|Linguistic classification|| Pama–Nyungan |
Thura-Yura languages (green) among other Pama–Nyungan (tan). The two groups are Nangga (west) and Yura–Kadli (east)
The Yura or Thura-Yura languages are a group of Australian Aboriginal languages surrounding Spencer Gulf and Gulf St Vincent in South Australia, that comprise a genetic language family of the Pama–Nyungan family.
The name Yura comes from the word for "person" in the northern languages; this is a lenited form of the thura found in other languages, hence Thura-Yura. Similar words for "person" are found in languages outside the group, however (for example 'yura' - 'person' in the Sydney language).
The following classification is proposed by Bowern & Koch (2004):
A Nukunu speaker reported that the Nukunu could understand Barngarla and Kuyani, but not more distant varieties.
Peramangk may have been a southern Thura-Yura language, close to Kaurna.
Dixon (2002) lists a Nantuwara language, but there is no data for it.
|Reconstruction of||Thura-Yura languages|
Reconstructed Thura-Yura vocabulary by Simpson and Hercus (2004):
|gloss||Proto-Thura-Yura||Proto-Core Thura-Yura||Northern Thura-Yura||Southern Thura-Yura|
|all, many, big||*marna|
|beard, cheek, hair||*maLTa|
|body: muscle, sinew||*THiltya||*thiltya|
|camp (house, ?from “join”)||*karrpa||*karrpa|
|child, small||*kitya||yakaCV; waNi|
|child, voice of infant||*kunga|
|cloud (low, fog)||*putyi|
|cold (in head)||(y)urrkV-|
|cold (weather)||*paya-; *mVnyV||*manya||payala (Probably derived from “to bite”)|
|come here!||*paNi; *ka||*kawayi|
|dog||*wiLka||wiLka (domestic dog)||kadli (domestic dog)|
|fly (big fly)||*thumpV-Ca||*thupV(-Ra)|
|man (boy after circumcision)||pardnaapa|
|man (grown-up)||*miṟu (grownup man)|
|man (male, husband)||*yarDli|
|meat, flesh, heart||*puLTHA||*puLTHa||*pultha|
|nape, neck||ngurnti, nhurnti; wakarra|
|north wind, hot weather||*pukarra|
|not, do not||*madLa||mardla; kuta|
|other, another, the rest||*kutyu|
|pigface, plant food type (? Carpobrotus_rossii sp.)||?*kaCkaLa||*karrkaLa|
|red ochre||*miLTi; *karrku|
|rib, side, flank||*pantyi|
|sky, cloud and dust||?*wirra|
|smoke (stuff for producing smoke)||?*Tumpu|
|snake, carpet snake||muDLV-|
|south and south wind||*parrpa|
|stone, cooking stone||?*kaDnya|
|stone, hill, grinding stone, kneecap||*puRi|
|stone, quartz-like stone, ice||*makV|
|thigh, flank, groin||?*paLTi|
|to burn tr.||*kampa-|
|to burn intr.||*ngaDLi-|
|to cry, call||*kaLTa-|
|to cry, tears||*muLka|
|to cry, to scream||*ngaTV-|
|to die||*paDLu-||thinta-; padlu-|
|to die, dead||*kuDnyu||kupa|
|to dig||*paNi-; ?*paka-||pani-|
|to drink, to kiss, to manipulate with mouth||*THapa-||*Tapa-||thapa-|
|to get, pick up, lead, bring||*kaNka-||*kangka-|
|to get, take away||*mama-|
|to go, walk||?*padNV-|
|to hear||*yuri- See “ear”.|
|to hit with hand||*paLTa-|
|to hit with missile||*nguṟV-||nguṟa-|
|to hit, cause break in material integrity||*pungku-|
|to hit, kill||*kuNTa-||kurnta-|
|to know, see||*THiLka-||*thiLka-|
|to leave it||*wVNTV-||*waNTa-||wanthV-|
|to lie down||*waNTi-||wanti-|
|to put, to get used to||ila-|
|to sleep, asleep||*miya|
|to tie, support, build||?*karrpV-||karrpV-|
|up, above, high||*karra|
|what (how many)||*-miNV||[-]minha|
|who? (Ergative, Instrumental)||*ngaNTu|
|woman, mother, female||*ngamV-THV|
|yam, edible root, plant food type||*ngampa|
The Indigenous languages of Australia number in the hundreds, the precise number being quite uncertain although there is a range of estimates from a minimum of around 250 up to possibly 363. The Indigenous languages of Australia comprise numerous language families and isolates, perhaps as many as 13, spoken by the Indigenous peoples of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands. The relationships between the language families are not clear at present although there are proposals to link some into larger groupings. Despite this uncertainty, the Indigenous Australian languages are collectively covered by the technical term "Australian languages", or the "Australian family".
