|Raja of Thanjavur Maratha kingdom|
|Reign||1763 to 1773 and 1776 to 1787|
|Father||Pratapsingh of Thanjavur|
Thuljaji Bhonsle (Marathi: तुळजाजी, also known as Tullasu Rasa) (1738–1787) was the eldest son of Pratap singh and the ruler of Thanjavur Bhonsle dynasty from 1763 to 1773 and 1776 to 1787. He was a weak-hearted ruler despite being extremely generous. His period is known for the treaties which made Thanjavur subordinate to the British East India Company.
In 1771, Thuljaji invaded the dominion of the Polygar of Ramnad who had wrested Hanumantagudi from Thanjavur during the reign of Pratapsingh.The Raja of Ramnad was a dependent of the Nawab of Carnatic and this act of aggression by Thuljaji forced the Nawab to interfere. The Nawab and the East India company laid siege to Tanjore, and forced the Raj to surrender. A humiliating treaty was forced upon the Raja and was later ratified by the officials of the British East India Company. Eighty lakhs of arrears had to be paid apart from a war indemnity of thirty-two lakhs. Thuljaji also ceded two Subhas of Thanjavur to the Nawab. Arni and Hanumantagudi were taken from the Raja's hands and Thanjavur was to have the same foreign policy as the kingdom of the Nawab.
Humiliated and shaken by the provisions of the treaty, Thuljaji applied to the Peshwa for help. A large army commanded by Raghoba was dispatched to help Thuljaji.But court intrigues at Satara forced him to turn back. Thanjavur was taken by the forces of the Nawab of Carnatic and Thuljaji was deposed. Thanjavur loathed under the rule of the Nawab for three years (from 1773 to 1776).
In 1776, the Board of Directors of the British East India Company ordered the restoration of Thuljaji.However, soon after his restoration a treaty was forced upon him by which he became a mere vassal of the British. His army was disbanded and replaced with Company troops. He was to pay regular tribute to both the Nawab and the Company.
The Second Mysore War broke out in 1780 between Hyder Ali and the Company. The very next year, along with his son Tipu Sultan he invaded Thanjavur.The Mysore army was in occupation of the kingdom for 6 months. The region was plundered and the people carried away. The missionary Schwartz records the abduction of 20,000 children from Thanjavur by Tipu Sultan in the year 1784 alone. The produce fell and a calamity ensued. Thanjavur did not recover from the impact of Tipu's invasion till the beginning of the 19th century.
Thuljaji was a fine writer and could compose in Sanskrit as well as Telugu and Marathi.He conferred the title of Andhra Kalidasa on poet Aluri Kuppana. Kuppana wrote classics such as Acharyavijayamu,Panchanada Sthalapurana,Yakshaganas of Ramayana and the Bhagavata, Parana Bhagavatacharitra,Indumati Parinaya and Karmavipaka.
Thuljaji was tolerant of other faiths and religions. He confided upon a Christian missionary called Schwartz who hoped to convert Thuljaji to Christianity.Thuljaji however remained a devout Hindu, drawn deeply to the Saivism sect.
Thuljaji died in 1787at age 49 leaving behind an impoverished state. Two of his queens committed Sati. As two of his sons had predeceased him, he had adopted Serfoji from a collateral branch of the Bhonsle family. Serfoji II ascended the throne at the age of 10 with Thuljaji's brother Amarsingh as regent.
Tipu Sultan, also known as Tipu Sahab or the Tiger of Mysore, was the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore based in South India and a pioneer of rocket artillery. He introduced a number of administrative innovations during his rule, including a new coinage system and calendar, and a new land revenue system which initiated the growth of the Mysore silk industry. He expanded the iron-cased Mysorean rockets and commissioned the military manual Fathul Mujahidin. He deployed the rockets against advances of British forces and their allies during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, including the Battle of Pollilur and Siege of Seringapatam.
Hyder Ali, Haidarālī was the Sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. Born as Hyder Ali Khan, he distinguished himself militarily, eventually drawing the attention of Mysore's rulers. Rising to the post of Dalavayi (commander-in-chief) to Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, he came to dominate the titular monarch and the Mysore government. He became the de facto ruler of Mysore as Sarvadhikari by 1761. During intermittent conflicts against the East India Company during the First and Second Anglo–Mysore Wars, Hyder Ali distinguished himself in military tactics, being the innovator of military use of the iron-cased Mysorean rockets. He also significantly developed the Mysorean economy.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Shivaji as the Chhatrapati and ended in 1818 with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II at the hands of the British East India Company. The Marathas are credited to a large extent for ending Mughal Rule over most of the Indian subcontinent.
The First Anglo–Mysore War (1766–1769) was a conflict in India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the East India Company. The war was instigated in part by the machinations of Asaf Jah II, the Nizam of Hyderabad, who sought to divert the company's resources from attempts to gain control of the Northern Circars.
