Thung Kula Ronghai

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Thung Kula Ronghai (Thai : ทุ่งกุลาร้องไห้, IPA:  [tʰûŋ kulaː rɔ́ːŋ hâːj] ) is a natural region in northeastern Thailand. Its area is around two million rai (or 3,200 km2.). It is in the provinces of Surin, Maha Sarakham, Buriram, Sisaket, and Roi Et.

Thai language language spoken in Thailand

Thai, Central Thai or Ayutthaya or Siamese, is the sole official and national language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority of Thai of Chinese origin. It is a member of the Tai group of the Kra–Dai language family. Over half of Thai vocabulary is derived from or borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon and Old Khmer. It is a tonal and analytic language.

Natural region region distinguished by its common natural features of geography, geology, and climate

A natural region is a basic geographic unit. Usually it is a region which is distinguished by its common natural features of geography, geology, and climate.

Thailand Constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia

Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a country at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship.

History and legend

Its name is literally translates as "fields of the crying Kula". Legend has it that Kulas, from Mottama, Myanmar, traveled through this plateau. The Kula were known for their endurance and toughness. They spent several days traveling through the region without passing any villages or finding water. The surroundings had no trees to provide shade. It was only arid land. Trekking through this area was very difficult. The dry land and scarceness of water supply exhausted the tough Kulas and made them cry. The land takes its name from this story.

Kula are Tai peoples who immigrated from Yunnan, China and the Mon and Shan States in Myanmar to Isan, Thailand during the last few decades of the 19th century. The Kula once lived mainly in Pailin Province as refugees during French Protectorate of Cambodia, where many worked as gem traders. The immigration of the Kula led to economic developments and commercialization in the region. The Kula, still a minority ethnic group, are among the wealthiest ethnic groups in modern Cambodia.

Mottama Town in Mon State, Myanmar

Mottama is a small town in the Thaton district of Mon State, Myanmar. Located on the west bank of the Thanlwin river (Salween), on the opposite side of Mawlamyaing, Mottama was the capital of the Martaban Kingdom from 1287 to 1364, and an entrepôt of international repute until the mid-16th century.

Myanmar Republic in Southeast Asia

Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west, Thailand and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km (3,651 mi) forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km (1,200 mi) along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size. Its capital city is Naypyidaw, and its largest city and former capital is Yangon (Rangoon). Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) since 1997.

Historically, Tung Kula Rong Hai had suffered desert-like conditions during dry season and flooding during rainy season. Soils were plagued by salinity. The area has since been reclaimed and today the region has become a well-known rice producing area of Thailand.

Soil salinity process of increasing the salt content

Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization. Salts occur naturally within soils and water. Salination can be caused by natural processes such as mineral weathering or by the gradual withdrawal of an ocean. It can also come about through artificial processes such as irrigation and road salt.

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