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|St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral|
St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral, Thumpamon.(Thumpamon Valiya Pally)
|Location||Thumpamon, Kerala, India|
|Denomination|| Indian Orthodox Church |
St. Mary's Orthodox Syrian Cathedral (Thumpamon Valiya Pally or തുമ്പമണ് വലിയ പള്ളി or Marthamariyam Badrasana Devalayam )is an Orthodox ancient church located in Thumpamon near Pandalam, Kerala state of India. It is the headquarters of the Thumpamon Diocese of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. The first church was built in AD 717. The Architectural style of the church is Gothic Revival style.
The first church in Thumpamon was built in AD 717, and the structure of that church was not like present one. The first church was a small prayer hall. As the years passed by, the Nazarene population in Thumpamon increased and in AD 900 the old church building was demolished and a much larger building was constructed in its place. Histories of Thumpamon states that in AD 900 (kollavarsham-350) Thumpamon Pally was built and it was the second structure of the church. It was renovated in the year 2017
Between the two centuries, after the construction of the second church the population of Nazarene Christians in Thumpamon had increased considerably. So also, the influx of people from other places continued particularly from Nilakkal. Nilakkal was ravaged by attacks from dacoits led by Fakhuruddin Polygar. As the frequency and intensity by the robber gangs increased, agriculture and trade became disrupted and peaceful life made impossible at Nilakkal. Raja of Pandalam whose capital at that time was Konniyoor near Nilakkal. The Raja also found it impossible to continue his domain at Nilakkal. Hence in AD 1170 (ME 345) the Raja and retinue abandoned Nilakkal and chose Pandalam has headquarters for governing his territory. Consequently the Nazarene in Nilakkal also had to emigrate to other places such as Kanjirappally, Thumpamon and other places.
In AD 1175 to construct a bigger Church building, the Nazarene's of Thumpamon demolished the existing building. At this time, the authorizer of the Thumpamon Vadakkumnatha Temple which cannot desire antiquity prior toAD 950 opposed the reconstruction of the Church on the ground that the Velichappad of the temple had predicted that the construction of a Christian church there would pollute and de-santise the temple. The Raja was very much inclined to favour the Nazarene's as they were hardworking, peace-loving and model adhering to the lofty principles enshrined in Christianity. The Raja and his officers, therefore personally visited Thumpamon and surveyed the land which came with in his jurisdiction and permitted the construction of the church, notwithstanding the opposition of the land records residing nearly Thatta. The foundation for constructing a church building was laid on 15 August 1175 (15th Chingam 350 ME), the feast day of Virgin Mary.
The Christian community in Kerala was one unified flock with one shepherd all through the year till AD 1528 [ citation needed ]. There was no interference in Malankara church by foreign churches. The 105 churches in Malankara existing at this period was headed by the 'Arkidyakon' who was the supreme authority. The administration of the individual churches was carried on by the parish priests assisted by elected lay leaders. Religious dignitaries who visited Malankara acted according to the advice of Arch deacon. Malankara Nazarene Christians were immensely proud of their St. Thomas tradition.
However, the winds of change began with the advent of the Portuguese to Malabar Coast in AD 1498. The Portuguese missionaries found that the local Christians did not recognize the authority of the Church in Rome. The quarrels and internal strife in the Malankara Church began with the attempts made by the Portuguese Missionaries to impose the authority of Rome over the Church. Early attempts made by wily and cunning foreign missionaries to bring the Malankara Nazarenes within the Roman fold were not successful. The situation changed with the coming of Aleixo de Menezes (Archbishop of Goa) to Malankara. The Arch Bishop was deputed with specific instructions to switch the allegiance of the Nazarene's to the Roman Church. He was a shrewd and intelligent person well versed in all types of political intrigues and had no qualms for using military power to achieve his aims. A synod was convened at Udayamperoor (Synod of Diamper) in AD 1599. The venue was well guarded by Portuguese soldiers and the delegates were prevented from communicating with one another. The Portuguese gave a false picture about the practices in the Malankara Church and the delegates were urged to support their move for drastic reforms to bring the Malankara Church in line with the customs and practices of the Church in Rome. At that time Arch Deacon Geevarghese of the cross was the Head of the Malankara Church. Despite the decisions taken at the synod of Udayamperoor (Synod of Diamper), the majority of the Churches in Malankara chose to follow their Arch Deacon. Thereafter, the Arch Bishop visited 27 churches in Malankara to persuade them to toe the Roman line. He visited the St. Mary's Church at Thumpamon too, to bring it under his control. However, this attempt failed and Nazarene Christians in Thumpamon followed their original order of worship.
The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (MOSC) also known as the Malankara Church and the Indian Orthodox Church, is an autocephalous church based in Kerala, India. Part of Oriental Orthodoxy, it is one of the oldest Christian communities in Asia. The church serves India's Saint Thomas Christian population. According to tradition, the church originated in the missions of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.
