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Thumamah ibn Uthal (Arabic : ثمامة بن أثال) was chieftain of the Banu Hanifah and one of the rulers of al-Yamamah, making him among the most powerful Arab rulers in pre-Quranic times. In 628 Muhammad sent eight letters to rulers in the Arabian peninsula and surrounding areas inviting them to Islam, including Thumamah. After receiving the letter, he was consumed by anger and resolved to kill Muhammad.
In the pursuit of his designs, Thumamah killed a group of Muhammad's companions. Not long afterwards, Thumamah left al-Yamamah to perform umrah in Mecca and was apprehended by a group of Muslims patrolling the areas surrounding Medina. Unaware of who he was they tied him to a column in the mosque and waited for Muhammad to decide his fate. Muhammad approached Thumamah hoping to encourage him to become a Muslim, but after his refusal he was allowed to leave. Thumamah rode until he came to a palm grove on the outskirts of Medina near al-Baqi' where he watered his camel and washed himself. Then he turned back to Muhammad's mosque and proclaimed his acceptance of Islam, pledging himself and those with him in the service of Muhammad.
Muhammad then told him to continue with his plans and perform umrah as prescribed in Islamic rites. When he reached the valley of Mecca, he began shouting in a resonant voice: "Here I am at Your command O Lord, Here I am. Here I am. No partner have You. Here I am. Praise, bounty and Dominion belong to You. No partner have You."
He was thus the first Muslim to enter Mecca reciting the talbiyah. The Quraish heard him and set out to punish the one who had assaulted their preserve. One of them was particularly incensed and was about to shoot Thumamah with an arrow when the others grabbed him and shouted: "Woe to you! Do you know who this is? He is Thumamah ibn Uthal, ruler of al-Yamamah. By God, if you should harm him, his people would cut our supplies, with dire consequences for us."
Thumamah finished performing umrah and proclaimed that he followed the religion of Muhammad. He then returned to his land and ordered his people to withhold supplies from the Quraish. The boycott gradually began to have effect, raising prices and causing many to go hungry. Thereupon, the Quraish wrote to Muhammad, asking him to instruct Thumamah to lift the boycott as it violated the treaty of Hudaybiyyah, which he did.
When Muhammad died in 632, many Arabs began leaving Islam in great numbers. Musaylamah began calling the Banu Hanifah to believe in him as a prophet. Thumamah confronted him gathered together all those who had remained Muslims and waged jihad against the apostates. The loyal Muslims of Banu Hanifah needed additional help to stand against the armies of Musaylamah. Their arduous task was completed by the forces dispatched by Abu Bakr but at the cost of many Muslim lives.
Medina, officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah, is one of the three holiest cities in Islam and the capital of the Medina Region of Saudi Arabia. The 2020 estimated population of the city is 1,488,782, making it the fourth-most populous city in the country. Located at the core of the Madinah Province in the western reaches of the country, the city is distributed over 589 square kilometers, 293 km2 of which constitutes the city's urban area, while the rest is occupied by the Hejaz mountain range, empty valleys, agricultural spaces, older dormant volcanoes and the Nafud desert.
Omar (, also spelled Umar ; Arabic: عمر بن الخطاب ʻUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb[ˈʕomɑr-, ˈʕʊmɑr ɪbn alxɑtˤˈtˤɑːb], "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE – 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history. He was a senior companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He succeeded Abu Bakr (632–634) as the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate on 23 August 634. He was an expert Muslim jurist known for his pious and just nature, which earned him the epithet Al-Farooq. He is sometimes referred to as Omar I by historians of early Islam, since a later Umayyad caliph, Umar II, also bore that name.
The Battle of Badr, also referred to as The Day of the Criterion in the Qur'an and by Muslims, was fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE, near the present-day city of Badr, Al Madinah Province in Saudi Arabia. Muhammad, commanding an army of his Sahaba, defeated an army of the Quraysh led by Amr ibn Hishām, better known as Abu Jahl. The battle marked the beginning of the six-year war between Muhammad and his tribe. Prior to the battle, the Muslims and the Meccans had fought several smaller skirmishes in late 623 and early 624.
Banū Thaqīf is an Arab tribe that came originally from the Ta'if area, they are a branch of Qays 'Aylan.
The military career of Muhammad, the final prophet of Islam, encompasses several expeditions and battles throughout the Hejaz region in the western Arabian Peninsula which took place in the final ten years of his life, from 622 to 632. His primary campaign was against his own tribe in Mecca, the Quraysh. Muhammad proclaimed prophethood around 610 and later migrated to Medina after being persecuted by the Quraysh in 622. After several battles against the Quraysh, Muhammad conquered Mecca in 629, ending his campaign against the tribe.
