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|St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral|
St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral, Thumpamon.(Thumpamon Valiya Pally)
|Location||Thumpamon, Kerala, India|
|Denomination|| Indian Orthodox Church |
|Tradition||Malayalam Syrian &Portuguese|
St. Mary's Orthodox Syrian Cathedral (Thumpamon Valiya Pally or തുമ്പമണ് വലിയ പള്ളി or Marthamariyam Badrasana Devalayam )is an ancient church located in Thumpamon near Pandalam, Kerala state of India. It is the headquarters of the Thumpamon Diocese of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. The first church was built in AD 717. The Architectural style of the church is Gothic Revival style.
Thumpamon is a village near Pandalam in Kerala, India. One of the greatest attractions of this village is the Achenkovil River, which is known for its natural sceneries along the riverbank. The village relies on Non-resident Indian (NRIs) and crops like rubber, coconut, paddy and pepper. Because of Non-Resident Indians, this is one of the wealthiest villages in Kerala. Thumpamon is divided into two regions, Thumpamon North and Thumpamon South, by the Achenkovil River.
Pandalam is a municipal town in Pathanamthitta district of Kerala, India. Among the fastest growing towns, Pandalam is considered a holy town due to its connection with Lord Ayyappa and Sabarimala. It is also a renowned educational and health care centre in central Travancore. Rightly recognised as the educational and cultural headquarters of Central Travancore, Pandalam hosts educational institutions ranging from reputed schools to post graduate, training, ayurveda, and engineering colleges. There are seven colleges and 23 schools at Pandalam, including N. S. S. College, Pandalam. The Kerala state government plans to make the place a special Township, by including the Pandalam municipality and Kulanada panchayat.
Kerala is a state on the southwestern Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.
The first church in Thumpamon was built in AD 717, and the structure of that church was not like present one. The first church was a small prayer hall. As the years passed by, the Nazarene population in Thumpamon increased and in AD 900 the old church building was demolished and a much larger building was constructed in its place. Histories of Thumpamon states that in AD 900 (kollavarsham-350) Thumpamon Pally was built and it was the second structure of the church. It was renovated in the year 2017
Between the two centuries, after the construction of the second church the population of Nazarene Christians in Thumpamon had increased considerably. So also, the influx of people from other places continued particularly from Nilakkal. Nilakkal was ravaged by attacks from dacoits led by Fakhuruddin Polygar. As the frequency and intensity by the robber gangs increased, agriculture and trade became disrupted and peaceful life made impossible at Nilakkal. Raja of Pandalam whose capital at that time was Konniyoor near Nilakkal. The Raja also found it impossible to continue his domain at Nilakkal. Hence in AD 1170 (ME 345) the Raja and retinue abandoned Nilakkal and chose Pandalam has headquarters for governing his territory. Consequently the Nazarene in Nilakkal also had to emigrate to other places such as Kanjirappally, Thumpamon and other places.
Kanjirappally is a taluk and a town in Kottayam district situated about 38 km (24 mi) away from the district capital, in the state of Kerala, India. National Highway connects Kanjirapally to major nearest cities. Kanjirappally, also known as the Gateway of Highrange since it is the geographic entrance to the 'Malanad' or the Hill country of Kerala, which extends to Idukki district and then to Tamil Nadu. Kanjirapally is one of the most busiest towns in kottayam district. It is a part of the Palai city metro. A new airport has been proposed which is near to kanjirapally in Erumeli.
In AD 1175 to construct a bigger Church building, the Nazarene's of Thumpamon demolished the existing building. At this time, the authorizer of the Thumpamon Vadakkumnatha Temple which cannot desire antiquity prior toAD 950 opposed the reconstruction of the Church on the ground that the Velichappad of the temple had predicted that the construction of a Christian church there would pollute and de-santise the temple. The Raja was very much inclined to favour the Nazarene's as they were hardworking, peace-loving and model adhering to the lofty principles enshrined in Christianity. The Raja and his officers, therefore personally visited Thumpamon and surveyed the land which came with in his jurisdiction and permitted the construction of the church, notwithstanding the opposition of the land records residing nearly Thatta. The foundation for constructing a church building was laid on 15 August 1175 (15th Chingam 350 ME), the feast day of Virgin Mary.
Thumpamon Vadakkumnatha Temple is an ancient temple near Pandalam in Kerala, India. This temple has two Sreekovils. Both Sreekovils are round (vatta). It is an age old temple whispering several fascinating legendary fables of the bygone eras.
The Christian community in Kerala was one unified flock with one shepherd all through the year till AD 1528 [ citation needed ]. There was no interference in Malankara church by foreign churches. The 105 churches in Malankara existing at this period was headed by the Arch Deacon who was the supreme authority. The administration of the individual churches was carried on by the parish priests assisted by elected lay leaders. Religious dignitaries who visited Malankara acted according to the advice of Arch deacon. Malankara Nazarene Christians were immensely proud of their St. Thomas tradition.
