|Dam and spillways|
|Height||33.6 metres (110 ft)|
|Length||1.7 kilometres (1.1 mi)|
|Total capacity||90,000,000 cubic metres (3.2×109 cu ft)|
The Thune Dam is a dam on the Thune River in Botswana that was under construction in 2012. It has a planned capacity of 90,000,000 cubic metres (3.2×109 cu ft).
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since then, they maintain a tradition of stable representative republic, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the best perceived corruption ranking in Africa since at least 1998. It is currently Africa's oldest continuous democracy.
The dam is located on the Thune river upstream from its confluence with the Motloutse. The dam is situated in relatively flat country, and will have an average depth of about 15 metres (49 ft). Given the hot, dry climate, evaporation loss is a serious concern. Various ways to reduce such loss have been considered but rejected. The dam will be an earthfill clay-core structure. It will be 33.6 metres (110 ft) high, with a 1.7 kilometres (1.1 mi) long wall and a 90,000,000 cubic metres (3.2×109 cu ft) capacity.
The Motloutse River is a river in Botswana, a tributary of the Limpopo River. The catchment area is 19,053 square kilometres (7,356 sq mi). The Letsibogo Dam on the Motloutse has been built to serve the industrial town of Selebi-Phikwe and surrounding local areas, with potential for use in irrigation.
The dam will supply drinking water to several villages in the Bobirwa area, and irrigation water to an agricultural project near Mathathane.Once complete, water will be delivered to the villages of Bobonong, Motlhabaneng, Mathathane, Tsetsebjwe, Mabolwe, Semolale, Gobojango, Lepokole and Molalatau.
The Bobirwa Sub District in Botswana is an area populated by the Babirwa (Ba-Birwa) people who came from Transvaal in present-day South Africa. Sebirwa which is spoken by Babirwa is one of the dialects of Northern Sotho like Bididi, Lobedu, Kgaga, Hananwa, Pedi, Phalaborwa, Pulana, Tshwapong, Kutswe, Phahladira, Pai, Kopa, Kubu, etc. Northern Sotho is one of the three Sesotho subgroups of Basotho and the two others are Western Sotho ,North West Province, small number of people in Matebeland Province of Zimbabwe and Southern Sotho. Basotho came from Ntswanatsatsi and Masilo is the founding father of Basotho. After moving away from the rest of the Basotho in Ntswanatsatsi, like other Basotho who were part of Northern Basotho subgroup the likes of Bapedi, Batlokwa etc the Babirwa settled in Nareng in Letswalo area near Tzaneen in present-day South Africa and from there they tracked further up North and settled in Blauwberg in present day Limpopo Province in South Africawere started to separate others remained in Blauwberg, living in the surrounding areas like Senwabarwana others left ended up in the southern part of present day Zimbabwe around the district of Gwanda in Matebeleland South. Gwanda was a place for Jahunda speaking people which is a dialect of Kalanga. Some Zimbabwean brandish all Basotho of Zimbabwe as Babirwa. They are two types of Basotho in Zimbabwe, the Babirwa and the other Basothos who left Transvaal around 1890s and early 1900 because they were displaced by the Boers and most of those Basothos came from Polokwane area, places like Moletse, Potgieterrus. Other Zimbabwean Sothos got Venda and Tsonga roots from Northern Transvaal present day Limpopo Province. The Sotho of Zimbabwe which is similar to the sesotho that is spoken in Messina and surrounding area is a corrupted kubu and it is similar to Selobedu. From the above it is clear that the babirwa people also lived along the confluence of the Limpopo River and the Shashi River, the area that today includes the Mapungubjwe Ruins. The Babirwa in South Africa' Reside in areas north of the Bochum area, north of Polokwane. There are more than 40 Babirwa surnames in South Africa which' include Sebone, Malema, Makhura, Makwati, Makhurane, Maphala, Nare, Tau,Choshi, Mmamadi,@ Legong (Lehong), Mangale, Taueatswala, Molefe, Mogano, Jibula (Tjibula) (Muhanu), Machete, Lehomo, Raphahlelo, Raseokgo (Sebola), Phooko, Ramalepe,' Boikanyo, Selema, Morerwa (Murerwa) Makgatho, Maruatona, Monekwe (Monengwe), Madema Morebeng (Phosa) and many' more. The word Bobirwa therefore means the land of (Babirwa) Ba-Birwa people live. Template:Infobox settlement' A large number of Babirwa left the northern South African shore and ended up living in what is today called The Bobirwa Sub District which is an administrative region in eastern Botswana, part of the Central District. Bobonong is the largest town and the headquarters of the sub-district. The sub-district is bounded by Zimbabwe to the northeast and South Africa to the southeast. The Limpopo River forms the boundary with South Africa.
