Thura-Yura languages

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Yura
Thura-Yura
Geographic
distribution
South Australia
Linguistic classification Pama–Nyungan
  • Arandic–Thura-Yura
    • Yura
Subdivisions
  • Yura proper
  • Kadli
  • Wirangu
Glottolog thur1253 [1]
Yura languages.png
Thura-Yura languages (green) among other Pama–Nyungan (tan). The two groups are Nangga (west) and Yura–Kadli (east)

The Yura or Thura-Yura languages are a group of Australian Aboriginal languages surrounding Spencer Gulf and Gulf St Vincent in South Australia, that comprise a genetic language family of the Pama–Nyungan family.

Contents

Name

The name Yura comes from the word for "person" in the northern languages; this is a lenited form of the thura found in other languages, hence Thura-Yura. Similar words for "person" are found in languages outside the group, however.

Languages

The following classification is proposed by Bowern & Koch (2004): [2]

A Nukunu speaker reported that the Nukunu could understand Barngarla and Kuyani, but not more distant varieties. [2]

Peramangk may have been a southern Thura-Yura language, close to Kaurna.

Dixon (2002) lists a Nantuwara language, but there is no data for it.

Proto-language

Proto-Thura-Yura
Reconstruction ofThura-Yura languages
Reconstructed
ancestor

Reconstructed Thura-Yura vocabulary by Simpson and Hercus (2004): [3]

