Thumāma ibn al-Walīd ibn Qa‘qā al-‘Absi‘ (Arabic : ثمامة بن الوليد بن قعقاع العبسي) was an Arab general of noble lineage from Syria, who served the Abbasid Caliphate.
He belonged to a family of the Banu Abs, part of the old Arab tribal nobility ( ashraf ), which became affiliated with the Umayyad dynasty when Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (r. 685–705) married a cousin of Thumama's grandfather Qa'qa' ibn Khulayd al-'Absi. His father al-Walid served the Umayyads as general and governor of Qinnasrin, but was tortured to death along with Thumama's uncle Abd al-Malik and other family members when the two brothers opposed the accession of al-Walid II (r. 743–744).
Thumama survived the purge and served the Abbasids, who overthrew the Umayyads, as general against the Byzantine Empire.He led the annual summer raids into Byzantine Asia Minor in 777 and in 778, when he was defeated by the Byzantine general Michael Lachanodrakon. He was also placed in charge of the expedition in 779, but according to al-Tabari he failed to carry it out, and was replaced by al-Hasan ibn Qahtaba.
Nothing more is known about Thumama, but his son Uthman was one of the local leaders of Qinnasrin who used the turmoil of the Fourth Fitna in the 810s to become virtually autonomous rulers of their localities.
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty. The third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, was a member of the Umayyad clan. The family established dynastic, hereditary rule with Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, who became the sixth Caliph after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in 661. After Mu'awiyah's death in 680, conflicts over the succession resulted in a Second Civil War and power eventually fell into the hands of Marwan I from another branch of the clan. Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital.
Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, commonly known as al-Walid I, was the sixth Umayyad caliph, ruling from October 705 until his death. He was the eldest son of his predecessor Caliph Abd al-Malik. As a prince, he led annual raids against the Byzantines in 695–698 and built or restored fortifications along the Syrian Desert route to Mecca. He became the heir apparent after the death of Abd al-Malik's brother and designated successor, Abd al-Aziz ibn Marwan, in 704.
Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik was the seventh Umayyad caliph, ruling from 23 February 715 until his death. As governor of Palestine during the reigns of his father Caliph Abd al-Malik and brother Caliph al-Walid I, he was mentored by the theologian Raja ibn Haywa al-Kindi and forged close ties with Yazid ibn al-Muhallab, a major opponent of al-Walid's powerful viceroy of Iraq and the eastern Caliphate, al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, whose influence over the caliph was resented by Sulayman. He founded the city of Ramla and in it, his palace and the White Mosque. It superseded Lydda, which was at least partly destroyed and whose inhabitants may have been forcibly relocated to Ramla. Ramla developed into an economic hub and became home to numerous Muslim scholars, continuing as the administrative capital of Palestine until the 11th century.
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik was the tenth Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743. When he was born in 691 his father named him after his mother.
The Banu Abs are an ancient Bedouin tribe that originated in central Arabia. They form a branch of the powerful and numerous Ghatafan tribes. They still inhabit the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa but have spread to many other regions of the world, as well. Their descendants today include the large Bani Rasheed tribe located in Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Yemen, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Eritrea, and Jordan, and the Banu Rawaha located mostly in Oman and the UAE. Parts of the Mahas tribe of the Butana region in Sudan are also linked by blood to the Banu Abs due to intermarriage between the Sudanese Rashaida tribe and the Mahas peoples. One of the earliest stories concerning this tribe was the famous classical love and war story of Antar and Abla.
ʿAbdallāh ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān was an Umayyad prince, the son of Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, a general and the governor of Egypt in 705–709.
Qurra ibn Sharīk ibn Marthad ibn Ḥazīm al-Absi al-Ghaṭafānī was a statesman of the Umayyad Caliphate, most notable for his governorship of Egypt under Caliph al-Walid I between 709 and his death in 715.