However, the winds of change began with the advent of the Portuguese to Malabar Coast in AD 1498. The Portuguese missionaries found that the local Christians did not recognize the authority of the Church in Rome. The quarrels and internal strife in the Malankara Church began with the attempts made by the Portuguese Missionaries to impose the authority of Rome over the Church. Early attempts made by wily and cunning foreign missionaries to bring the Malankara Nazarenes within the Roman fold were not successful. The situation changed with the coming of Aleixo de Menezes (Archbishop of Goa) to Malankara. The Arch Bishop was deputed with specific instructions to switch the allegiance of the Nazarene's to the Roman Church. He was a shrewd and intelligent person well versed in all types of political intrigues and had no qualms for using military power to achieve his aims. A synod was convened at Udayamperoor (Synod of Diamper) in AD 1599. The venue was well guarded by Portuguese soldiers and the delegates were prevented from communicating with one another. The Portuguese gave a false picture about the practices in the Malankara Church and the delegates were urged to support their move for drastic reforms to bring the Malankara Church in line with the customs and practices of the Church in Rome. At that time Arch Deacon Geevarghese of the cross was the Head of the Malankara Church. Despite the decisions taken at the synod of Udayamperoor (Synod of Diamper), the majority of the Churches in Malankara chose to follow their Arch Deacon. Thereafter, the Arch Bishop visited 27 churches in Malankara to persuade them to toe the Roman line. He visited the St. Mary's Church at Thumpamon too, to bring it under his control. However, this attempt failed and Nazarene Christians in Thumpamon followed their original order of worship.
Archbishop Aleixo de Menezes or Alexeu de Jesu de Meneses was Catholic Archbishop of Goa, Archbishop of Braga, Portugal, and Viceroy of Portugal during the Philippine Dynasty.
Udayamperoor is a town situated in Ernakulam district, Kerala, in India.
The Synod of Diamper, held at Udayamperoor, was a diocesan synod or council that laid down rules and regulations for the ancient Saint Thomas Christians of the Malabar Coast, formally uniting them with the Catholic Church. This led to the creation of the Eastern Catholic Syro-Malabar Church, which follows a Latinized East Syriac Rite liturgy.
The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, also known as the Indian Orthodox Church, is an autocephalous church centered in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the churches of India's Saint Thomas Christian community, which has its origin in the evangelical activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. The church is headed by the autocephalous Catholicos of the East and the Malankara Metropolitan, presently Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II.
The Mar Thoma Church, often shortened from Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, is a Western Syriac Christian Reformed Oriental Church based in Kerala, India. The Mar Thoma Church believes that they are the successors of the Saint Thomas Christian community of Malabar (Malankara), which originated from the missionary activity of Thomas the Apostle in Malankara. The Church in Malankara flourished under various ecclesiastical faith streams from time to time.
The Coonan Cross Oath, taken on 3 January 1653, was a public avowal by members of the Saint Thomas Christian community of Kerala, India that they would not submit to Latin Catholic dominance in ecclesiastical and secular life. The swearing of the oath at Mattancherry was a major event in the history of the Saint Thomas Christian community and marked a major turning point in its relations with the Latin Catholics. The oath resulted in the breaking up of 54 years of Latin Catholic Padroado (Patronage) Jurisdiction over the St Thomas Christians, started with the synod of Diamper in the year 1599 A.D. convoked by the Latin Catholic Archbishop Dom Alexio De Menezes.
Mar Thoma I, also known as "Valiya Mar Thoma", is the first native democratically elected/selected Metropolitan bishop of the St Thomas Christians or Malankara Church. He was the last Archdeacon of the undivided St.Thomas Christians of Malabar. After the death of Archdeacon George of the Cross(കുരിശിങ്ങൽ ജോർജ്)( Kurisingal being his house name), on 25 July 1640, Parambil Thoma kathanar was elected and enthroned as new Archdeacon, when he was less than 30 years old. He led the Church to the Coonan Cross Oath on 3 January 1653 and to the subsequent schism in Saint Thomas Christians Church. After the Coonen Cross Oath, he was elected as a Bishop by Malankara (Yogam) Association and consecrated as a Bishop at St. Mary's Church Alangad, by laying hands of 12 priests on 22 May 1653. Only two Southist churches of Kaduthuruthy and Udayamperoor and a very few people elsewhere refused to recognise him as Bishop. Any how, the archdeacon began to exercise powers of episcopal order, though he openly tried to regularize his episcopal consecration as a Bishop from the Church of Antioch. His episcopal consecration as a Bishop was regularized in the year 1665 by Mar Gregorios Abdal Jaleel the Patriarchal delegate of the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch.(The exact date and place of this event is anonymous).
The Jacobite Syrian Christian Church also known as the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, or the Syriac Orthodox Church of India, is an autonomous Oriental Orthodox Church based in the Indian state of Kerala, and is an integral branch of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch. It recognizes the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch Of Antioch and all the East, currently Moran Mor Ignatius Aphrem II seated in the Cathedral of Saint George, Bab Tuma, Damascus, Syria, as its Supreme Head. It functions as a largely autonomous unit within the church, under the authority of the Catholicos of India, currently Aboon Mor Baselios Thomas I. Currently, this is the only church in Malankara which has a direct relationship with the Syriac Christians of Antioch, which has continued from after the schism and they continue to use West Syriac Rite.
