Thumal the Qahraman (Arabic : ثمل القهرمانة) (died 929) was a Muslim woman appointed in 918 as a judge in a maẓālim (secular administrative) court during the reign of Caliph al-Muqtadir (r. 908-932). She was not a Qadi (a judge adjudicating Islamic law), for she only dealt with secular law. She was put in charge of rescripting the petitions which petitioners brought to the court. Her position was an extraordinary unique position for her sex. She was appointed by Umm Jafar Muqtadir, the mother to caliph Jafar al-Muqtadir-billah (r. 908–923), the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.
Thumal was originally the assistant of Shaghab, mother of Caliph al-Muqtadir. When Shaghab secured the succession of her son to the throne, she de facto seized power and appointed a parallel bureaucracy to handle state affairs. Shaghab stated that the affairs of the umma , especially justice, was better administered with a woman in charge: in 918 she appointed Thumal in charge of mazalin , in effect minister of justice or chief administrator of justice, and supervisor of the qadis, who opposed to be supervised by a woman, but was forced to accept the appointment.According to the historian Tabari, Thumal carried out her duties well enough to achieve popularity among the public in her office, especially because of the new reforms which lower the cost for a plaintiff to initiate a case: however, her appointment was described in Muslim history, among others by Ibn Hazm, as one example of a series of "scandals whose equal has not been seen to this day".
Al-Khayzuran bint Atta was the wife of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mahdi and mother of both Caliphs Al-Hadi and Harun al-Rashid. She ruled from 775 to 789 during the reign of her husband and sons and is known for her immense influence on state affairs.
Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Ahmad al-Muʿtaḍid , better known by his regnal name al-Muqtadir bi-llāh, was the Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate from 908 to 932 CE, with the exception of a brief deposition in favour of al-Qahir in 928.
Abu Mansur Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Mu'tadid, usually known simply by his regnal title al-Qahir bi'llah, was the 19th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate from 932 to 934. He was born 286 AH and died 339 AH.
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Ghaliya or Ghaliyya Al-Bogammiah was a Saudi woman who led military resistance to prevent the Ottoman recapture of Mecca during the Ottoman–Wahhabi War. She was given the title Amira, which is the female version of the title Emir, in recognition of her acts.
Arwa Al-Sulayhi, full name Arwā bint Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar ibn Mūsā Aṣ-Ṣulayḥī was a long-reigning ruler of Yemen, firstly as the co-ruler of her first two husbands and then as sole ruler, from 1067 until her death in 1138. She was the last of the rulers of the Sulayhid Dynasty and was also the first woman to be accorded the prestigious title of Hujjah in the Isma'ili branch of Shia Islam, signifying her as the closest living image of God's will in her lifetime, in the Ismaili doctrine. She is popularly referred to as As-Sayyidah Al-Ḥurrah, Al-Malikah Al-Ḥurrah (Arabic: ٱلْمَلِكَة ٱلْحُرَّة or Al-Ḥurratul-Malikah, and Malikat Sabaʾ Aṣ-Ṣaghīrah. She is known by the name Arwa. However, this name does not have any historical source and all historical sources name her "Sayyidah bint Ahmed".
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Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Muqla, commonly known as Ibn Muqla, was a Persian official of the Abbasid Caliphate who rose to high state posts in the early 10th century. His career culminated in his own assumption of the vizierate at Baghdad thrice: in 928–930, 932–933 and 934–936. Unable to successfully challenge the growing power of regional emirs, he lost his position to the first amir al-umara, Ibn Ra'iq, and died in prison. He was also a noted calligrapher.
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Abu'l-Hasan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Furat was a senior official of the Abbasid Caliphate who served three times as vizier under Caliph al-Muqtadir. Ali emerged into prominence as an able fiscal administrator and deputy to his older brother Ahmad. Eventually he came to lead one of the two major and rival court factions during al-Muqtadir's caliphate, the Banu'l-Furat, the other being the group of officials around the commander-in-chief Mu'nis al-Muzaffar and the vizier Ali ibn Isa al-Jarrah.
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Al-Ḫaṣṣāf was a Hanafite law scholar at the court of the 14th Abbasid Caliph al-Muhtadi. He is the author of a seminal work on Qādī, known as أدب القاضي Adab al-qādī. A commentary on the work was written by al-Jaṣṣās in the 10th century. An English translation was published by G. P. Verbit in 2008.
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Sitt al-Wuzara' al-Tanukhiyyah is a Syrian hadith scholar of 8th century. She was the last student of Husayn ibn al-Mubarak al-Zabidi and Abu al- Munajja Ibn al-Latti. Alongside with her prominent predecessors -Umm al-Darda and Fatima bint 'Abd al- Malik ibn Marwan, wife of the pious caliph 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz, she is represents what Mohammad Akram Nadwi terms as hadith scholarship from al-Sham.
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