Thurgau

Last updated
Thurgau
Canton of Thurgau
Kanton Thurgau  (German)
Thurgau
Location in Switzerland
Map of Thurgau

Karte Kanton Thurgau 2010.png
Coordinates: 47°35′N9°4′E / 47.583°N 9.067°E / 47.583; 9.067 Coordinates: 47°35′N9°4′E / 47.583°N 9.067°E / 47.583; 9.067
Capital Frauenfeld
Subdivisions 80 municipalities, 5 districts
Government
   Executive Regierungsrat (5)
   Legislative Grosser Rat (130)
Area
[1]
  Total991.77 km2 (382.92 sq mi)
Population
 (December 2019) [2]
  Total279,547
  Density280/km2 (730/sq mi)
ISO 3166 code CH-TG
Highest point 991 m (3,251 ft): Hohgrat
Lowest point 370 m (1,214 ft): Thur at the cantonal border in Neunforn
Joined 1803
Languages German
Website www.tg.ch

Thurgau (German: [ˈtuːrɡaʊ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); French : Thurgovie; Italian : Turgovia), anglicized as Thurgovia, more formally [3] the Canton of Thurgau, is one of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation. It is composed of five districts and its capital is Frauenfeld.

Contents

Thurgau is part of Eastern Switzerland. It is named for the river Thur, and the name Thurgovia was historically used for a larger area, including part of this river's basin upstream of the modern canton. The area of what is now Thurgau was acquired as subject territories by the cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy from the mid 15th century. Thurgau was first declared a canton in its own right at the formation of the Helvetic Republic in 1798.

The population, as of December 2019, is 279,547. [2] In 2007, there were a total of 47,390 (or 19.9% of the population) who were resident foreigners. [4] The capital is Frauenfeld.

History

In prehistoric times the lands of the canton were inhabited by people of the Pfyn culture along Lake Constance. During Roman times the canton was part of the province Raetia until in 450 the lands were settled by the Alamanni.

In the 6th century Thurgovia became a Gau of the Frankish Empire as part of Alemannia, passing to the Duchy of Swabia in the early 10th century. At this time, Thurgovia included not just what is now the canton of Thurgau, but also much of the territory of the modern canton of St. Gallen, the Appenzell and the eastern parts of the canton of Zurich.

The most important cities of Thurgovia in the early medieval period were Constance as the seat of the bishop, and St. Gallen for its abbey.

The dukes of Zähringen and the counts of Kyburg took over much of the land in the High Middle Ages. The town of Zürich was part of the Thurgau until it became reichsunmittelbar in 1218.[ dubious ] When the Kyburg dynasty became extinct in 1264 the Habsburgs took over that land.

The Old Swiss Confederacy allied with ten freed bailiwicks of the former Toggenburg seized the lands of the Thurgau from the Habsburgs in 1460, and it became a subject territory of seven Swiss cantons (Zurich, Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Zug and Glarus).

During the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, both the Catholic and emerging Reformed parties sought to swing the subject territories, such as the Thurgau, to their side. In 1524, in an incident that resonated across Switzerland, local peasants occupied the cloister of Ittingen in the Thurgau, driving out the monks, destroying documents, and devastating the wine-cellar. Between 1526 and 1531, most of the Thurgau's population adopted the new Reformed faith spreading from Zurich; Zurich's defeat in the War of Kappel (1531) ended Reformed predominance. Instead, the First Peace of Kappel protected both Catholic and Reformed worship, though the provisions of the treaty generally favored the Catholics, who also made up a majority among the seven ruling cantons. Religious tensions over the Thurgau were an important background to the First War of Villmergen (1656), during which Zurich briefly occupied the Thurgau.

In 1798 the land became a canton for the first time as part of the Helvetic Republic. In 1803, as part of the Act of Mediation, the canton of Thurgau became a member of the Swiss confederation. The cantonal coat of arms was designed in 1803, based on the coat of arms of the House of Kyburg which ruled the Thurgau in the 13th century, changing the background to green-and-white, at the time considered "revolutionary" colours (c.f. tricolour); as the placement of a yellow (or) charge on white (argent) is a violation of heraldic principles, there have been suggestions to modify the design, including a 1938 suggestion to use a solid green field divided by a diagonal white line, but they were not successful.