Kannamcode Cathedral or Kannamcode St. Thomas Orthodox Cathedral is one of the oldest churches in Central Travancore. The church belongs to the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church under 'Adoor-Kadampanad' diocese. Kannamcode Cathedral is situated in Adoor, a town in Pathanamthitta district of the Indian state of Kerala. Adoor has a large population of Syrian Christians. Christianity in this locality has a tradition of more than a millennium and a half years, beginning from the village of Kadampanad. St. Thomas Orthodox Cathedral, Kannamcode, a very old Church in central Travancore, has a history of approximately 900 years, belonging to the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church under 'Adoor-Kadampanad' diocese. Kannamcode. At Kadampanad the age of early Christian community dates back to 4th century A.D about two centuries later than the arrival of St. Thomas on the Kerala coast. Prior to the building of this church, the Christian community had to depend on near-by churches - Thumpamon Orthodox Church and third Kannamcode Cathedral to full fill their Christian services and spiritual needs. The people had to walk quite a bit of distance to attend church services and return to their village and it appeared to be tedious. Upon getting necessary permission and support from the local Hindu kings of Kayankulam, at last, a church came into being then called Veerappallil Yakoba Palli", later renamed as Kannamcode St. Thomas Orthodox Church. The same church is presently known as Kannamcode St. Thomas Orthodox Cathedral.
St. John The Baptist is a Malankara Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church church situated in South Parur, a village located on southern border of Ernakulam District, Kerala, India. This area is landmarked by the busy Kottayam-Ernakulam Road.
Mar Thoma IV was the fourth bishop who was the Malankara Metropolitan of Malankara Church in India in 1688–1728. During his period the church passed through a number of persecutions.
Athanasious Paulose popularly known as 'Valiya Thirumeni', was the Metropolitan of the Jacobite Syrian Church for nearly four decades. Valiya Thirumeni was the founder of many spiritual organizations in the church like the Sunday School Association, the Mar Gregorios Students movement, the Brotherhood of St. Antonios and the St. Mary's Sisterhood. Consecrated as Metropolitan for the Angamaly diocese in 1910 by Patriarch Ignatius Abded Aloho II, he became the Malankara Metropolitan of the Malankara Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church in 1918, until his death on 25 January 1953 at the age of 84.
The Saint Thomas Christian denominations are traditional Christian denominations from Kerala, India, who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. They are also known as "Nasranis" as well. The Syriac term "Nasrani" is still used by St. Thomas Christians in Kerala.
Niranam Pally, popularly known as Niranam Valiya Pally or St. Mary's Orthodox Syrian Church, Niranam, is a church under the Niranam Diocese of the Indian Orthodox Church founded by Thomas the Apostle one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, in AD 54.
Several historic evidences are available which show Malankara-Persia relations. Foreign connection with the Church of the East endured until the 16th century. The Christians who came under the two ancient yet distinct lineages of Malankara (India) and Persia had one factor in common: their Saint Thomas heritage.
The Holy Girdle, also known as the Girdle of Thomas, Holy Girdle of Mary, Holy Soonoro, (or) Zunoro, and Holy Belt of Saint Mary the mother of Jesus, is a relic of the Blessed Virgin Mary which is one of the important relics of Syriac Orthodox Church and venerated by Oriental Orthodox Communion. The word "soonoro" is also translated as "belt", "sash" or "girdle". It is the Oriental Orthodox equivalent of the Girdle of Thomas in the Western church, and the Cincture of the Theotokos in the Eastern Orthodox Church, now located at Mount Athos.
St.Mary's Church or Marth Maryam Cathedral is a Valiyapally situated in Kothamangalam town of India. It is located in Ernakulam district of Kerala state, India.
St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Church, Angamaly is believed to be built in AD 409 and is the first church built in Angamaly. It is an ancient church and one of the most prominent churches in Kerala. It was the seat of the Archdeacon, the local head of the Malankara Church and hence held an important position in Malankara for many centuries.
There are many places of worship in the town of Piravom in the Indian state of Kerala, catering for the Hindu and Christian faiths. Religious festivals are also celebrated.
Arthat St Mary's Orthodox Cathedral aka Arthat Valiyapally also called Paloor-Chattukulangara Church is an ancient church located in Arthat village of Thalapilly Taluk, one mile south of Kunnamkulam town, Thrissur, Kerala, India.This is the oldest church in India founded in AD 52. This church is also known as Chattukulangara pally. It is believed that this church is the most ancient church in this region and is one of the Seven and Half church founded by St Thomas Apostle in AD 52. This church did not participate in the Synod of Diamper. During the invasion of Tippu Sultan the church was arsoned and later reconstructed.
St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral, Piravom, also known as Piravom Valiyapally is the most ancient and prominent Cathedral Church of the Malankara Orthodox Church in Kerala, India. The church stands on a hilltop on the eastern bank of the Muvattupuzha river at Piravom, 35 km. east of Kochi. It is widely known as the Rajakkalude Pally, as well as the Martha Maryam pally. It is a pilgrimage center for Syrian Christians in Kerala.