The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, or Church of Malabar Syrian Catholics, is an Eastern Catholic Major Archiepiscopal Church based in Kerala, India. It is an autonomous particular church in full communion with the pope and the worldwide Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (CCEO). The Church is headed by the Metropolitan and Gate of all India Major Archbishop George Cardinal Alencherry. The Syro-Malabar Synod of Bishops canonically convoked and presided over by the Major Archbishop constitutes the supreme authority of the Church. Officially known as the Syro-Malabar Church, Syro-Malabar is a prefix coined from the words Syriac as the church employs the East Syriac Rite liturgy, and Malabar which is the historical name for modern Kerala. The name has been in usage in official Vatican documents since the nineteenth century.
The Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, often shortened to Mar Thoma Church, and known also as the Reformed Syrian Church and the Mar Thoma Syrian Church of Malabar, is an autonomous Reformed Oriental church based in Kerala, India. While continuing many of the Syriac high church practices, the church is reformed in its theology and doctrines. It employs a reformed variant of the West Syriac Rite Divine Liturgy of Saint James, translated to Malayalam.
The Synod of Diamper, held at Udayamperoor in 1599, known as Diamper in non-vernacular sources, was a diocesan synod, or council, that created rules and regulations for the ancient Saint Thomas Christians of the Malabar Coast, a part of modern-day Kerala state, India, formally subjugating them and their whole Archdiocese of Angamaly to the Archdiocese of Goa administered by Padroado missionaries. This led to the permanent schism among the St. Thomas' Christians of India after 53 years, leading to the formation of Puthenkoor and Pazhayakoor factions. The Pazhayakoor comprises of the present day Syro-Malabar Church and Chaldean Syrian Church which continues to employ the East Syriac Rite (Babilonian/Persian) liturgy. About 50 years later, through the Coonan Cross Oath (1653), the Puthenkoor faction that resisted Rome and Padroado dominance entered into communion with the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch to form the Malankara Church. The faction that continued communion with Rome (Syro-Malabar) was known as Pazhayakoottukar and the Malankara faction that turned to Orthodoxy was known as Puthenkoottukar. The descendant churches of the Malankara Church include the Malankara Syriac Orthodox Church, the Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, the Malabar Independent Syrian Church, the Malankara Marthoma Syrian Church, and the Malankara Syrian Catholic Church ; all employing the West Syriac Rite liturgy.
The Coonan Cross Oath, taken on 3 January 1653, was a public avowal by members of the Saint Thomas Christians community of modern-day Kerala, India that they would not submit to the Jesuits of the St. Paul's Monastery and Latin Catholic Portuguese Padroado dominance in ecclesiastical and secular life.
Mar Thoma I, also known as "Valiya Mar Thoma", is the first native democratically elected/selected Metropolitan bishop of the St Thomas Christians or Malankara Church. He was the last Archdeacon of the undivided St. Thomas Christians of Malabar. After the death of Archdeacon George of the Cross on 25 July 1640, Parambil Thoma Kathanar was elected and enthroned as new Archdeacon, when he was less than 30 years old. He led the Church to the Coonan Cross Oath on 3 January 1653 and to the subsequent schism in Saint Thomas Christians Church. After the Coonen Cross Oath, he was elected as a Bishop by Malankara (Yogam) Association and consecrated as a Bishop at St. Mary's Church Alangad, by laying hands of 12 priests on 22 May 1653. Only two Southist churches of Kaduthuruthy and Udayamperoor and a very few people elsewhere refused to recognise him as Bishop. Any how, the archdeacon began to exercise powers of episcopal order, though he openly tried to regularize his episcopal consecration as a Bishop from the Church of Antioch. His episcopal consecration as a Bishop was regularized in the year 1665 by Mar Gregorios Abdal Jaleel the Patriarchal delegate of the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch.(The exact date and place of this event is anonymous).
Kulanada is a village in Pandalam, that is located in the district of Pathanamthitta bordering with Alappuzha district in Kerala state within India. Kulanada assumed its name from the combination of words "Kulam" and "Nada". Kulam meaning pond and Nada meaning the temple where the king of Pandalam worshiped.
The Jacobite Syrian Christian Church (JSCC), also known as the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, the Jacobite Syrian Church, or the Syriac Orthodox Church of India, is an autonomous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Indian state of Kerala, and is an integral branch of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch. It recognizes the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and All the East, Ignatius Aphrem II is Supreme Head of the church. It functions as a largely autonomous unit within the church, under the authority of the Catholicos of India, Thomas I. Currently, this is the only church in Malankara which has a direct relationship with the Syriac Christians of Antioch, which has continued from after the schism and it continues to employ the West Syriac Rite Liturgy of Saint James.
