The Thul Hairo Khan (Sindhi: ٺلھ هيرو خان) is a stupa of Buddhism, situated in Taluka Johi, Dadu District, Sindh , Pakistan close to village Hairo KhanIt is constructed with baked and unbaked bricks fixed with a material made from mud mixed water. The stupa is 50 feet high and 30 feet wide in size. The stair from north side of stupa leads to its top. The stupa has arched tunnel at ground level which crosses from north to south. It is believed that stupas like Hairo Khan were built in Sindh between 5th to 7th centuries AD. Thul of Hairo Khan appears be to series of discovered in other regions of Sindh.
Sindhi, is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, spoken by the Sindhi people. It is the official language of the Pakistani province of Sindh. In India, Sindhi is one of the scheduled languages officially recognized by the central government, though Sindhi is not an official language of any of the states in India.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana.
Johi is a small town of Dadu District, Sindh province, Pakistan which is located between Balochistan and the Sindh province border. Johi town is also Taluka of Dadu District. A civil hospital is also in Johi. Johi is commonly known as the historical area and has many villages like Haji Khan Hairo Khan, Bazmaal Khoso, Drigh Bala,Rajaghanda and many similar villages. It has many visiting places people here depend on the rain water and do crops as land is very rich in minerals. It has historical town Wahi Pandhi and at a distance of 50 km from Wahi Pandhi taluka Johi there is Gorakh Hill Station. which is situated in Kirthar Mountains Range and in mountainous area of Johi many water streams and hill torrents known as Nai Gaj, taqi, Nali and many other flow towards Kachho desert. Shiva Mandir Johi is one of the main old religious and sacred places in Johi town.
According to some accounts Buddhism spread in Sindh in 3rd century BC during the period of King Asoka of Maurya Empire.[ citation needed ]Chandragupta Maurya was founder of Maurya Empire who was supported by little kingdoms of Sindh and Punjab, Pakistan now provinces of Pakistan and he defeated Greek dominance there. Sindh became division of Maurya Empire in 305 BCE and during Maurya Empire Buddhism thrived in Sindh at large,particularly through the realm of Asoka the great.[ citation needed ] Hiouen-Tsang who came to Sindh in 641 AD and had recorded eighty-eight thousands stupas up to borders of Sindh. Sindh was hub of Buddhism during Rai Dynasty. Chach was a pioneer of Brahman dynasty of Sindh. His brother Chandar or Chandra was Buddhist. According to Chach Nama, a first written source material on history of Sindh, during the monarchy of Rai kings together with Brahmans, Buddhiya country (division) was part of Sindh, which indicates to Buddhism as dominant religion in Sindh. Buddhism remained and grew in every part of Sindh till 13th century AD in Soomra dynasty of Sindh. Stupas were considered as sacred and religious remains of Buddhism.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power based in Magadha and founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated the Indian subcontinent between 322 and 187 BCE. Comprising the majority of South Asia, the Maurya Empire was centralized by the conquest of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and its capital city was located at Pataliputra. The empire was the largest political entity to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning over 5 million square kilometres at its zenith under Ashoka.
Punjab is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and it is the most populated province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017. Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region, it is bordered by the Pakistan provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir. It also shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir. The provincial capital of Punjab is the city Lahore, a cultural, historical, economic and cosmopolitan centre of Pakistan where the country's cinema industry, and much of its fashion industry, are based.
The construction of Thul Hairo Khan is rectangular type. The measurement of round shaped top of stupa is 5’-11" while measurement of circumference is 14’0". The baked bricks used in stupa are of 11"x 6"x 2" size. Whereas, the baked bricks used in round shape like circle at the top of stupa are 11.6"x 2"x 5" in size.
