Thuluth

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A simple Islamic prayer in the Thuluth script. Translation: the grasping of God brings the knowledge of His comfort. Arabic prayer - Thuluth script.jpg
A simple Islamic prayer in the Thuluth script. Translation: the grasping of God brings the knowledge of His comfort.
Taj Mahal, monumental calligraphy by Abd ul-Haq 1609 Taj Mahal Calligraphy Example.jpg
Taj Mahal, monumental calligraphy by Abd ul-Haq 1609
The flag of Saudi Arabia, also in Thuluth. Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg
The flag of Saudi Arabia, also in Thuluth.

Thuluth (Arabic : ثُلُث, Persian : ثلثsols, Turkish: Sülüs, from thuluth "one-third") is a script variety of Islamic calligraphy invented by Ibn Muqlah Shirazi. [1] The straight angular forms of Kufic were replaced in the new script by curved and oblique lines. In Thuluth, one-third of each letter slopes, from which the name (meaning "a third" in Arabic) comes. An alternative theory to the meaning is that the smallest width of the letter is one third of the widest part. It is an elegant, cursive script, used in medieval times on mosque decorations. Various calligraphic styles evolved from Thuluth through slight changes of form.

Contents

History

Fragments of repeated Shi'i blessings (al-salam 'alayka) in Arabic directed to Husayn, the Prophet Muhammad's grandson through his son-in-law 'Ali. He is addressed by his many names and epithets, such as the "servant of God" (abd Allah), "son of the Prophet" (ibn rasul), "goodness of God" (khayrat Allah), "son of the Leader of the Faithful" (ibn amir al-mu'minin), and "son of Fatimah, the radiant" (ibn Fatimah al-zahra'). Script: Indian thuluth. Indian Thuluth.gif
Fragments of repeated Shi'i blessings (al-salam 'alayka) in Arabic directed to Husayn, the Prophet Muhammad's grandson through his son-in-law 'Ali. He is addressed by his many names and epithets, such as the "servant of God" (abd Allah), "son of the Prophet" (ibn rasul), "goodness of God" (khayrat Allah), "son of the Leader of the Faithful" (ibn amir al-mu'minin), and "son of Fatimah, the radiant" (ibn Fatimah al-zahra'). Script: Indian thuluth.
Muhammed's name with Salat phrase in Thuluth. Muhammad Salat.svg
Muhammed's name with Salat phrase in Thuluth.

The greatest contributions to the evolution of the Thuluth script occurred in the Ottoman Empire in three successive steps that Ottoman art historians call "calligraphical revolutions":

Artists

The best known artist to write the Thuluth script at its zenith is said to be Mustafa Râkım Efendi (1757–1826), a painter who set a standard in Ottoman calligraphy which many believe has not been surpassed to this day. [9]

calligraphic panel written by Mustafa Rakim Signed Mustafa Rakim - Levha (calligraphic inscription) - Google Art Project.jpg
calligraphic panel written by Mustafa Rakim

Usage

Thuluth was used to write the headings of surahs, Qur'anic chapters. Some of the oldest copies of the Qur'an were written in Thuluth. Later copies were written in a combination of Thuluth and either Naskh or Muhaqqaq. After the 15th century Naskh came to be used exclusively.

The script is used in the Flag of Saudi Arabia where its text, Shahada al Tawhid , is written in Thuluth.

Style

An important aspect of Thuluth script is the use of harakat ("hareke" in Turkish) to represent vowel sounds and of certain other stylistic marks to beautify the script. The rules governing the former are similar to the rules for any Arabic script. The stylistic marks have their own rules regarding placement and grouping which allow for great creativity as to shape and orientation. For example, one grouping technique is to separate the marks written below letters from those written above.

Scripts developed from Thuluth

Since its creation, Thuluth has given rise to a variety of scripts used in calligraphy and over time has allowed numerous modifications. JeliThuluth was developed for use in large panels, such as those on tombstones. Muhaqqaq script was developed by widening the horizontal sections[ clarification needed ] of the letters in Thuluth. Naskh script introduced a number of modifications resulting in smaller size and greater delicacy. Tawqi is a smaller version of Thuluth.

Ruq'ah was probably derived from the Thuluth and Naskh styles, the latter itself having originated from Thuluth.

See also

Related Research Articles

Arabic calligraphy calligraphy using the Arabic script, for religious or non-religious expression

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Islamic calligraphy Artistic practice of calligraphy in Islamic contexts

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Mashq Wikimedia list article

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Hattat Aziz Efendi was an Ottoman calligrapher.

Hâfiz Osman Ottoman calligrapher

Hâfiz Osman (1642–1698) was an Ottoman calligrapher noted for improving the script and for developing a layout template for the hilye which became the classical approach to page design.

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Hilya

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Mustafa Râkim (1757–1826), was an Ottoman calligrapher. He extended and reformed Hâfiz Osman's style, placing greater emphasis on technical perfection, which broadened the calligraphic art to encompass the Sülüs script as well as the Nesih script.

Ahmed Karahisari (1468–1566) was an Ottoman calligrapher.

İsmail Zühdi Efendi Ottoman calligrapher

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Mahmud Celaleddin Efendi Ottoman calligrapher.

Mahmud Celaleddin Efendi was an Ottoman calligrapher.

Kazasker Mustafa Izzet Efendi, was an Ottoman composer, neyzen, poet and statesman best known for his calligraphy.

Mehmed Şevkî Efendi Ottoman calligrapher

Mehmed Shevki Efendi, was a prominent Ottoman calligrapher. He is known for his Thuluth-Naskh works, and his style developed into the Shevki Mektebi school, which many contemporary calligraphers in the style take as a reference.

Sami Efendi Ottoman calligrapher

Sami Efendi (1858-1912), was an Ottoman calligrapher.

Yesarizade Mustafa Izzet Efendi Ottoman calligrapher

Yesarizade Mustafa Izzet Efendi was an Ottoman calligrapher.

Suyolcuzade Mustafa Eyyubi Ottoman calligrapher

Suyolcuzade Mustafa Eyyubi was a 17th-century Ottoman calligrapher.

References

  1. "Arabic Fonts - Development of the Thuluth Script" . Retrieved 2019-02-07.
  2. "Hüseyin Kutlu: Hat sanatı kalemi şevk edebilmektir - Kalem Güzeli". www.kalemguzeli.net. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  3. Pritchett, Frances. "hamdullah1500s". www.columbia.edu. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  4. Üniversitesi, İstanbul. "İstanbul Üniversitesi - Tarihten Geleceğe Bilim Köprüsü - 145". www.istanbul.edu.tr. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  5. Ali, Wijdan. "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th Century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th Century Ottoman Art Archived 2004-12-03 at the Wayback Machine ". In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, eds. M. Kiel, N. Landman, and H. Theunissen. No. 7, 124. Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 23–28, 1999, p. 7
  6. "Mehmed Şevki Efendi". wordpress.com. 1 October 2006. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  7. Türk Ýslam Sanatlarý - Tezyini Sanatlar Archived 2012-06-30 at Archive.today
  8. Journal of Ottoman Calligraphy :: RAKIM: “Mustafa Rakim” (1757 - 1826) :: April :: 2006 Archived 2008-03-06 at the Wayback Machine