Mathathane is a village in Central District of Botswana. It is located in the eastern tip of Botswana, close to the border with South Africa. The population was 1,845 in 2001 census.
Bobonong is a town in the Central District of Botswana 80 km from Selibe Phikwe town. Bobonong has a population of around 19,000. The Babirwa tribe can be found in this town. The Botswana Pink semi-precious stones can be found in Bobonong region. The babirwa are known for harvesting the mophane worm.
A stakeholders workshop was held in September 2009 at Molalatau Secondary School Hall, where the Minister provided information and answered questions. He warned that, although the dam would bring large benefits, there would also be problems during the construction process such as an influx of illegal immigrants, crime and sexual problems such as HIV/AIDS and teen pregnancies.
The dam site was handed over to the contractor, Zhon Gan Engineering and Construction, on 30 April 2010.The project was due to be completed in April 2013. The water treatment plant and pipelines could be delayed until 2014 due to funding problems. In July 2010 it was reported that work on the dam site had halted since an incident in which a worker was killed a month earlier. Bush clearing had started in the site so surveying could be undertaken, but the project was behind schedule. A ground-breaking ceremony was held in September 2010, attended by Ponatshego Kedikilwe, Minister of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources.
As of March 2011, Thune Dam was just 38% complete. Delays had been caused by floods, and there were problems with construction of accommodations and with licenses.
The Shashe River is a major left-bank tributary of the Limpopo River in Zimbabwe. It rises northwest of Francistown, Botswana and flows into the Limpopo River where Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa meet. The confluence is at the site of the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area.
The Tsankov Kamak Hydroelectric Power Plant, also Tsankov Kamak HPP, comprises an arch dam and hydroelectric power plant (HPP) in Tsankov Kamak, southwestern Bulgaria. It is situated on the Vacha River in Smolyan Province, on the borders of Pazardzhik Province and Plovdiv Province, roughly 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwest of Plovdiv and downstream (north) of the town of Devin. It is a part of the Dospat-Vacha cascade development of the Vacha River involving five dams and power stations within the Devin municipality, 250 kilometres (160 mi) southeast of Sofia. The other four dams are Dospat Dam, Teshel Dam, the Vacha Dam and the Krichim Dam.
The Siah Bisheh Pumped Storage Power Plant, also spelled Siyāhbisheh and Siah Bishe, is located in the Alborz Mountain range near the village of Siah Bisheh and 48 km (30 mi) south of Chalus in Mazandaran Province, Iran. The power plant uses the pumped-storage hydroelectric method to generate electricity during periods of high energy demand, making it a peaking power plant, intended to fulfill peak electricity demand in Tehran 60 km (37 mi) to the south. When complete it will have an installed generating capacity of 1,040 megawatts (1,390,000 hp) and a pumping capacity of 940 megawatts (1,260,000 hp). Planning for the project began in the 1970s and construction began in 1985. It was delayed from 1992 until 2001 and the first generator went online in May 2013. The remaining generators were commissioned by 1 September 2015. The power plant is the first pumped-storage type in Iran and will also use the country's first concrete-face rock-fill dam – two of them.
Idamalayar Dam is a multipurpose concrete gravity dam located at Ennakal, near Bhoothathankettu, on the Idamalayar River, a tributary of the Periyar River in Kerala, South India. Completed in 1985, with a length of 373 metres (1,224 ft), the dam created a multipurpose reservoir covering 28.3 km2 (10.9 sq mi) in the scenic hills of the Western Ghats.
