|Linguistic classification|| Pama–Nyungan |
Thura-Yura languages (green) among other Pama–Nyungan (tan). The two groups are Nangga (west) and Yura–Kadli (east)
The Yura or Thura-Yura languages are a group of Australian Aboriginal languages surrounding Spencer Gulf and Gulf St Vincent in South Australia, that comprise a genetic language family of the Pama–Nyungan family.
The name Yura comes from the word for "person" in the northern languages; this is a lenited form of the thura found in other languages, hence Thura-Yura. Similar words for "person" are found in languages outside the group, however.
The following classification is proposed by Bowern & Koch (2004):
A Nukunu speaker reported that the Nukunu could understand Barngarla and Kuyani, but not more distant varieties.
Peramangk may have been a southern Thura-Yura language, close to Kaurna.
Dixon (2002) lists a Nantuwara language, but there is no data for it.
|Reconstruction of||Thura-Yura languages|
Reconstructed Thura-Yura vocabulary by Simpson and Hercus (2004):
|gloss||Proto-Thura-Yura||Proto-Core Thura-Yura||Northern Thura-Yura||Southern Thura-Yura|
|all, many, big||*marna|
|beard, cheek, hair||*maLTa|
|body: muscle, sinew||*THiltya||*thiltya|
|camp (house, ?from “join”)||*karrpa||*karrpa|
|child, small||*kitya||yakaCV; waNi|
|child, voice of infant||*kunga|
|cloud (low, fog)||*putyi|
|cold (in head)||(y)urrkV-|
|cold (weather)||*paya-; *mVnyV||*manya||payala (Probably derived from “to bite”)|
|come here!||*paNi; *ka||*kawayi|
|dog||*wiLka||wiLka (domestic dog)||kadli (domestic dog)|
|fly (big fly)||*thumpV-Ca||*thupV(-Ra)|
|man (boy after circumcision)||pardnaapa|
|man (grown-up)||*miṟu (grownup man)|
|man (male, husband)||*yarDli|
|meat, flesh, heart||*puLTHA||*puLTHa||*pultha|
|nape, neck||ngurnti, nhurnti; wakarra|
|north wind, hot weather||*pukarra|
|not, do not||*madLa||mardla; kuta|
|other, another, the rest||*kutyu|
|pigface, plant food type (? Mesembryanthemum sp.)||?*kaCkaLa||*karrkaLa|
|red ochre||*miLTi; *karrku|
|rib, side, flank||*pantyi|
|sky, cloud and dust||?*wirra|
|smoke (stuff for producing smoke)||?*Tumpu|
|snake, carpet snake||muDLV-|
|south and south wind||*parrpa|
|stone, cooking stone||?*kaDnya|
|stone, hill, grinding stone, kneecap||*puRi|
|stone, quartz-like stone, ice||*makV|
|thigh, flank, groin||?*paLTi|
|to burn tr.||*kampa-|
|to burn intr.||*ngaDLi-|
|to cry, call||*kaLTa-|
|to cry, tears||*muLka|
|to cry, to scream||*ngaTV-|
|to die||*paDLu-||thinta-; padlu-|
|to die, dead||*kuDnyu||kupa|
|to dig||*paNi-; ?*paka-||pani-|
|to drink, to kiss, to manipulate with mouth||*THapa-||*Tapa-||thapa-|
|to get, pick up, lead, bring||*kaNka-||*kangka-|
|to get, take away||*mama-|
|to go, walk||?*padNV-|
|to hear||*yuri- See “ear”.|
|to hit with hand||*paLTa-|
|to hit with missile||*nguṟV-||nguṟa-|
|to hit, cause break in material integrity||*pungku-|
|to hit, kill||*kuNTa-||kurnta-|
|to know, see||*THiLka-||*thiLka-|
|to leave it||*wVNTV-||*waNTa-||wanthV-|
|to lie down||*waNTi-||wanti-|
|to put, to get used to||ila-|
|to sleep, asleep||*miya|
|to tie, support, build||?*karrpV-||karrpV-|
|up, above, high||*karra|
|what (how many)||*-miNV||[-]minha|
|who? (Ergative, Instrumental)||*ngaNTu|
|woman, mother, female||*ngamV-THV|
|yam, edible root, plant food type||*ngampa|
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