Christian Frederick Schwarz was a German Lutheran missionary to India. He was known for his linguistic skills, with knowledge of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Tamil, Urdu, Persian, Marathi, and Telugu and even used by the British to serve as an emissary of peace and sent to the court of Haider Ali in Mysore. He worked alongside the Indian royal families, tutoring the Raja Serfoji of Tanjore, and was influential in establishing Protestant Christianity in southern India.
Serfoji II Bhonsle also spelt as Sarabhoji II Bhonsle, was the last ruler of the Bhonsle dynasty of the Maratha principality of Tanjore to exercise absolute sovereignty over his dominions. His descendants, however, have managed to thrive as titular Maharajahs of Thanjavur to the present day. Serfoji belonged to the Bhonsle clan of Marathas and was descended from Shivaji's half-brother Venkoji. He ruled Thanjavur from 1798 until his death in 1832.
The Maratha Conquests were a series of conquests in the Indian subcontinent which led to the building of the Maratha Empire. These conquests were started by Shivaji in 1659 from the victory at the Battle of Pratapgad against Bijapur. The expansion of the empire was limited and interrupted by the Mughal conquests of south India by Emperor Aurangzeb. Marathas were forced to defend their territories against the overwhelmingly strong Mughal army in the 27 years long Deccan wars. They were able to defend their territories and gain an upper hand over Mughals in the sustained conflict.
The Nawabs of the Arcot were the nawabs who ruled the northern part of the Carnatic region of South India between about 1690 and 1855. The Carnatic was a dependency of Hyderabad Deccan, and was under the legal purview of the Nizam of Hyderabad, until their demise. They initially had their capital at Arcot in the present-day Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Their rule is an important period in the history of the Carnatic and Coromandel Coast regions, in which the Mughal Empire gave way to the rising influence of the Maratha Empire, and later the emergence of the British Raj.
Chanda Sahib Nawab of the Carnatic between 1749 and 1752. Initially he was supported by the French during the Carnatic Wars. After his defeat at Arcot in 1751, he was captured by the Marathas of Thanjavur and executed.
Pratap Singh Bhonsle or Pratapsinha was the Maratha ruler of Thanjavur of the Bhonsle dynasty from 1739 to 1763. His rise to power followed three years of anarchy and civil war and restored the state to its previous greatness. His reign witnessed the Carnatic Wars and the Seven Years' War.
Tukkoji Bhonsle (1677–1736) was the fourth Maratha ruler of Thanjavur, located in South India. He was from the Bhonsle dynasty and was the son of Ekoji I as well as the younger brother of Shahuji I and Serfoji I. Tukkoji ruled Thanjavur from 1728 to 1736.
Serfoji I Bhonsle (1675–1728), also spelt as Sarabhoji I Bhonsle, was the son of the Maratha ruler of Thanjavur Ekoji I and the Raja of Thanjavur from 1712 to 1728. He was the third Raja of the Bhonsle dynasty of Thanjavur. He consolidated the hold of Marathas over Thanjavur and patronised arts and literature.
Shahuji I Bhonsle (b.1672) also called Shahji of the Bhonsle dynasty was the second Maratha ruler of Thanjavur. He was the eldest son of Ekoji I, who was a half brother of Shivaji, the first Maratha ruler of Thanjavur. He reigned from 1684 to 1712.
Vyankoji Bhonsle or Ekoji I Bhonsle was the younger half-brother of Shivaji and founder of Maratha rule in Thanjavur. He was the progenitor of the junior branch of the Bhonsle family which ruled Thanjavur until the formal annexation of the kingdom by the British in 1855.
Shahuji II Bhonsle of Katturaja of the Bhonsle dynasty was the name of the ruler of Thanjavur from 1738 to 1739 who rose to power based on the unverified claim of being an illegitimate son of Serfoji I.
The Thanjavur Maratha kingdom of bhonsle dynasty was a principality of Tamil Nadu between the 17th and 19th centuries. Their native language was Thanjavur Marathi. Venkoji was the founder of the dynasty.
The Treaty of Mangalore was signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784. It was signed in Mangalore and brought an end to the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
The Thondaman Dynasty is south Indian dynasty of chieftains who ruled the region in and around Pudukottai from the 17th to 20th century. It was founded by Raghunatha Thondaiman, the brother-in-law of the then Raja of Ramnad, Raghunatha Kilavan Setupati.
The Madras Presidency was a province of British India comprising most of the present day Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh along with a few districts and taluks of Karnataka, Kerala and Orissa. A few princely states, notably Ramnad and Pudukkottai also merged into the Presidency at some or the other time. The Presidency lasted till 1950, when it became the Madras State after India became a republic. In 1953 Telugu-speaking regions of the state split to form Andhra State. Subsequently, in 1959, Kannada- and Malayalam-speaking areas were merged with Mysore and Travancore.
The Thanjavur Maratha Palace Complex, known locally as Aranmanai, today is the official residence of the Bhonsle family that ruled Tanjore from 1674 to 1855.
| Maratha Raja of Thanjavur |