Thung Salaeng Luang National Park

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Thung Salaeng Luang National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
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Location within Thailand
Location Phitsanulok and Phetchabun Provinces, Thailand
Coordinates 16°49′40″N100°52′12″E / 16.82778°N 100.87000°E / 16.82778; 100.87000 Coordinates: 16°49′40″N100°52′12″E / 16.82778°N 100.87000°E / 16.82778; 100.87000
Area1,262 km2
Established1963
Visitors147,997 [1] (in 2015)
Governing body Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation

Thung Salaeng Luang National Park (Thai : อุทยานแห่งชาติทุ่งแสลงหลวง) is a 1,262 km2 national park in Phitsanulok and Phetchabun Provinces of Thailand. It encompasses substantial portions of Wang Thong and Lom Sak Districts. [1]

Thai language language spoken in Thailand

Thai, Central Thai, is the sole official and national language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority of Thai Chinese. It is a member of the Tai group of the Kra–Dai language family. Over half of Thai vocabulary is derived from or borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon and Old Khmer. It is a tonal and analytic language, similar to Chinese and Vietnamese.

Phitsanulok Province Province in Thailand

Phitsanulok, one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces, lies in upper central Thailand. It borders Sukhothai and Uttaradit on the north, Loei and Phetchabun to the east, and Phichit and Kamphaeng Phet to the south. In the northeast it borders Laos.

Phetchabun Province Province in Thailand

Phetchabun is one of the central or northern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Loei, Khon Kaen, Chaiyaphum, Lopburi, Nakhon Sawan, Phichit, and Phitsanulok.

Contents

Topography

The park consists of limestone hills, slate and hardpan at altitudes ranging from 300 to 1,028 meters. [2] Thung Salaeng Luang is inlaid with meadows, especially in the southern portions of the park. [2] The park is the source of numerous streams. [2] There are large salt licks at Pong Sai in the northwest and Pong Thung Phaya in the southwest. [2] The Wang Thong River flows through the park.

Wang Thong River river in Thailand

The Wang Thong River is a river in Thailand. Its source lies in the Phetchabun Mountains in the Khao Kho District, Thailand. It flows through Thung Salaeng Luang National Park and forms Namtok Sri Dit and Namtok Kaeng Sopha in the Wang Thong District of Phitsanulok Province, and finally flows through into the Bang Krathum District, passing through Ban Sam Ruen and on to the border of Phitsanulok and Phichit, where it drains into the Nan River at 16°31′06″N100°19′36″E. The land drained by the Wang Thong River is part of the Nan Basin and the Chao Phraya Watershed.

Flora

Deciduous dipterocarp and mixed evergreen-deciduous forest with lowland shrub, such as Mussaenda parva and broadleaved evergreen, such as Livistona palm and Phoenix Loureiri palm. [3] :106 Plants include Barleria strigosa, Ardisia crenata and Pseuderanthemum andersonii. [3] :108

<i>Barleria strigosa</i> species of plant

Barleria strigosa is a plant in the family Acanthaceae. It occurs naturally in the foothills of the Himalayas, but has been introduced to far northern Queensland, Australia.

<i>Ardisia crenata</i> species of plant

Ardisia crenata is a species of flowering plant in the primrose family, Primulaceae, that is native to East Asia. It is known by a variety of names such as Christmas berry, Australian holly, coral ardisia, coral bush, coralberry, coralberry tree, hen's-eyes, and spiceberry. A. crenata is a compact shrub that reaches 1 metre (3.3 ft), often with a single stem. Leaves are dark green, thick, glossy, and have tightly waved edges The flowers are small, white or reddish, fragrant, and form clusters. The fruit is a glossy, bright red drupe. The seeds are able to germinate under a dense canopy and are dispersed by birds and humans.

<i>Pseuderanthemum</i> genus of plants

Pseuderanthemum is a genus of plant in family Acanthaceae and tribe Justicieae.