Abd al-Aziz ibn al-Walid was a member of the Umayyad dynasty and a military leader in the wars against the Byzantine Empire during the reign of his father, Caliph al-Walid I. The latter also appointed Abd al-Aziz governor of Jund Dimashq. Abd al-Aziz's mother was Umm al-Banin, a daughter of al-Walid's paternal uncle, Abd al-Aziz ibn Marwan. He was regarded by his father as "the sayyid, the most forceful personality, amongst his sons".
Yazid ibn Umar ibn Hubayra al-Fazari was the last Umayyad governor of Iraq. A son of former governor Umar ibn Hubayra, he became one of the most important partisans of Caliph Marwan II in the Third Fitna, but failed to stem the onslaught of the Abbasid Revolution. Defeated, he was captured and executed by the Abbasids.
Sa'id ibn Amr al-Harashi was a prominent general and governor of the Umayyad Caliphate, who played an important role in the Arab–Khazar wars.
Abān ibn al-Walīd ibn ʿUqba ibn Abī Muʿayṭ was a member of the Umayyad family who served as governor of Hims, Qinnasrin and Armenia for the caliphs Marwan I and Abd al-Malik. His brother Uthman may have been his deputy in Armenia, or a governor in his own right, while another deputy of his was Dinar ibn Dinar, who defeated the Byzantines in 694/5.
Zufar ibn al-Ḥārith al-Kilābī was a Muslim general, chieftain of the Arab tribe of Banu 'Amir, and the preeminent leader of the Qays faction in the 7th century. He commanded his tribesmen in Aisha's army during the First Muslim Civil War, and later served as the Umayyad governor of Jund Qinnasrin. In 684, during the Second Fitna, he supported Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr's bid to wrest the caliphate from the Umayyads. Afterward, he based himself in al-Qarqisiyah (Circesium) and led the Qays tribes against the Yaman, launching several raids against the latter in the Syrian Desert. By 688–689, he also became entangled in a conflict with the Banu Taghlib. Zufar made peace with the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik in 691 by abandoning Ibn al-Zubayr's cause in return for stately and military privileges. During the reigns of Abd al-Malik's successors, Zufar and his family maintained their high-ranking positions in the Umayyad government.
Hassan ibn Malik ibn Bahdal al-Kalbi (Arabic: حسان بن مالك بن بحدل الكلبي, romanized: Ḥassān ibn Mālik ibn Baḥdal al-Kalbī, commonly known as Ibn Bahdal, was the Umayyad governor of Palestine and Jordan during the reigns of Mu'awiya I and Yazid I, a senior figure in the caliph's court, and a chieftain of the Banu Kalb tribe. He owed his position both to his leadership of the powerful Kalb, a major source of troops, and his kinship with the Umayyads through his aunt Maysun bint Bahdal, the wife of Mu'awiya and mother of Yazid. Following Yazid's death, Ibn Bahdal served as the guardian of his son and successor, Mu'awiya II, until the latter's premature death in 684. Amid the political instability and rebellions that ensued in the caliphate, Ibn Bahdal attempted to secure the succession Mu'awiya II's brother Khalid, but ultimately threw his support behind Marwan I, who hailed from a different branch of the Umayyads. Ibn Bahdal and his tribal allies defeated Marwan's opponents at the Battle of Marj Rahit and secured for themselves the most prominent roles in the Umayyad administration and military.
Humayd ibn Hurayth ibn Bahdal al-Kalbi was a senior Umayyad commander and a chieftain of the Banu Kalb tribe. He was head of the shurṭa under caliphs Marwan I and Abd al-Malik, and may have served in the same capacity under their predecessor Caliph Yazid I. He commanded the Kalbi-dominated shurṭa in the Battle of Khazir in 686, and a year later joined the rebellion of the Umayyad prince Amr ibn Sa'id ibn al-As against Abd al-Malik. After the revolt's failure, Humayd reconciled with the latter. In the years following the battles of Marj Rahit (684) and Khazir, Humayd led the Kalb in numerous tit-for-tat raids and battles with enemy Qaysi tribes, including the Banu Amir, Banu Sulaym and Fazara.
