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|Region or state||Tibet and Nepal|
|Associated national cuisine||Nepal|
Thukpa (Tibetan: ཐུག་པ ; Nepali : थुक्पा ; IPA: /tʰu(k̚)ˀ˥˥.pə˥˥/ ) is a Tibetan noodle soup, which originated in the eastern part of Tibet. Amdo thukpa (especially thenthuk ) is a famous variant among Tibetan people and Himalayan people of Nepal. The dish is also consumed in the region of Sikkim, Darjeeling, Kalimpong and Arunachal Pradesh in India. It is also popular in the Ladakh region and the state of Himachal Pradesh. Thukpa is also eaten in Bhutan, where it is a type of porridge. There are numerous varieties of thukpa in Tibetan tradition, including:
Thukpa has been described as a "generic Tibetan word for any soup or stew combined with noodles."
The Nepalese version of thukpa is much influenced by Nepali tastes and therefore contains chili powder, masala (usually garam masala), which makes it hot and spicy with a dominant Nepali curry flavor.
The Lhotshampa or Lhotsampa people are a heterogeneous Bhutanese people of Nepalese descent. The Lhotshampa people are native to southern Bhutan, and are thus colloquially referred to as Southerners. Starting in 2007, most of the Lhotshampas, or Bhutanese Refugees, were resettled to third countries, such as the United States, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and other European countries. Today, the number of Lhotshampa in Nepal are significantly lower than that in the United States and other countries where they were resettled. The people of Nepalese origin started to settle in uninhabited areas of southern Bhutan in 19th century.
The Drukpa Lineage, or simply Drukpa, sometimes called either Dugpa or "Red Hat sect" in older sources, is a branch of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism. The Kagyu school is one of the Sarma or "New Translations" schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Monpa or Mönpa is a major tribe of Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India. The Tawang Monpas have a migration history from Changrelung. The Monpa are believed to be the only nomadic tribe in Northeast India - they were totally dependent on animals like sheep, cow, yak, goats and horses.The Monpa share very close affinity with the Sharchops of Bhutan. Their languages are Tibeto-Burman languages written with the Tibetan alphabet.
The Lepcha are also called the Rongkup meaning the children of God and the Rong, Mútuncí Róngkup Rumkup, and Rongpa, are among the indigenous peoples of Sikkim, India and Nepal, and number around 80,000. Many Lepcha are also found in western and southwestern Bhutan, Tibet, Darjeeling, the Mechi Zone of eastern Nepal, and in the hills of West Bengal. The Lepcha people are composed of four main distinct communities: the Renjóngmú of Sikkim; the Dámsángmú of Kalimpong, Kurseong, and Mirik; the ʔilámmú of Ilam District, Nepal; and the Promú of Samtse and Chukha in southwestern Bhutan.
Momo is a type of East and South Asian steamed filled dumpling, popular across the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayan regions of South Asia. Momos are native to Southwest Chinese region of Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, North Indian region of Ladakh, Northeast Indian regions of Sikkim, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh, and East Indian region of Darjeeling. It is similar to Chinese baozi, jiaozi, and mantou, Mongolian buuz, Japanese gyoza, Korean mandu and Turkic manti, but heavily influenced by cuisine of the Indian subcontinent with Indian spices and herbs. Momos are extremely popular among the natives of the Indian subcontinent, and can be found in every kind of shop from restaurants to street vendors.
Bhotiya or Bhot are groups of ethno-linguistically related Tibetan people living in the Transhimalayan region that divides India from Tibet.. The word Bhotiya comes from the classical Tibetan name for Tibet, Bod. The Bhotiya speak numerous languages including Ladakhi. The Indian recognition of such language is Bhoti / Bhotia having Tibetan scripts and it lies in the Parliament of India to become one of the official languages through Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution.
The Bhutia are a community of Sikkimese people of Tibetan ancestry, who speak Lhopo or Sikkimese, a Tibetan dialect fairly mutually intelligible with standard Tibetan. In 2001, the Bhutia numbered around 70,300. Bhutia here refers to Sikkimese of Tibetan ancestry;
Butter tea, also known as po cha, cha süma, Mandarin Chinese: sūyóu chá (酥油茶) or gur gur cha in the Ladakhi language, is a drink of the people in the Himalayan regions of Nepal, Bhutan, India and Tibet and other Western regions of modern-day People's Republic of China. Traditionally, it is made from tea leaves, yak butter, water, and salt, although butter made from cow's milk is increasingly used, given its wider availability and lower cost.
