Thumrait is a small town and wilayat (province) of the Dhofar Governorate in southern Oman. [ citation needed ] Frankincense trees, an important crop, used to grow in greater abundance in Thumrait than now. The main occupation of the people of Thumrait is the cultivation of fruit, vegetables and animal fodder.[ citation needed ]In ancient times Thumrait was an important point on the Arabian peninsula's caravan routes.
The administrative division of Oman contains Eleven Governorates (muhafazah):
The Dhofar Governorate is the largest of the eleven Governorates in the Sultanate of Oman in terms of area. It lies in Southern Oman, on the eastern border with Yemen's Al Mahrah Governorate. It is a rather mountainous area that covers 99,300 km2 (38,300 sq mi) and has a population of 249,729 as of the 2010 census. The largest city, as well as capital of the Governorate, is Salalah. Historically, the region was the chief source of frankincense in the world. The local variety of Arabic is Dhofari Arabic, which is quite distinct from that of the rest of Oman and from Yemen.
Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman, is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Its official religion is Islam.
Thumrait is notable for its Royal Air Force of Oman station. Originally an oil depot, RAFO Thumrait was created to establish air power in that region of Oman. The first Omani air unit based at Thumrait, equipped with Hawker Hunter FG.9 aircraft, was tasked with ground attack and intercept missions. 12 new SEPECAT Jaguar fighter-bombers were added to the base's complement to improve attack capabilities in 1977.
The Royal Air Force of Oman is the air arm of the Armed Forces of Oman
RAFO Thumrait air base is a military airport located near Thumrait, a town in Dhofar Governorate, Oman. The United States Air Force is a major current tenant of Thumrait Air Base.
The Hawker Hunter is a transonic British jet-powered fighter aircraft that was developed by Hawker Aircraft for the Royal Air Force (RAF) during the late 1940s and early 1950s. It was designed to take advantage of the newly developed Rolls-Royce Avon turbojet engine and the swept wing, and was the first jet-powered aircraft produced by Hawker to be procured by the RAF. On 7 September 1953, the modified first prototype broke the world air speed record for aircraft, achieving a speed of 727.63 mph.
RAFO Thumrait has been used by US, UK and Allied air forces to support operations during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm around the time of the Gulf War, and later in Global War on Terror operations in Afghanistan. Many current such operations now operate from Muscat International Airport, which is closer to the area of operations.
The Gulf War, codenamed Operation Desert Shield for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pricing and production disputes. The war is also known under other names, such as the Persian Gulf War, First Gulf War, Gulf War I, Kuwait War, First Iraq War or Iraq War, before the term "Iraq War" became identified instead with the 2003 Iraq War.
Muscat International Airport, formerly Seeb International Airport, is the main international airport in Oman and is situated 32 km from the old city and capital Muscat within the Muscat metropolitan area. The airport serves as the hub for flag carrier Oman Air and Oman's first budget airline Salam Air features flights to several regional destinations as well as some intercontinental services to Asia, Africa and Europe.
In 2009, Indian Air Force pilots of ‘Flaming Arrows’ and ‘Cobras’, the two SEPECAT Jaguar Squadrons participated in joint exercises called ‘Eastern Bridge’ alongside the Royal Air Force of Oman (RAFO)'s force of SEPECAT Jaguars and General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcons at Thumrait Air Base. A subsequent Indo-Omani exercise, ‘Eastern Bridge-II,’ took place in 2011 at Indian Air Force Station Jamnagar (Gujarat).
The Indian Air Force (IAF) is the air arm of the Indian Armed Forces. Its complement of personnel and aircraft assets ranks fourth amongst the airforces of the world. Its primary mission is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during armed conflict. It was officially established on 8 October 1932 as an auxiliary air force of the British Empire which honoured India's aviation service during World War II with the prefix Royal. After India gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, the name Royal Indian Air Force was kept and served in the name of Dominion of India. With the government's transition to a Republic in 1950, the prefix Royal was removed after only three years.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force (USAF). Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,500 aircraft have been built since production was approved in 1976. Although no longer being purchased by the U.S. Air Force, improved versions are being built for export customers. In 1993, General Dynamics sold its aircraft manufacturing business to the Lockheed Corporation, which in turn became part of Lockheed Martin after a 1995 merger with Martin Marietta.
Thumrait has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with very hot summers and warm winters. There is very little rainfall; some rain may occur from February to April, as well as June to August due to the monsoon.
The desert climate, is a climate in which there is an excess of evaporation over precipitation. The typically bald, rocky, or sandy surfaces in desert climates hold little moisture and evaporate the little rainfall they receive. Covering 14.2% of earth's land area, hot deserts may be the most common type of climate on earth.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase. The term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains, although these rains meet the dictionary definition of monsoon.
|Climate data for Thumrait|
|Record high °C (°F)||32.6|
|Average high °C (°F)||25.7|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||18.6|
|Average low °C (°F)||10.8|
|Record low °C (°F)||1.6|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||0.7|
|Average relative humidity (%)||54||53||46||41||43||44||63||58||51||41||47||54||50|
|Source: NOAA (1980-1990)|
The SEPECAT Jaguar is a British-French jet attack aircraft originally used by the British Royal Air Force and the French Air Force in the close air support and nuclear strike role. It is still in service in significantly upgraded form with the Indian Air Force.