Sa'id ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, also known as Saʿīd al-Khayr, was an Umayyad prince and governor. He served as governor of Mosul for an undetermined period under his father Caliph Abd al-Malik and was responsible for several building and infrastructural works. He also played a role in the construction of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. He was later granted property in Mosul's vicinity by Caliph al-Walid I or Caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz, which he developed into an agricultural tract with a canal. In 724 and 725, he led summer campaigns against the Byzantines in Anatolia. During the brief rule of Caliph al-Walid II, between February 743 to April 744, Sa'id served as governor of Palestine, but was expelled by rebels in the district after al-Walid's death. Sa'id was ultimately killed during the massacre of the Umayyad family near Ramla after the Abbasid victory over the dynasty in 750.
Bishr ibn al-Walīd ibn ʿAbd al-Malik was an Umayyad prince and general who led military expeditions against the Byzantine Empire in 710/11 and 714/15 and later participated in the Umayyad opposition against his kinsman, Caliph al-Walid II. He was later imprisoned by his erstwhile ally and kinsman, Caliph Marwan II in 745 and presumably died in incarceration.
Mudrik ibn al-Muhallab ibn Abī Ṣufra was an Arab commander of the Umayyad Caliphate during the reigns of caliphs Abd al-Malik and Sulayman. During the nine-month-long governorship of his brother al-Mufaddal over Khurasan, Mudrik, who was headquartered in Balkh, was appointed alongside Uthman ibn Mas'ud as joint commander of an expedition against the rebel general Musa ibn Abd Allah ibn Khazim of Tirmidh. Mudrik was assigned to ensure the loyalty of Uthman and his largely Tamimi troops, due to his previous maltreatment by al-Mufaddal's father and brother, al-Muhallab ibn Abi Sufra and Yazid, respectively. Mudrik and Uthman secured alliances with the non-Muslim principalities surrounding Tirmidh and defeated Musa's forces, a task which had eluded many of al-Mufaddal's predecessors. After Musa was killed on the battlefield, his nephew Nadr ibn Sulayman ibn Abd Allah agreed to surrender Tirmidh only to Mudrik, not Uthman and the former allowed him to leave the fortress unharmed. The Muhallabids, the family to which Mudrik belonged, were dismissed and harassed by al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf during the reign of Caliph al-Walid I, but with the accession of the latter's brother, Caliph Sulayman, in 715, the family's fortunes were revived. Yazid ibn al-Muhallab was made governor over Iraq, Khurasan and the eastern half of the Caliphate and appointed Mudrik as his first lieutenant governor over Sijistan (Sistan). He was later replaced by Yazid's son Mu'awiya.
Al-Walid ibn Hisham ibn al-Walid ibn Uqba al-Mu'ayti was a member of the Umayyad dynasty, a commander in the Arab–Byzantine wars and the governor of Jund Qinnasrin under Caliph Umar II
Umar ibn al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik was an Umayyad prince, commander in the Arab–Byzantine wars and the governor of Jund al-Urdunn during the reign of his father al-Walid I. He may have patronized the Umayyad desert palaces of Khirbat al-Minya in modern Israel and Qasr Kharana in modern Jordan.
Maslama ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, also known by his kunyaAbu Shakir, was an Umayyad prince and commander. His capture of the southern caverns of Cappadocia and the fortress of Ancyra in 739 marked the last Umayyad military gains in the wars with Byzantium. Despite the abortive attempts by his father Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik to install Maslama as his chosen successor in place of al-Walid ibn Yazid, Maslama became a close companion of al-Walid and defended him from his father's machinations. As a result, he was spared the fate of his brothers who were imprisoned upon al-Walid's accession in 743. Nothing is heard of Maslama afterward and he may have been killed in a massacre of the Umayyad family by the Abbasids following their takeover of the Caliphate in 750.