Musaylimah short for Musaylimah al-Kadhdhāb otherwise known as Maslamah bin Ḥabīb d.633, was a preacher of Hanifism among the Hanafite Banū Ḥanīfah tribe and one of a series of people who claimed prophethood in 7th-century Arabia. He is considered by current Muslims to be a false prophet.
Umayyah ibn Khalaf ibn Safwan whose kunya was Abu Ali, or Abu Safwan, was a Meccan Arab, a leading member of the Quraish and head of Bani Jumah. He was an opponent of the Muslims led by Muhammad and is best known as the master of Bilal ibn Rabah, a slave he tortured for converting to Islam.
The Ridda Wars, or Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes during 632 and 633, just after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. The rebels' position was that they had submitted to Muhammad as the prophet of Allah, but owed nothing to Abu Bakr.
The Banu Nadir were a Jewish Arab tribe who lived in northern Arabia until the 7th century at the oasis of Medina. The tribe challenged Muhammad as the leader of Medina, planned along with allied nomads to attack Muhammad and were expelled from Medina as a result. The Banu Nadir then planned the battle of the Trench together with the Quraysh. They later participated in the battle of Khaybar.
Habib ibn Zayd al-Ansarisahaba and martyr of Islam.
The Banu Qaynuqa was one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. The great-grandfather of Banu Qaynuqa tribe is Qaynuqa ibn Amchel ibn Munshi ibn Yohanan ibn Benjamin ibn Saron ibn Naphtali ibn Hayy ibn Moses and they are descendant of Manasseh ibn Joseph ibn Jacob ibn Isaac son of Abraham. In 624, they were expelled during the Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa, after breaking the treaty known as the Constitution of Medina.
In the Islamic tradition, the Year of Sorrow is the Hijri year in which Muhammad's wife Khadijah and his uncle and protector Abu Talib died. The year approximately coincided with 619 CE or the tenth year after Muhammad's first revelation.
There were several Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad.
Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib also known as Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah and surnamed Abu'l-Qasim. He was the third son of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Imam of Shi'a Muslims and the fourth Caliph of Sunni Muslims.
Ibn an-Nawwahah was a messenger for Musaylimah, a purported prophet during the time of Muhammad who had gained a significant following through his tricks and miracles, teachings and from the fact that he was from Yamamah. Many people of the Rabiah Tribe of Yamamah were greatly hostile to Muhammad and the tribe of Quraish, so in an exchange between a man of the Rabiah tribe and Musaylimah, one man said:
The diplomatic career of Muhammad, the final prophet of Islam, encompasses his leadership over the growing Muslim community (Ummah) in early Arabia and his correspondences with the rulers of other nations in and around Arabia. This period was marked by the change from the customs of the period of Jahiliyyah in pre-Islamic Arabia to an early Islamic system of governance, while also setting the defining principles of Islamic jurisprudence in accordance with Sharia law and an Islamic theocracy.
The second pledge at al-Aqabah was an important event in the mission of the Islamic prophet Muhammad where 75 residents of the settlement of Medina pledged their loyalty to Muhammad as their leader. It preceded the Hegira, or migration of Muhammad and his supporters to Medina where Muhammad became ruler, from Mecca where they were persecuted. The pledge occurred in 622 CE at a mountain pass (al-Aqabah) five kilometers from Mecca.
Banu Hanifa were an ancient Arab tribe inhabiting the area of al-Yamama in the central region of modern-day Saudi Arabia. The tribe belonged to the great Rabi'ah branch of North Arabian tribes, which also included Abdul Qays, Bakr, and Taghlib. Though counted by the classical Arab genealogists as a Christian branch of Bani Bakr, they led an independent existence prior to Islam.
The Expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslamah took place in July, 627 AD in Muharram, 6AH.
The demolition or burning of Masjid al-Dirar , or the Mosque of Dissent, is mentioned in the Qur'an. Masjid al-Dirar was a Medinian mosque that was erected close to the Quba' Mosque and which the Islamic Prophet Muhammad initially approved of but subsequently had destroyed while he was returning from the Expedition to Tabouk. In the main account narrated by the majority of scholars, the mosque was built by twelve disaffected men from the Ansar on the commands of Abu 'Amir al-Rahib; a Hanif who refused Muhammad's invitation to Islam and instead fought along with the Meccan non-Muslims against Islam in the Battle of Uhud. Abu 'Amir reportedly urged his men to establish a stronghold and prepare whatever they can of power and weapons as he promised and insinuated to them that he will lead an army, backed by Heraclius, to fight Muhammad and his companions, and defeat his message by expelling him from Medina. Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri also relates that the men, who built the Al-Dirar mosque "for mischief and for infidelity and to disunite the Believers" refused to pray in Masjid al-Quba claiming that it was built in a place where a donkey used to be tied up.