The United States Central Command is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command of the U.S. Department of Defense. It was established in 1983, taking over the previous responsibilities of the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force (RDJTF).
The former Royal Air Force Station Brüggen, more commonly known as RAF Brüggen, in Germany was a major station of the Royal Air Force until 15 June 2001. It was situated next to the village of Elmpt, approximately 43 kilometres (27 mi) west of Düsseldorf near the Dutch-German border. The base was named after the village of Brüggen, the nearest rail depot. Construction began in mid-1952, which involved the clearing of forest and draining of marshland. The station became active in 1953 during the rapid expansion of NATO forces in Europe. In 2002, it was handed over to the British Army and renamed Javelin Barracks.
The Sultan's Armed Forces (SAF) — Arabic: القوات المسلحة لسلطان عمان, transliterated:al-Quwāt ul-Musallaḥatu lis-Sulṭān ‘Umān) are the Royal Army of Oman, Royal Navy of Oman, Royal Air Force of Oman, Sultan's Special Forces and other defense forces of the Sultanate of Oman. Since their formal establishment in the early 1950s, with British assistance SAF has twice overcome insurgencies which have threatened the integrity or social structure of the state, and more recently have contributed contingents or facilities to coalitions formed to protect the Persian Gulf states.
Masirah Island, also referred to as Mazeira Island and Wilāyat Maṣīrah, is an island off the east coast of mainland Oman in the Arabian Sea, and the largest island of the country. It is 95 km (59 mi) long north-south, between 12 and 14 km wide, with an area of about 649 km², and a population estimated at 12,000 in 12 villages mainly in the north of the island. Administratively, it forms one of the eleven provinces of the Ash Sharqiyah Region. The principal village is Raʾs-Ḥilf in the northern part of the island. It contains a Royal Air Force of Oman air base and a fish factory, as well as a few small towns. Previously, the BBC had a relay facility consisting of both HF and MF broadcasting transmitters stationed there. Most of the island's interior is deserted, with access to the island only possible by a small ferry for cars or by Royal Air Force of Oman Airbus A320 or Lockheed C-130 Hercules flights.
The Ambala Air Force Station is an air base east of the urban Ambala area. It is used for military and government flights. It is also used to fly in politicians and other key people.
The Jamnagar Airport, officially known as Civil Enclave Jamnagar, is an airport in Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. It is owned by the Indian Air Force and also permits both commercial as well as private flights. The Jaguar squadron based in Jamnagar was awarded best squadron by Air Chief Marshal, and the Jamnagar base was awarded the 'Best Flying Station' for the year 2006. It is the only airport in Gujarat which has two runways.
No. 6 Squadron (Dragons) is a fighter squadron and is equipped with Jaguar IM/IS and based at Jamnagar Air Force Station.
The No. 224 Squadron (Warlords) of the IAF is an Air Defence unit based at Jamnagar AFS. It was temporarily disbanded in 2007 after the retirement of MiG-23 MF aircraft. The unit was resurrected in 2008 with Jaguar Darin II aircraft and continues to operate from Jamnagar.
Gorakhpur Airport is an airport located in Gorakhpur, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Airports Authority of India operates it as a civil enclave at the Gorakhpur Air Force Station of the Indian Air Force. From the city the airport is 5 miles (8.0 km). The airport covers an area of 0.71 acres. In June 2017, the Civil Terminal building was inaugurated by Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Yogi Adityanath. It will be expanded in the following months together with a conveyor belt.
India–Oman relations are foreign relations between the Republic of India and the Sultanate of Oman. India has an embassy in Muscat, Oman. An Indian consulate was opened in Muscat in February 1955 which was upgraded to a consulate general in 1960 and later into a full-fledged embassy in 1971. The first ambassador of India arrived in Muscat in 1973. Oman established its embassy in New Delhi in 1972 and a consulate general in Mumbai in 1976. India and Oman have had trade and people-to-people ties for several millennia. Oman is home to a large Indian expatriate community and for Oman, India is an important trading partner. Politically, Oman has been supportive of India's bid for permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council.
No. 14 Squadron (Bulls), is a ground attack unit, operating out of AFS Ambala. The squadron currently operates SEPECAT Jaguar IS and IBs, operational since March 1981.
No. 16 Squadron Indian Air Force , is a counter-air and interdiction unit, operating out of AFS Gorakhpur.
No. 27 Squadron IAF is a Ground-Attack and Close Air Support squadron of the Indian Air Force, operating from Gorakhpur AFS, under Central Air Command.
Air Marshal Jasbir Walia PVSM, VM, VSM, ADC is the current commander-in-chief of Strategic Forces Command of the Indian Armed Forces since 1 August 2016. Commissioned into the Indian Air Force in 1979, Walia has held several important appointments as a commanding officer, at Air Headquarters, at the headquarters of various commands of the Indian Air Force (IAF), as an attaché, and has also served as an instructor and as a deputy commandant of various training academies.
Theatre Level Readiness and Operational Exercise (TROPEX) is an inter-service military exercise involving the participation of the Indian Army, Air Force, Navy and the Coast Guard. The exercise generally commences at the beginning of each year and lasts a month. It is generally carried out in three phrases: independent workup phase, joint workup phase and tactical phase.
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