Fauna

Large mammals include Asian elephant, Gaur, barking deer and Sambar deer. [3] :107 Small mammals include Yellow-throated marten, Masked palm civet, white handed gibbon, Crab-eating macaque, Slow loris, Black giant squirrel and Burmese hare. [3] :109 This national park is famous for its butterflies, such as Common archduke. [3] :104
Birds include. [3] :105

Asian elephant species of mammal

The Asian elephant, also called Asiatic elephant, is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed throughout the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, from India in the west, Nepal in the north, Sumatra in the south, and to Borneo in the east. Three subspecies are recognised—E. m. maximus from Sri Lanka, E. m. indicus from mainland Asia and E. m. sumatranus from the island of Sumatra.

Gaur The gaur, the largest living bovine, native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia

The gaur, also called the Indian bison, is the largest extant bovine. This species is native to South and Southeast Asia. It has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1986. Population decline in parts of its range is likely to be more than 70% during the last three generations. However, population trends are stable in well-protected areas, and are rebuilding in a few areas which previously had been neglected.

Muntjac A genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

Muntjacs, also known as barking deer and Mastreani deer, are small deer of the genus Muntiacus native to south Asia. Muntjacs are thought to have begun appearing 15–35 million years ago, with remains found in Miocene deposits in France, Germany and Poland. It is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN.

Mountain hawk-eagle species of bird

The mountain hawk-eagle or, alternately, Hodgson's hawk-eagle is a large bird of prey native to Asia. The latter name is in reference to the naturalist, Brian Houghton Hodgson, who described the species after collecting one himself in the Himalayas. A less widely recognized common English name is the feather-toed eagle. Like all eagles, it is in the family Accipitridae. Its feathered tarsus marks this species as a member of the subfamily Aquilinae. It is a confirmed breeding species in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, from India, Nepal through Bangladesh to Thailand, Taiwan and Japan, although its distribution could be wider still as breeding species. Like other Asian hawk-eagles, this species was earlier treated under the genera of Spizaetus but genetic studies have shown this group to be paraphyletic, resulting in the Old World members being placed in Nisaetus and separated from the New World species. As is typical of hawk-eagles, the mountain hawk-eagle is a forest dwelling opportunistic predator who readily varies its prey selection between birds, mammals and reptiles along with other vertebrates. Although classified currently as a least-concern species due its persistence over a rather wide distribution, this species is often quite rare and scarce and seems to be decreasing, especially in response to large-scale habitat degradation and deforestation.

White-rumped falcon species of bird

The white-rumped falcon is a species of bird of prey in the family Falconidae native to Indochina. It is sometimes placed in its own monotypic genus, Neohierax.

Peregrine falcon A widespread bird of prey in the family Falconidae

The peregrine falcon, also known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-grey back, barred white underparts, and a black head. The peregrine is renowned for its speed, reaching over 320 km/h (200 mph) during its characteristic hunting stoop, making it the fastest bird in the world and the fastest member of the animal kingdom. According to a National Geographic TV program, the highest measured speed of a peregrine falcon is 389 km/h (242 mph). As is typical of bird-eating raptors, peregrine falcons are sexually dimorphic, with females being considerably larger than males.

further not specified.

Old World babbler family of birds

The Old World babblers or Timaliidae are a family of mostly Old World passerine birds. They are rather diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. These are birds of tropical areas, with the greatest variety in Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The timaliids are one of two unrelated groups of birds known as babblers, the other being the Australasian babblers of the family Pomatostomidae.

Asian barbet family of birds

A family of birds comprising the Asian barbets, the Megalaimidae were once clubbed with all barbets in the family Capitonidae but the Old World species have been found to be distinctive and are considered, along with the Lybiidae and Ramphastidae, as sister groups. There are around 26 species living in the forests of the Indo-Malayan region from Tibet to Indonesia.

Bulbul family of birds

The bulbuls are a family, Pycnonotidae, of medium-sized passerine songbirds. Many forest species are known as greenbuls, brownbuls, leafloves, or bristlebills. The family is distributed across most of Africa and into the Middle East, tropical Asia to Indonesia, and north as far as Japan. Bulbuls homeland is Iraq. A few insular species occur on the tropical islands of the Indian Ocean There are over 150 species in 27 genera. While some species are found in most habitats, the African species are predominantly found in rainforest. Rainforest species are rare in Asia, however, with Asian bulbuls preferring more open areas.

