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Thumamah ibn Uthal (Arabic : ثمامة بن أثال) was chieftain of the Banu Hanifah and one of the rulers of al-Yamamah, making him among the most powerful Arab rulers in pre-Quranic times. In 628 Muhammad sent eight letters to rulers in the Arabian peninsula and surrounding areas inviting them to Islam, including Thumamah. After receiving the letter, he was consumed by anger and resolved to kill Muhammad.
Muhammad was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.
In the pursuit of his designs, Thumamah killed a group of Muhammad's companions. Not long afterwards, Thumamah left al-Yamamah to perform umrah in Mecca and was apprehended by a group of Muslims patrolling the areas surrounding Medina. Unaware of who he was they tied him to a column in the mosque and waited for Muhammad to decide his fate. Muhammad approached Thumamah hoping to encourage him to become a Muslim, but after his refusal he was allowed to leave. Thumamah rode until he came to a palm grove on the outskirts of Medina near al-Baqi' where he watered his camel and washed himself. Then he turned back to Muhammad's mosque and proclaimed his acceptance of Islam, pledging himself and those with him in the service of Muhammad.
The ʿUmrah is an Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Hijaz, Saudi Arabia, performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year, in contrast to the Ḥajj which has specific dates according to the Islamic lunar calendar. In Arabic, ‘Umrah means "to visit a populated place." In the Sharia, Umrah means to perform Tawaf round the Ka‘bah, and Sa'i between Safa and Marwah, both after assuming Ihram. Ihram must be observed once traveling by land and passing a Miqat like Zu 'l-Hulafa, Juhfa, Qarnu 'l-Manāzil, Yalamlam, Zāt-i-'Irq, Ibrahīm Mursīa, or a place in al-Hill. Different conditions exist for air travelers, who must observe Ihram once entering a specific perimeter about the city of Mecca. It is sometimes called the 'minor pilgrimage' or 'lesser pilgrimage', the Hajj being the 'major' pilgrimage which is compulsory for every Muslim who can afford it. The Umrah is not compulsory but highly recommended.
Mecca is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah.
Medina, also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi, which is the burial place of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, and it is one of the two holiest cities in Islam, the other being Mecca.
Muhammad then told him to continue with his plans and perform umrah as prescribed in Islamic rites. When he reached the valley of Mecca, he began shouting in a resonant voice: "Here I am at Your command O Lord, Here I am. Here I am. No partner have You. Here I am. Praise, bounty and Dominion belong to You. No partner have You."
He was thus the first Muslim to enter Mecca reciting the talbiyah. The Quraish heard him and set out to punish the one who had assaulted their preserve. One of them was particularly incensed and was about to shoot Thumamah with an arrow when the others grabbed him and shouted: "Woe to you! Do you know who this is? He is Thumamah ibn Uthal, ruler of al-Yamamah. By God, if you should harm him, his people would cut our supplies, with dire consequences for us."
The Talbiyah is a Muslim prayer invoked by the pilgrims as a conviction that they intend to perform the Hajj only for the glory of Allah. Talbiyah is repeatedly invoked during the Hajj, or pilgrimage, upon putting on the Ihram, so the pilgrims can purify and rid themselves of worldly concerns.
Thumamah finished performing umrah and proclaimed that he followed the religion of Muhammad. He then returned to his land and ordered his people to withhold supplies from the Quraish. The boycott gradually began to have effect, raising prices and causing many to go hungry. Thereupon, the Quraish wrote to Muhammad, asking him to instruct Thumamah to lift the boycott as it violated the treaty of Hudaybiyyah, which he did.
The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was an event that took place during the formation of Islam. It was a pivotal treaty between the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, representing the state of Medina, and the Quraysh tribe of Mecca in March 628. It helped to decrease tension between the two cities, affirmed a 10-year peace, and authorised Muhammad's followers to return the following year in a peaceful pilgrimage, later known as The First Pilgrimage.
When Muhammad died in 632, many Arabs began leaving Islam in great numbers. Musaylamah began calling the Banu Hanifah to believe in him as a prophet. Thumamah confronted him gathered together all those who had remained Muslims and waged jihad against the apostates. The loyal Muslims of Banu Hanifah needed additional help to stand against the armies of Musaylamah. Their arduous task was completed by the forces dispatched by Abu Bakr but at the cost of many Muslim lives.
Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah, popularly known as Abu Bakr, was a companion and—through his daughter Aisha—a father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Battle of Badr, fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE in the Hejaz region of western Arabia, was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca. The battle has been passed down in Islamic history as a decisive victory attributable to divine intervention, or by secular sources to the strategic genius of Muhammad. It is one of the few battles specifically mentioned in the Quran. All knowledge of the battle at Badr comes from traditional Islamic accounts, both hadiths and biographies of Muhammad, recorded in written form some time after the battle. There is little evidence outside of these of the battle. There are no descriptions of the battle prior to the 9th century.
Banū Thaqīf is an Arab tribe that came originally from the Ta'if area, they are a branch of Qays 'Aylan.
The military career of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, lasted for the final ten years of his life, from 622 to 632. After he and his small fellowship were pushed out of the holy trading town of Mecca, controlled by the powerful Quraish tribe, he started an insurgency harassing Meccan caravans. After his first victory in a pitched battle at Badr in 624, his power grew increasingly and he began to subjugate other tribes through either diplomacy or conquest. In 630 he finally accomplished his long-term goal of conquering Mecca and the Kaaba. By his death in 632, Muhammad had managed to unite most of Arabia, laying the foundation for the subsequent Islamic expansion.