Thul Hairo Khan is located towards north of village Haji Khan Laghari in (Kachho) taluka Johi,at distance of 10 kilometers and towards north-east of Johi Town at distance of 15 kilometer.At Latitude: 26°49'40.3", Longitude: 67°28'28.81
Kachho is desert of Sindh, Pakistan. . The Kachho is denoted from word of Sindhi language Kachh which stands for a lap or an armpit. The desert of Kachho is near the lap of Kirthar Mountains Range.History reveals that the area of Kachho desert including the Lake Manchar appeared in the result of flow of big branch of Indus River in earliest times which had been flowing from Kashmore-Kandhkot to Luki Mountains. It is spread over two districts of Sindh Province, Dadu District and Qambar Shahdadkot District. Kachho is rich in fertile soil and forests. The Kachho is affluent in archaeological and historical sites. The several historic and prehistoric remains of civilizations can be observed herein Kachho desert from Neolithic and Bronze Age to British period. The people cultivate many kind of crops in Kachho. Kachho depends on rains. If it rains Kachho becomes prosperous because people cultivate lands and crops which boost the economy of the region including whole country. Due to rains the water level too increases and an environment also becomes pleasant. Mostly, the trees are big reason for heavy rains and good environment of the area. Numerous trees of Kachho desert have been cutting for sell since last many years. Thus, the environment is very pretentious and water level is dropped from 150 feet to 450 feet. The wells dug by people now became dry. The people of several villages of Kachho suffer for fresh drinking water.
Ashoka, sometimes Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from c. 268 to 232 BCE. The grandson of the founder of the Maurya Dynasty, Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka promoted the spread of Buddhism. Considered by many to be one of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka expanded Chandragupta's empire to reign over a realm stretching from present-day Afghanistan in the west to Bangladesh in the east. It covered the entire Indian subcontinent except for parts of present-day Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. The empire's capital was Pataliputra, with provincial capitals at Taxila and Ujjain.
Greco-Buddhism, or Graeco-Buddhism, is the cultural syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism, which developed between the 4th century BC and the 5th century AD in Bactria and the Indian subcontinent. It was a cultural consequence of a long chain of interactions begun by Greek forays into India from the time of Alexander the Great. The Macedonian satraps were then conquered by the Mauryan Empire, under the reign of Chandragupta Maurya. The Mauryan Emperor Ashoka would convert to Buddhism and spread the religious philosophy throughout his domain, as recorded in the Edicts of Ashoka. Following the collapse of the Mauryan Empire, Greco-Buddhism continued to flourish under the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Indo-Greek Kingdoms, and Kushan Empire. Buddhism was adopted in Central and Northeastern Asia from the 1st century AD, ultimately spreading to China, Korea, Japan, Siberia, and Vietnam.
The Shunga Empire was an ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE. The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra Shunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire. Its capital was Pataliputra, but later emperors such as Bhagabhadra also held court at Besnagar in eastern Malwa.
The Rai Dynasty was a power during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Sindh, in modern Pakistan. The dynasty at its height of power ruled much of the Northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent. The influence of the Rais extended from Kashmir in the east, Makran and Debal port in the west, Surat port in the south, and the Kandahar, Sulaiman, Ferdan and Kikanan hills in the north. It ruled an area of over 600,000 square miles (1,553,993 km2), and the dynasty reigned a period of 143 years.
Chach Nama, also known as the Fateh nama Sindh, and as Tareekh al-Hind wa a's-Sind, is one of the main historical sources for the history of Sindh in the seventh to eighth centuries CE, written in Persian.
Shaheed Benazirabad District, previously known as Nawabshah District, is one of the districts in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The district was renamed in September 2008 when most of MPAs of Nawabshah demanded the district be renamed to honour the late party leader. The renaming of the district was criticised by the family of Syed Nawabshah and others who, while saddened at the death of Bhutto, felt that Nawabshah was a historic district and ought to have kept its name.
The history of Sindh or Sind is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and surrounding regions. Sindh was at the center of the Indus Valley civilization, one of the cradle of civilization; and currently a province of modern-day Pakistan.
