native to Korea and Japan.
Picea omorika, common name Serbian spruce, is a species of coniferous tree endemic to the Drina River valley in western Serbia, and eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a total range of only about 60 ha, at 800–1,600 m (2,625–5,249 ft) altitude. It was originally discovered near the village of Zaovine (Serbia) on the Tara Mountain in 1875, and named by the Serbian botanist Josif Pančić; the specific epithet omorika is simply the Serbian word for "Serbian spruce". All other spruces are smrča (смрча).
Chamaecyparis obtusa is a species of cypress native to central Japan in East Asia, and widely cultivated in the temperate northern hemisphere for its high quality timber and ornamental qualities, with many cultivars commercially available.
Juniperus chinensis, the Chinese juniper is a species of plant in the cypress family Cupressaceae, native to China, Taiwan, Myanmar, Japan, Korea and the Russian Far East. Growing 1–20 m (3.3–65.6 ft) tall, it is a very variable coniferous evergreen tree or shrub,
Chamaecyparis pisifera is a species of false cypress, native to central and southern Japan, on the islands of Honshū and Kyūshū.
Pseudolarix is a monotypic genus of coniferous trees in the pine family Pinaceae. The sole species, Pseudolarix amabilis, is commonly known as the golden larch, though it is not a true larch (Larix), being more closely related to Keteleeria, Abies and Cedrus. It is native to eastern China, occurring in small areas in the mountains of southern Anhui, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei and eastern Sichuan, at altitudes of 100–1,500 m (328–4,921 ft). Golden larch is sometimes known under an old scientific name Pseudolarix kaempferi, but this may cause confusion with Larix kaempferi, the Japanese larch.
Picea orientalis, commonly known as the Oriental spruce or Caucasian spruce, is a species of spruce native to the Caucasus and adjacent northeast Turkey.
Cupressus arizonica, the Arizona cypress, is a North American species of trees in the cypress family. It is native to the southwestern United States, and in Mexico. In the wild, the species is often found in small, scattered populations, not necessarily in large forests. An example occurrence is within the Sierra Juárez and San Pedro Mártir pine-oak forests of Mexico, where it is found along with canyon live oak and California fan palm.
Microbiota is a monotypic genus of evergreen coniferous shrub in the cypress family Cupressaceae, containing only one species, Microbiota decussata. The plant is native and endemic to a limited area of the Sikhote-Alin mountains in Primorskiy Krai in the Russian Far East. The name causes much confusion because of other meanings for the word "microbiota", but the genus name was derived from micro-, meaning "small", + Biota, the genus name for a closely related conifer, a species formerly called Biota orientalis, now renamed Platycladus orientalis.
Juniperus procumbens is a species of shrub in the cypress family Cupressaceae, native to Japan. The status of this low-growing evergreen conifer as a wild plant is disputed. Some authorities treat it as endemic to high mountains on Kyūshū and a few other islands off southern Japan, while others consider it native to the coasts of southern Japan and also the southern and western coasts of Korea. It is closely related to the Chinese juniper, Juniperus chinensis, and is sometimes treated as a variety of it, as J. chinensis var. procumbens.
Juniperus squamata is a species of juniper native to the Himalayas and China, from northeastern Afghanistan east to western Yunnan in southwestern China, and with disjunct populations north to western Gansu and east to Fujian. It grows at 1,600-4,900 m altitude. It represents the provincial tree of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (unofficial).
Cupressus cashmeriana, the Bhutan cypress, or Kashmir cypress, is a species of evergreen conifer native to the eastern Himalaya in Bhutan and adjacent areas of Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India. It is also introduced in China and Nepal. It grows at moderately high altitudes of 1,250–2,800 metres (4,100–9,190 ft).
Thuja koraiensis, also called Korean arborvitae, is a species of Thuja, native to Korea and the extreme northeast of China (Changbaishan). Its current status is poorly known; the small population in China is protected in the Changbaishan Nature Reserve, as is the small population in Soraksan Nature Reserve in northern South Korea, but most of the species' range in North Korea is unprotected and threatened by habitat loss.