The Shuangjiangkou Dam(Chinese: 双江口大坝/双江口水电站), also referred to as Shuang Jiang Kou(Chinese: 双江口), is an embankment dam currently being constructed on the Dadu River in Sichuan Province, China. When completed, the 312 metres (1,024 ft) tall dam will be the tallest dam in the world. Preliminary construction began in 2008 and the entire project is expected to be complete in 2018. By April 2011, over 200,000,000 m3 (261,590,124 cu yd) of material had been excavated from the construction site. In March 2013 the China's Ministry of Environmental Protection approved construction on the dam's superstructure and associated facilities. The government acknowledged that the dam would have negative impacts on the environment but that developers were working to mitigate them. The dam is being built by the Guodian Group at a cost of US$4.02 billion. The entire construction period is expected to last 10 years.
The Notwane River is a river in southeastern Botswana. Certain sections of its course form the international boundary with South Africa. Its mouth is at the head of the Limpopo River. It has a catchment area of 18,053 square kilometers.
Tsetsebjwe is a village in the Bobirwa sub-district of the Central District of Botswana. It is in the Central Bobonong census district. As of 2001 it had a population of 4,396. The village is northwest of the privately owned Limpopo-Lipadi Game and Wilderness Reserve, near the South African border.
The Letsibogo Dam is a dam on the Motloutse River in Botswana, built to initially provide water to the industrial town of Selebi-Phikwe and surrounding local areas, with potential for use in irrigation. The dam now supplies Gaborone, the capital of the country, via a 400 kilometres (250 mi) pipeline, as well as major villages along the pipeline route.
The Bokaa Dam is a dam on the Metsimotlhabe River, a tributary of the Ngotwane River, in Botswana. It provides water to the capital city of Gaborone. It is operated by the Water Utilities Corporation.
The Nnywane Dam is a dam on the Nnywane River in Botswana. The reservoir provides a water supply to Lobatse, a town 70 kilometres (43 mi) south of Gaborone. Water from the reservoir may also be transferred to Gaborone if needed.
The Lotsane Dam is a dam on the Lotsane River in Botswana completed in 2012. Its purpose is to provide drinking water to local villagers and to support a horticultural project.
The Dikgatlhong Dam is a dam near the village of Robelela on the Shashe River in Botswana, completed in December 2011. When full it will hold 400,000,000 cubic metres (1.4×1010 cu ft). The next largest dam in Botswana, the Gaborone Dam, has capacity of 141,000,000 cubic metres (5.0×109 cu ft).
Mmamabula is a planned coal mine and coal-fired power station to the east of the main road and rail corridor in Botswana between Gaborone and Francistown and south of the Serorome River. The power station would be near to the village of Mmaphashalala. It is about 130 kilometres (81 mi) north of the capital city of Gaborone.
The North-South Carrier (NSC) is a pipeline in Botswana that carries raw water south for a distance of 360 kilometres (220 mi) to the capital city of Gaborone. Phase 1 was completed in 2000. Phase 2 of the NSC, under construction, will duplicate the pipeline to carry water from the Dikgatlhong Dam, which was completed in 2012. A proposed extension to deliver water from the Zambezi would add another 500 to 520 kilometres to the total pipeline length. The NSC is the largest engineering project ever undertaken in Botswana.
Mmamashia is a location in Botswana about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) north of the capital city of Gaborone that is the site of the Mmamashia water treatment plant and master balancing reservoir.
Moralane is a key site on the North-South Carrier (NSC), in Botswana, the main pipeline delivering raw water from the northeast to the Mmamashia water treatment plant just north of Gaborone.
Motlhabaneng is a village in Botswana on the north bank of the Motloutse River near the borders with South Africa and Zimbabwe. It is on the south-western boundary of the Northern Tuli Game Reserve.
Onalenna Oabona Baloyi is a Botswana middle distance runner, who specialized in the 800 metres.
The Yamdrok Hydropower Station, also known as the Yamdrok Yumtso or Yamzhog Yumcog hydropower station, is a hydroelectric power station just north of Yamdrok Lake, about 16 km (9.9 mi) southwest of Qüxü. The power station is in the Lhoka (Shannan) Prefecture of the Tibet Autonomous Region, China. Opposition to using the lake, considered holy, delayed construction at first. The project ran into difficulties and was two years late, completed in 1998.