|Location||Alpena County, Michigan|
|Surface elevation||581 feet (177 m)|
Thunder Bay is a bay in the U.S. state of Michigan on Lake Huron. The bay extends from North Point atto South Point at .
Both headland and bay are two coastal features that are related and often found on the same coastline. A bay is a body of water—usually seawater and sometimes fresh water— mostly surrounded by land, whereas a headland is surrounded by water on three sides. Headlands are characterized by breaking waves, rocky shores, intense erosion and steep sea cliffs. Bays generally have less wave activity and typically have sandy beaches. Headlands and bays form on discordant coastlines, where the land consists of bands of rock of alternating resistance that run perpendicular to the coast.
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. Its name originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, and is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River. Its capital is Lansing, and its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's most populous and largest metropolitan economies.
The city of Alpena lies at the mouth of the Thunder Bay River at. The entire bay lies within Alpena County, with Alpena Township in the north and Sanborn Township in the south.
Alpena is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Alpena County. It is considered to be part of northern Michigan. The Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary is located in the city. The population was 10,483 at the 2010 census. The population swells with many visitors in the summer.
The Thunder Bay River is a 75.4-mile-long (121.3 km) river in the U.S. state of Michigan. It drains much of Alpena County and Montmorency County, and a small portion of Oscoda County, into Thunder Bay on the eastern side of northern Michigan. The mouth of the river is in the heart of downtown Alpena and is guarded by the Alpena Light Station.
Alpena County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,598. The county seat is Alpena. It is considered to be part of Northern Michigan.
Several islands in the bay are protected as part of the Michigan Islands National Wildlife Refuge. Thunder Bay Island lies just east of North Point outside the bay. The wildlife in the Bay's waters are protected as part of the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary.
The Michigan Islands National Wildlife Refuge is a designation for eight Michigan islands in the North American Great Lakes. Owned by the United States federal government, they were set aside for ecosystem protection purposes by President Franklin D. Roosevelt 1943.
Thunder Bay Island is a 215-acre (87 ha) island in Lake Huron. The island is one of eight constituent islands of the Michigan Islands National Wildlife Refuge. The island is part of Alpena Township in Alpena County. It marks the entrance to Thunder Bay, the harbor of Alpena, Michigan and the location of the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary.
Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve is a United States National Marine Sanctuary on Lake Huron's Thunder Bay, within the northeastern region of the U.S. state of Michigan. It protects an estimated 116 historically significant shipwrecks ranging from nineteenth-century wooden side-wheelers to twentieth-century steel-hulled steamers. There are a great many wrecks in the sanctuary, and their preservation and protection is a concern for national policymakers. The landward boundary of the sanctuary extends from the western boundary of Presque Isle County to the southern boundary of Alcona County. The sanctuary extends east from the lakeshore to the international border. Alpena is the largest city in the area.
The name is the English translation of the French Anse du Tonnerre, which appears as early as the map of Franquelin in 1688. It was probably derived from the Native American name, as they believed that the Bay was peculiarly subject to thunder storms.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, as England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. The language is closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse, and to a greater extent by Latin and French.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
Jean-Baptiste-Louis Franquelin was born at Saint-Michel de Villebernin, France in 1650. He died in France around 1712. He was a cartographer, a royal hydrographer, and a teacher of navigation. He was also the first official cartographer in Canada.
There are a substantial number of shipwrecks in and around Thunder Bay. Diving is an important activity.
Alcona County is a county of the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,942. Its county seat is Harrisville. Alphabetically it is the first county in Michigan; as its flag states, it is the "First of 83".
Gustin Township is a civil township of Alcona County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 795 at the 2010 census.
Alpena Charter Township is a charter township of Alpena County in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the township population was 9,060.
Green Township is a civil township of Alpena County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,228 at the 2010 census.
Long Rapids Township is a civil township of Alpena County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,010 at the 2010 census.
Maple Ridge Township is a civil township of Alpena County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,690 at the 2010 census. There is a fire department and township hall located here.
Ossineke Township is a civil township of Alpena County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,675 at the 2010 census.
Wilson Township is a civil township of Alpena County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 2,029 at the 2010 census.
Fairhaven Township is a civil township of Huron County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,259 at the 2000 census.
Frenchtown Charter Township is a charter township within Monroe County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 20,428 at the 2010 census. The township is bordered on the south by the city of Monroe. Sterling State Park and the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station are located within Frenchtown, and the township was the site of the Battle of Frenchtown during the War of 1812.
Gull Island is the name of a dozen small islands in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Scarecrow Island is a small, 7-acre (0.03-km²) island in Lake Huron. It forms the southern limit of Thunder Bay and helps define the harbor of Alpena, Michigan. It is part of Sanborn Township, in Alpena County, Michigan.
The Alpena Light, also known as the Thunder Bay River Lighthouse or Alpena Breakwater Light, is a lighthouse on Lake Huron near Alpena, Michigan. Standing on the north breakwater of Alpena Harbor, the light marks the entrance to the Thunder Bay River from Thunder Bay. The current lighthouse, built in 1914, replaced earlier wooden structures which had been in use since 1877 and 1888. The current light is a weather-protected structure on a steel frame. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2006, and the state inventory list the same year.
Devils River is a 2.4-mile-long (3.9 km) river in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is located mostly in Alpena County south of the city of Alpena.
Michigan Islands Wilderness Area, a relatively small wilderness area of 12.5 acres (0.05 km2.), consists of Pismire Island, Scarecrow Island, and Shoe Island within the Michigan Islands National Wildlife Refuge. These three islands, which constitute part of the group of islands that make up the larger refuge, were elevated to the rank of a United States wilderness area in 1970. All three islands are noted for their infrequent human visitation and their roles as breeding grounds for freshwater wading birds, such as the great blue heron.
Black River Island is an island in Lake Huron. It is part of a series of shoals around the mouth of Black River and is 3⁄4 mile (1.21 km) NE of it. The island is included within the unincorporated community of Black River in Alcona Township.