Rai Sahasi II (Sinhasena), was the last Buddhist ruler of the Rai dynasty of the Sindh region of the Indian subcontinent, in first half of 7th century AD. The Emperors of Rai dynasty were great patrons of Hinduism and Buddhism. This is consistent with the historical accounts from the times of Emperor Ashoka and Harsha, as numerous monarchs from the Indian Subcontinent never sponsored a state religion and usually patronized more than one faith. He succeeded his father Sinharus.
Rai Sahiras II was the second-last Buddhist ruler of the Rai Dynasty during early the 7th century. The Emperors of this dynasty were great patrons of Hinduism and Buddhism. This is consistent with the historical accounts from the times of Emperor Ashoka and Harsha because Indian monarchs never sponsored a state religion and usually patronized more than one faith.
Buddhism in Pakistan took root some 2,300 years ago under the Mauryan king Ashoka, whom Nehru once called “greater than any king or emperor.” Buddhism has a long history in present-day history of Pakistan — over time being part of areas within Bactria, the Indo-Greek Kingdom, the Kushan Empire; Ancient India with the Maurya Empire of Ashoka, the Pala Empire; the Punjab region, and Indus River Valley cultures — areas now within the present day nation of Pakistan. Buddhist scholar Kumāralabdha (童受) of the Taxila was comparable to Aryadeva, Aśvaghoṣa and Nagarjuna.
Aparanta, or Aparantaka was a geographical region of ancient India, variously corresponding to the northern Konkan, northern Gujarat, Kathiawar, Kachch and Sindh.
Khudabad is a city in Dadu District, Sindh, Pakistan. It served as capital of the Kalhora dynasty between 1719 and 1789, when the capital was shifted to Hyderabad.
Kanaganahalli is about 3 km from Sannati. An important Buddhist site, the place where an ancient Buddhist Mahastupa site found. It is on the left bank of the Bhima river in Chitapur taluk, Gulbarga District in Karnataka, India. Nalwar is the nearest Railway station about 19 km from Kanaganahalli. The Buddhist site about 2.5 km from Chandrala Parameshwari temple of Sannati.
The Ror dynasty was a power from the Indian subcontinent that ruled modern-day Sindh and northwest India from 450 BC. The Rors ruled from Rori and was built by Dhaj, Ror Kumar, a Ror Kshatriya, in the 5th century BCE. Rori has been known by names such as Roruka and Rorik since antiquity. As capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, Roruka is mentioned as an important trading center in early Buddhist literature. Buddhist Jataka stories talk about exchanges of gifts between King Rudrayan of Roruka and King Bimbisara of Magadha. Divyavadana, the Buddhist chronicle has said that Ror historically competed with Pataliputra in terms of political influence. The scholar T.W. Rhys Davids has mentioned Roruka as one of the most important cities of India in the 7th century BCE.
Agham Lohana was the governor of Brahmanabad, under the nominal rule of Rai Sahasi, king of Alor. Agham Lohana was a Buddhist, and was a member of the Lohana clan.
The Brahman dynasty was a Hindu power on the Indian subcontinent which originated in the region of Sindh, present-day Pakistan. Most of the information about its existence comes from the Chach Nama, a historical account of the Chach-Brahman dynasty. The Brahman dynasty were successors of the Rai dynasty.
The Thul Mir Rukan is a uniquely constructed Buddhist stupa in modern-day Sindh, Pakistan. This monument has domed ceiling and it is 60 feet high, constructed with baked bricks. Details indicate the site being a religious Buddhist center since antiquity. Many evidences were explored from this site are related to Gautama Buddha.
The Ancient Rock Carvings of Sindh have been explored in Kirthar Mountains Range, Sindh, Pakistan. The Kirthar Mountains Range covers a distance of 190 miles in boundaries of Jacobabad District, Qambar Shahdadkot District, Dadu District and Jamshoro District from north to south up to Karachi, Sindh.
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