Cuisine of the Indian subcontinent includes the cuisines from the Indian subcontinent comprising the traditional cuisines from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
Noodle soup refers to a variety of soups with noodles and other ingredients served in a light broth. Noodle soup is common dish across East and Southeast Asia. Various types of noodles are used, such as rice noodles, wheat noodles and egg noodles.
Thenthuk or hand-pulled noodle soup (thukpa), is a very common noodle soup in Tibetan cuisine, especially in Amdo, Tibet where it is served as dinner and sometimes lunch. The main ingredients are wheat flour dough, mixed vegetables and some pieces of mutton or yak meat. Vegetable thenthuk is a common modern day option too.
Tibetan cuisine includes the culinary traditions and practices and its peoples. The cuisine reflects the Tibetan landscape of mountains and plateaus and includes influences from neighbours. It is known for its use of noodles, goat, yak, mutton, dumplings, cheese, butter, yoghurt and soups. Vegetarianism has been debated by religious practitioners since the 11th century, but is not prevalent due to the difficulty of growing vegetables, and cultural traditions promoting consumption of meat.
Nepali/Nepalese cuisine comprises a variety of cuisines based upon ethnicity, soil and climate relating to Nepal's cultural diversity and geography. Dal-bhat-tarkari is eaten throughout Nepal. Dal is a soup made of lentils and spices, served over boiled grain, bhat—usually rice but sometimes another grain - and a vegetable curry, tarkari. Condiments are usually small amounts of spicy pickle which can be fresh or fermented, and radish known as 'mula ko achar', and of which there are a considerable number of varieties. Other accompaniments may be sliced lemon (nibuwa) or lime (kagati) with fresh green chilli and a fried papad. Dhindo (ढिंडो) is a traditional food of Nepal.
Immigration to Bhutan has an extensive history and has become one of the country's most contentious social, political, and legal issues. Since the twentieth century, Bhutanese immigration and citizenship laws have been promulgated as acts of the royal government, often by decree of the Druk Gyalpo on advice of the rest of government. Immigration policy and procedure are implemented by the Lhengye Zhungtshog Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs, Department of Immigration. Bhutan's first modern laws regarding immigration and citizenship were the Bhutanese Citizenship Act 1958 and subsequent amendments in 1977. The 1958 Act was superseded by the Bhutanese Citizenship Act 1985, which was then supplemented by a further Immigration Act in 2007. The Constitution of 2008 included some changes in Bhutan's immigration laws, policy, and procedure, however prior law not inconsistent with the 2008 Constitution remained intact. Bhutan's modern citizenship laws and policies reinforce the institution of the Bhutanese monarchy, require familiarity and adherence to Ngalop social norms, and reflect the social impact of the most recent immigrant groups.
Bhutanese cuisine employs much red rice, buckwheat, and increasingly maize. Buckwheat is eaten mainly in Bumthang, maize in the Eastern districts, and rice elsewhere. The diet in the hills also includes chicken, yak meat, dried beef, pork, pork fat, and lamb. Soups and stews of meat, rice, ferns, lentils, and dried vegetables, spiced with chili peppers and cheese, are a favorite meal during the cold seasons. Zow shungo is a rice dish mixed with leftover vegetables. Ema datshi is a spicy dish made with large, green chili peppers in a cheesy sauce, which might be called the national dish for its ubiquity and the pride that Bhutanese have for it. Other foods include jasha maru, phaksha paa, thukpa, bathup, and fried rice. Cheese made from cow's milk called datshi is never eaten raw, but used to make sauces. Zoedoe is another type of cheese made in the Eastern districts, which is added to soups. Zoedoe is normally greenish in color and has a strong smell. Other types of cheese include Western types like Cheddar and Gouda. Western cheese is made in the Swiss Cheese Factory in Bumthang or imported from India.
The Dual System of Government is the traditional diarchal political system of Tibetan peoples whereby the Desi coexists with the spiritual authority of the realm, usually unified under a third single ruler. The actual distribution of power between institutions varied over time and location. The Tibetan term Cho-sid-nyi literally means "both Dharma and temporal," but may also be translated as "dual system of religion and politics."
Thukpa bhatuk is a common Tibetan cuisine noodle soup that includes small bhasta noodles. This dish is a common soup made in the winter but is especially important for Tibetan New Year. On Nyi-Shu-Gu, the eve of Losar, the common Tibetan soup, Thukpa bhatuk is made with special ingredients to form Guthuk. Guthuk is then eaten on Losar to symbolise getting rid of negativities of the past year and invite positives into the new year.
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2. Thukpa as a Porridge in Bhutan
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