Climate

Sunrise at Thung Salaeng Luang N.P. Thung Salaeng Luang National Park.jpg
Sunrise at Thung Salaeng Luang N.P.

The average annual temperature is 25° C, although temperatures often reach 30° C during late spring and early summer. [2] The average annual rainfall is 1.7 meters. [2]

History

Thung Salaeng Luang was proposed for inclusion in the national parks system In 1959. Thung Salaeng Luang was declared a national park in 1972. [2] From the late-1960s to the early-1980s, the park's forest was used as a base for guerrillas of the Communist Party of Thailand. [2]

Places

Malaria

Historically, malaria has been a health issue in the park. [2]

Effects of human presence

Communist insurgents as well as hill tribes and other intruders have destroyed some of the park's flora and fauna over the years. [2]

Facilities

There are seven bungalows at the park's headquarters and five bungalows at Nong Mae Na office. [2] There are also four campsites at the park. [2] There are no concessions in the park.

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Namtok Kaeng Sopha waterfall

Namtok Kaeng Sopha is a waterfall and tourist attraction in Wang Thong district of Phitsanulok Province in Thailand. Situated in Thung Salaeng Luang National Park on the Wang Thong River off of Lomsak Road, between kilometers 71 and 72, it is the largest waterfall in Phitsanulok. Kaeng Sopha is a tiered waterfall, shaped like a stairway, and it has been dubbed the Niagara Falls of Thailand. The torrents are very strong in the rainy season. The vapor rising in the area creates a vast rain-like curtain. There are no concessions sold in the park. Kaeng Sopha is the subject of a June, 2007 postage stamp in Thailand in the Thailand Waterfall series.

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History of Phitsanulok Province

The lands situated in the present-day Phitsanulok Province of Thailand have been inhabited since the stone age, although the neolithic inhabitants of the region are not likely to have been the ancestors of the modern Thai people who reside there today. The earliest historical records relating to what is now Phitsanulok Province indicates that at a time prior to or during the 11th century, the present-day city of Phitsanulok was but a small strategic Khmer outpost known as Song Khwae. During the next century, in 1188, Nakhon Thai, located near the center of the present Phitsanulok Province, was established as the capital city of the Singhanavati Kingdom, an early city-state of Thailand. Later, during Thailand's Sukhothai Period, the city of Phitsanulok emerged as a major city in the east of the Sukhothai Kingdom, and the great temples of Wat Chula Manee, Wat Aranyik and Wat Chedi Yod Thong were constructed. In 1357, the renowned Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahathat was erected, and the Ayutthaya Period witnessed the construction of several of the province's other chief temples. Phitsanulok served for 25 years as the capital city of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. In 1555, King Naresuan the Great was born in the city of Phitsanulok. Naresuan played a significant role in the history of Thailand, as he expanded the kingdom to its greatest territorial extent, by conquering sizable portions of modern-day Burma and Cambodia. In recent times, Phitsanulok Province has become an important agricultural center, part of the Bread Basket of Thailand, providing rice and other crops to consumers in Thailand and throughout the world. Extensive agricultural development over the last hundred years or so has spawned a modern infrastructure in the urban areas of the province, bringing with it an array of modern roads, universities, hospitals and other conveniences. Over the years, the Nan River and its tributaries have played a substantial role in the history and development of the region by providing a route for transportation, fertile soil for agriculture, and water for irrigation. The river waters have also served as a route for enemy invaders, and have been the source of periodic widespread flooding throughout the province.

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References

  1. 1 2 "Thung Salaeng Luang National Park". Department of National Parks (Thailand). Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 National parks in northern Thailand
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Elliot, Stephan; Cubitt, Gerald (2001). THE NATIONAL PARKS and other Wild Places of THAILAND. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd. ISBN   9781859748862.