Spelling conventions
glossProto-Thura-YuraProto-Core Thura-YuraNorthern Thura-YuraSouthern Thura-Yura
allwapu; kurru
all, many, big*marna
ashes*muruthimpa
ashes (charcoal)piirla
bad*wadLV
bad (without)*wakV-Na
bark?*yulti
beardngaNkayaNka
beard, cheek, hair*maLTa
bellywarnamunthu
belly (abdomen)?*TiDLi
bigngarla
birdTHirta
blackmaṟu
blood?*kaaṟu; *karti
body: muscle, sinew*THiltya*thiltya
bone*waLpu*waLpuwarlpu
breast*ngamV
camp (house)*warDli
camp (house, ?from “join”)*karrpa*karrpa
camp (hut)karnku
chest*kuntu
child, babywa(L)kuwa(L)ku
child, small*kityayakaCV; waNi
child, voice of infant*kunga
cloud*ma(L)ku
cloud (low, fog)*putyi
cold (cough)*kuLTV-
cold, frost*pakaDla
cold (in head)(y)urrkV-
cold (weather)*paya-; *mVnyV*manyapayala (Probably derived from “to bite”)
come here!*paNi; *ka*kawayi
dog*wiLkawiLka (domestic dog)kadli (domestic dog)
down, below?*warta-wartathi
dry*muDLamurdla
dry, dust*puthV-RV
ear*yuṟi
earth*yarta
eggpipimuka
elbow*thiDNngiK/NGuNaN-
eye*mii-na
eyebrow*piiku
far (stranger)yampa
fat*mVrnV*marni
feather?*paDLu
fingernail*pirri
fire*karDla
fish*kuya
fly*thapu
fly (big fly)*thumpV-Ca*thupV(-Ra)
food*mayi
foot*THiDna*thidna
good*wayV-
hair, feather*puthi
hand*maṟa
head*kaka
heartthurlku
hungrykarnpa
knee?*puṟV*mampapuṟa
knee (kneecap)*maTa
leafkarlpi
liver*Tangkathangka; ngaLTi
louse*kuDLu*kuDlu
man (boy after circumcision)pardnaapa
man (companion)*Nipu
man (grown-up)*miṟu (grownup man)
man (husband)marni
man (initiand)?*wilya-ṟu?*ngulta
man (male, husband)*yarDli
man (person)?*Tuṟa*thuṟa
meat*paRu
meat, flesh, heart*puLTHA*puLTHa*pultha
moon*piṟa
mouth*Taa
mouth, lipNimi
name*mityi
nape, neckngurnti, nhurnti; wakarra
neck*waLTu
night*nguLTimaLTi
night, yesterday*wiltya
north wind, hot weather*pukarra
north-east windngarnarakarnaRa
nose*muDlha*mudlha
not, do not*madLamardla; kuta
now*kaRi
now, again?*nhaTa
now, morning?*panyi
now, soonyatha
old man*puLka
one*kuma
other, another, the rest*kutyu
penis*waRi
pigface, plant food type (? Mesembryanthemum sp.)?*kaCkaLa*karrkaLa
red?*TVLTV-*TaLTHa-thaltha-
red ochre*miLTi; *karrku
rib*TiNinyV
rib, side, flank*pantyi
road?*Tapa*Tapathapa
root
rotten, bad-smelling?*puka*thungkV
shit, faeces*kuDna*kudna
shoulderpiLpi-
shoulder, wing*wiṟi
sick, ill?*ngaNDa-N
sick, wound*mingka
skin?*paLpapiyipaLpa
skin, clothes*palhtha
sky*NayirrViLkaRV
sky, cloud and dust?*wirra
smoke*puyu
smoke (stuff for producing smoke)?*Tumpu
snake?*TuDNuwapma
snake, carpet snakemuDLV-
south and south wind*parrpa
southerly wind*walypi
spear (large)*wiNTawirnta
spear (small)*kVya*kaya
spit*THaDlhi*THadlhingapalya; ngalytya
star*purDli
stone, adzeTHurdla
stone, cooking stone?*kaDnya
stone, hill, grinding stone, kneecap*puRi
stone, limestone*parnta
stone, quartz-like stone, ice*makV
sun*THirntu*thirntu
tailkaDLHa
testicles*kaDLu*kadLukardlu
that (near)*pa-*pa-pa-nha
that (remote)*ngu-ngunha
thigh*kaNTHi*kaNTHikanthi
thigh, flank, groin?*paLTi
this (nearest)*iNHa
throat*yurDni
to bite*paya-
to burn tr.*kampa-
to burn intr.*ngaDLi-
to climb?*warnta-
to come?*puDNa-
to cry, call*kaLTa-
to cry, tears*muLka
to cry, to scream*ngaTV-
to cut?*waNi-
to die*paDLu-thinta-; padlu-
to die, dead*kuDnyukupa
to dig*paNi-; ?*paka-pani-
to drink, to kiss, to manipulate with mouth*THapa-*Tapa-thapa-
to eat*ngaLku-
to enter*ngaLpa-
to fall*warDni-
to get*manku-
to get, pick up, lead, bring*kaNka-*kangka-
to get, take away*mama-
to give*yungkV-nhungku-
to go?*wiNV-nguka-
to go, walk?*padNV-
to hear*yuri- See “ear”.
to hit with hand*paLTa-
to hit with missile*nguṟV-nguṟa-
to hit, cause break in material integrity*pungku-
to hit, kill*kuNTa-kurnta-
to know, see*THiLka-*thiLka-
to leave it*wVNTV-*waNTa-wanthV-
to lie down*waNTi-wanti-
to put, to get used toila-
to see*nhaku-
to sit*Tika-thika-
to sleep, asleep*miya
to speak*wangka-
to spearwiTi-
to stand*yuwa-
to throw*paTV-patha-
to tie, support, build?*karrpV-karrpV-
tomorrow?*TarrkV-
tongue*THa(a)LiNtha(a)rlitha(d)lVnya
toothyiraTiya
tree*wadLa; *wirawardla
two*puLapuDla; kalypilVpurla
up, above?*kaNkakanka
up, above, high*karra
urine, piss*kumpu
warm (weather)*warlta
water*kawi; *kapi
west*wangka
what (how many)*-miNV[-]minha
what?*Na-, ?*Nawi
when?*nhaDLa-TV
where??*wa-THa*wa-(nha)
white*paLkV*paLkapaLka-ra
who? (Ergative, Instrumental)*ngaNTu
who? (Nominative)*ngaNa*ngaNa
who? (Possessive)*ngaNku
wind*wari
woman*pa(a)rlangangki
woman, girl*mankarra
woman, mother, female*ngamV-THV
woman, wife*kartu
yam, edible root, plant food type*ngampa
yesterday*puki
young onepapa

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References

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Thura–Yura". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. 1 2 Bowern & Koch (2004) Australian Languages: Classification and the Comparative Method
  3. Simpson, Jane and Luise Hercus. 2004. Thura-Yura as a Subgroup. In Claire Bowern and Harold Koch (eds.), Australian Languages: Classification and the Comparative Method, 179-206, 580-645. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.