Kannamcode Cathedral or Kannamcode St. Thomas Orthodox Cathedral is one of the oldest churches in Central Travancore. The church belongs to the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church under 'Adoor-Kadampanad' diocese. Kannamcode Cathedral is situated in Adoor, a town in Pathanamthitta district of the Indian state of Kerala. Adoor has a large population of Syrian Christians. Christianity in this locality has a tradition of more than a millennium and a half years, beginning from the village of Kadampanad. St. Thomas Orthodox Cathedral, Kannamcode, a very old Church in central Travancore, has a history of approximately 900 years, belonging to the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church under 'Adoor-Kadampanad' diocese. Kannamcode. At Kadampanad the age of early Christian community dates back to 4th century A.D about two centuries later than the arrival of St. Thomas on the Kerala coast. Prior to the building of this church, the Christian community had to depend on near-by churches - Thumpamon Orthodox Church and third Kannamcode Cathedral to full fill their Christian services and spiritual needs. The people had to walk quite a bit of distance to attend church services and return to their village and it appeared to be tedious. Upon getting necessary permission and support from the local Hindu kings of Kayankulam, at last, a church came into being then called Veerappallil Yakoba Palli", later renamed as Kannamcode St. Thomas Orthodox Church. The same church is presently known as Kannamcode St. Thomas Orthodox Cathedral.
St. John The Baptist is a Malankara Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church church situated in South Parur, a village located on southern border of Ernakulam District, Kerala, India. This area is landmarked by the busy Kottayam-Ernakulam Road.
Mar Thoma IV was the fourth bishop who was the 4th Malankara Metropolitan of Malankara Church in India in 1688–1728 and 99th Successor to the Holy Apostolic Throne of St.Thomas. During his period the church passed through a number of persecutions.
Thumpamon is a village at Pandalam in Adoor thaluk in Kerala, India. One of the greatest attractions of this village is the Achenkovil River, which is known for its natural sceneries along the riverbank. The village relies on Non-resident Indian (NRIs) and crops like rubber, coconut, paddy and pepper. Because of Non-Resident Indians, this is one of the wealthiest villages in Kerala. Thumpamon is divided into two regions, Thumpamon North and Thumpamon South, by the Achenkovil River.
Palliveettil Mar Chandy became the first Indian-born native Saint Thomas Christian Bishop of the East Syriac Rite (Chaldaean) hierarchy after the Coonan Cross Oath in 1653. This faction became in full communion with the Holy See of Rome, it would later become the modern-day Eastern Catholic Syro-Malabar Catholic Church which is also colloquially known as the Roman Catholic Syrian Church (RCSC). Mar Chandy's tomb is at the Marth Mariam Major Archiepiscopal Church at Kuravilangad.
The Saint Thomas Christian denominations are traditional Christian denominations from Kerala, India, who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. They are also known as "Nasranis" as well. The Syriac term "Nasrani" is still used by St. Thomas Christians in Kerala.
Kandanad Valiyapally aka St. Mary's Orthodox Syrian Cathedral is a prominent church in the Kandanad village of Ernakulam District of Kerala. This Church believed to be built around AD 4th century, belongs to Kandanad West Diocese of Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church.
Several historical evidences shed light on a significant Malankara–Persia relationship that spanned centuries. While a fraternal relationship existed between Malankara and Persia in the earlier centuries, closer ecclesiastical ties developed as early as 15th century and endured until the Portuguese colonial invasion of Malabar in 16th century. The Christians who came under the two ancient yet distinct lineages of Malankara (India) and Persia had one factor in common: their Saint Thomas heritage. The Church of the East shared communion with the Great Church until the Council of Ephesus in the 5th century, separating primarily over differences in Christology.
St. Mary's Church or Marth Maryam Cathedral is a valiyapally situated in Kothamangalam town of India. It is located in Ernakulam district of Kerala state, India.
St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Church, Angamaly of Jacobite Syrian Church is believed to be built in AD 409 and is the first church built in Angamaly. It is an ancient church and one of the most prominent churches in Kerala. It was the seat of the Archdeacon, the local head of the Malankara Church and hence held an important position in Malankara for many centuries.
There are many places of worship in the town of Piravom in the Indian state of Kerala, catering for the Hindu and Christian faiths. Religious festivals are also celebrated.
Arthat St Mary's Orthodox Cathedral a.k.a. Arthat Valiyapally also called Paloor-Chattukulangara Church is an ancient church located in Arthat village of Thalapilly Taluk, one mile south of Kunnamkulam town, Thrissur, Kerala, India.This is the first and the oldest church in India founded in AD 52. This church is also known as Chattukulangara pally. It is believed that this church is the most ancient church in this region and is one of the Seven and Half church founded by St Thomas Apostle in AD 52. This church did not participate in the Synod of Diamper. During the invasion of Tippu Sultan the church was arsoned and later reconstructed.