This is a timeline of major events in the Muslim world from 601 AD to 700 AD.
Umayyah ibn Khalaf ibn Safwan was a Meccan Arab, a leading member of the Quraish and head of Bani Jumah. He was an opponent of the Muslims led by Muhammad and is best known as the master of Bilal ibn Ribah, a slave he tortured for converting to Islam. Called also as Abu Ali.
The Banu Nadir were a Jewish tribe who lived in northern Arabia until the 7th century at the oasis of Medina. The tribe challenged Muhammad as the leader of Medina, planned along with allied nomads to attack Muhammad and were expelled from Medina as a result. The Banu Nadir then planned the battle of the Trench together with the Quraysh. They later participated in the battle of Khaybar.
Habib ibn Zayd al-Ansari sahaba and martyr of Islam.
The Banu Qaynuqa was one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. In 624, the great-grandfather of Banu Qaynuqa tribe is Qaynuqa ibn Amchel ibn Munshi ibn Yohanan ibn Benjamin ibn Saron ibn Naphtali ibn Hayy ibn Moses and they are descendant of Manasseh ibn Joseph ibn Jacob ibn Isaac son of Abraham. They were expelled during the Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa, after breaking the treaty known as the Constitution of Medina.
There were several Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad.
Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy, also called ibn Salul in reference to his grandmother, was a chief of the Arab tribe Banu Khazraj and one of the leading men of Medina. Upon the arrival of Muhammad, Ibn Ubayy became a Muslim, but the sincerity of his conversion is disputed. Because of repeated conflicts with Muhammad, Islamic tradition has labelled him a Munafiq (hypocrite) and "leader of the Munafiqun".
Al-Akhnas ibn Shurayq al-Thaqifi was a contemporary to Muhammad and one of the leaders of Mecca.
Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib, also known as Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah and surnamed Abu'l-Qasim was an early Muslim leader. He was a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Imam and the fourth Caliph.
Ibn an-Nawwahah was a messenger for Musaylimah, a purported prophet during the time of Muhammad who had gained a significant following through his tricks and miracles, teachings and from the fact that he was from Yamamah. Many people of the Rabiah Tribe of Yamamah were greatly hostile to Muhammad and the tribe of Quraish, so in an exchange between a man of the Rabiah tribe and Musaylimah, one man said:
Muhammad is documented as having engaged as a diplomat during his propagation of Islam and leadership over the growing Muslim Ummah (community). He established a method of communication with other tribal or national leaders through letters, assigned envoys, or by visiting them personally, such as at Ta’if. Instances of written correspondence include letters to Heraclius, the Negus and Khosrau. Although it is likely that Muhammad had initiated contact with other leaders within the Arabian Peninsula, some have questioned whether letters had been sent beyond these boundaries.
Banu Hanifa were an ancient Arab tribe inhabiting the area of al-Yamama in the central region of modern-day Saudi Arabia. The tribe belonged to the great Rabi'ah branch of North Arabian tribes, which also included Abdul Qays, Bakr, and Taghlib. Though counted by the classical Arab genealogists as a Christian branch of Bani Bakr, they led an independent existence prior to Islam.
Banu 'Amir ibn Sa'sa'ah was a large and ancient Arab tribe originating from central and southwestern Arabia that dominated Nejd for centuries after the rise of Islam. The tribe is of North Arabian stock, tracing its lineage to Adnan through Hawazin, and its original homeland was the border area between Nejd and Hejaz in Khurmah and Ranyah. Although the Banu 'Amir were engaged in a long war with the Quraysh before the appearance of Islam, the tribe was characterized by giving late allegiance to Muhammad and his immediate successors. The Banu Amir took part in the Ridda ("apostasy") following Muhammad's death, and instead allied themselves with the Apostates against the Muslims. During that period the tribe produced several well-known Arabic poets, the most famous of whom was Labid ibn Rabi'ah, an author of one of the Seven Hanged Poems. Other poets included 'Amir ibn al-Tufayl, an important tribal chief; al-Ra'i al-Numayri, an opponent of Jarir; and the female poet Layla al-Akhyaliyyah. The protagonists of the romantic saga of Layla wal Majnun, Qays and Layla, also belonged to Banu 'Amir.
The Expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslamah took place in July, 627 AD in Muharram, 6AH.
The demolition or burning of Masjid al-Dirar , located in the Old City of Jerusalem Mosque or the Mosque of Dissent is mentioned in the Qur'an. Masjid al-Dirar was a Medinian mosque that was erected close to the Quba' Mosque and which the Islamic Prophet Muhammad initially approved of but subsequently had destroyed while he was returning from the Expedition to Tabouk. In the main account narrated by the majority of scholars, the mosque was built by twelve disaffected men from the Ansar on the commands of Abu 'Amir al-Rahib; a Christian monk who refused Muhammad's invitation to Islam and instead fought along with the Meccan non-Muslims against Islam in the Battle of Uhud. Abu 'Amir reportedly urged his men to establish a stronghold and prepare whatever they can of power and weapons as he promised and insinuated to them that he will lead an army, backed by Heraclius, to fight Muhammad and his companions, and defeat his message by expelling him from Medina. Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri also relates that the men, who built the Al-Dirar mosque "for mischief and for infidelity and to disunite the Believers" refused to pray in Masjid al-Quba claiming that it was built in a place where a donkey used to be tied up.
Expedition of Hamza ibn 'Abdul-Muttalib, also known as Sif Al-Baḥr platoon was the first expedition sent out by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It was sent in 1 A.H. of the Islamic calendar in the month of Ramadan.