The Pama–Nyungan languages are the most widespread family of Australian Aboriginal languages, containing 306 out of 400 Aboriginal languages in Australia. The name "Pama–Nyungan" is a merism: it derived from the two end-points of the range: the Pama languages of northeast Australia and the Nyungan languages of southwest Australia.
The Ngarrkic (Ngarga) or Yapa languages are a small language family of Central Australia, consisting of the two closely related languages Warlmanpa and the more populous Warlpiri.
Kaurna is a Pama-Nyungan language historically spoken by the Kaurna peoples of the Adelaide Plains of South Australia. The people of the Adelaide plains are known as the Kaurna people in contemporary times, but the Kaurna nation is made up of various tribal clan groups, each with their own parnkarra district of land, each having had their own dialectal form of language. These dialects were historically spoken in the area of the Adelaide Plains bounded by Crystal Brook and Clare in the north, Cape Jervis in the south, and just over the Mount Lofty ranges. It ceased to be spoken on an everyday basis in the 19th century, but, in a process that began in the 1980s, is being reclaimed and re-introduced.
The Wirangu language, also written Wirrongu, Wirrung, Wirrunga, and Wirangga, and also known by other exonyms, is a moribund Australian Aboriginal language traditionally spoken by the Wirangu people, living on the west coast of South Australia across a region encompassing modern Ceduna and Streaky Bay, stretching west approximately to the head of the Great Australian Bight and east to Lake Gairdner. It is a language of the Thura-Yura group, and some older sources placed it in a subgroup called Nangga.
Ngardi, also spelt Ngarti or Ngardilj, is an Australian Aboriginal language that is considered moribund. It was previously thought to be an alternative name for the Bunara language, but these are now classified as separate languages. It was/is spoken by the Ngarti people of the Northern Territory and northern Western Australia.
Microseris scapigera is a yellow-flowered daisy, a perennial herb, found in New Zealand and Australia. It is the only New Zealand species of Microseris, and one of three Australian species along with Microseris lanceolata and Microseris walteri. It is classified in a group of plants, the tribe Cichorieae, that includes chicory and dandelion.
The Ngadjuri people are a group of Aboriginal Australian people whose traditional lands lie in the mid north of South Australia with a territory extending from Gawler in the south to Orroroo in the Flinders Ranges in the north.
Yarli (Yardli) was a dialect cluster of Australian Aboriginal languages spoken in northwestern New South Wales and into Northeastern South Australia individually Malyangapa (Maljangapa), Yardliyawara, and Wadikali. Bowern (2002) notes Karenggapa as part of the area, but there is little data.
Nukunu are an Aboriginal Australian people of South Australia, living around the Spencer Gulf area. In the years after British colonisation of South Australia, the area was developed to contain the cities of Port Pirie and Port Augusta.
The Ngarna or Warluwar(r)ic languages are a discontinuous primary branch of the Pama–Nyungan language family of Australia. The moribund Yanyuwa language is the only survivor of this group.
Arandic is a family of Australian Aboriginal languages consisting of several languages or dialect clusters, including the Arrernte group, Lower Arrernte, Pertame language and Kaytetye.
Nukunu is a moribund Australian Aboriginal language spoken by Nukunu people on Yorke Peninsula, South Australia. As of 2017, there is a revival and maintenance programme under way for the language.
Wagaya (Wakaya) is an extinct Australian Aboriginal language of Queensland. Yindjilandji (Indjilandji) may have been a separate language. The linguist Gavan Breen recorded two dialects of the language, an Eastern and a Western variety, incorporating their description in his 1974 grammar.
Ngumbin languages are a small language family of Australia, consisting of :
The Wilyakali or Wiljaali are an Australian aboriginal tribal group of the Darling River basin in Far West New South Wales, Australia. Their traditional lands centred on the towns of Broken Hill and Silverton and surrounding country. Today the Wilyakali people of Broken Hill are still the main Aboriginal group living in Broken Hill.
Luise Anna Hercus, née Schwarzschild, was a German-born linguist who lived in Australia from 1954. After significant early work on Middle Indo-Aryan dialects (Prakrits) she had specialised in Australian Aboriginal languages since 1963, when she took it up as a hobby. Works authored or co-authored by her are influential, and often among the primary resource materials on many languages of Australia.
The Malyangaapa are an Indigenous Australian Tribe of people who live in the far western areas of the state of New South Wales.
The Yardliyawara otherwise known as the Jadliaura were an indigenous Australian people of South Australia.
The Naualko (Nhaawuparlku) were an indigenous Australian people of New South Wales.
|Wiktionary has a list of reconstructed forms at Appendix:Proto-Thura-Yura reconstructions|