The current cantonal constitution of Thurgau dates from 1987.

Geography

View of Untersee (Lake Constance) near Eschenz with the German shore beyond. Lake Constance and the river Rhine mark the northern border of the canton. 2009-04-16 Klingenzell 02.jpg
View of Untersee (Lake Constance) near Eschenz with the German shore beyond. Lake Constance and the river Rhine mark the northern border of the canton.

To the north the canton is bound by the Lake Constance across which lies Germany (Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria) and Austria (Vorarlberg). The Rhine creates the border in the northwest. To the south lies the canton of St. Gallen; to the west lie the cantons of Zürich and Schaffhausen.

The area of the canton is 991 km2 (383 sq mi) and commonly divided into three hill masses. One of these stretches along Lake Constance in the north. Another is further inland between the Thur and the river Murg. The third one forms the southern border of the canton and merges with the Hörnli mountain in the pre-Alps.

Demographics

The population of the canton (as of 31 December 2019) is 279,547. [2] The canton is mostly German speaking. The population (as of 2000) is split between Protestants (45%) and Roman Catholics (36%). [5]

Political subdivisions

Districts

The five districts, since 2011 Karte Kanton Thurgau Bezirke 2011.png
The five districts, since 2011
The eight former districts, prior to 2011 Karte Kanton Thurgau Bezirke 2010.png
The eight former districts, prior to 2011

Since January 2011, Thurgau has been divided into five districts which are named after their capitals. Before this date, there were eight districts - (Steckborn District, Bischofszell District and Diessenhofen District formed their own districts with their surrounding municipalities). [6]

Municipalities

As of 2009, there are 80 municipalities in the canton. [7] The ten largest municipalities by population are:

Politics

Federal election results

Percentage of the total vote per party in the canton in the National Council Elections 1971-2015 [8]
PartyIdeology197119751979198319871991199519992003200720112015
FDP.The Liberals a Classical liberalism 16.914.416.918.318.516.515.314.711.912.111.213.0
CVP/PDC/PPD/PCD Christian democracy 23.422.324.621.620.416.513.015.716.515.214.413.1
SP/PS Social democracy 20.721.622.419.513.415.118.116.114.111.712.112.7
SVP/UDC Swiss nationalism 26.025.126.422.821.723.727.033.241.042.338.739.9
Ring of Independents Social liberalism * b 6.65.33.92.63.3******
EVP/PEV Christian democracy ***5.3*3.22.72.82.72.82.92.3
GLP/PVL Green liberalism **********5.26.2
BDP/PBD Conservatism **********5.03.8
POCH Progressivism ****0.2*******
GPS/PES Green politics ***5.910.89.09.36.27.910.27.05.4
SD/DS National conservatism 4.22.51.92.7*3.54.82.52.91.9**
Rep. Right-wing populism 8.87.62.0*********
EDU/UDF Christian right *******1.91.92.63.53.4
FPS/PSL Right-wing populism ****6.48.78.02.70.3***
Other**0.4*6.00.51.94.30.71.1*0.2
Voter participation %62.056.648.352.748.547.144.144.642.946.946.746.6
^a FDP before 2009, FDP.The Liberals after 2009
^b "*" indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton.

Economy

The canton of Thurgau is known for its agricultural produce. Particularly, apples, pears, fruits and vegetables are well-known. The many orchards in the canton are mainly used for the production of cider. Wine is produced in the Thur valley.

There is also industry in the canton of Thurgau. The main industries are printing, textiles and handicrafts. Small and middle-sized businesses are important for the cantonal economy. Many of these are concentrated around the capital.

Notes and references

  1. Arealstatistik Land Cover - Kantone und Grossregionen nach 6 Hauptbereichen accessed 27 October 2017
  2. 1 2 3 "Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit". bfs.admin.ch (in German). Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB. 31 December 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  3. Welcome to the Canton of Thurgau!, Migration Office Department of Integration, tg.ch. Retrieved 2021-01-30
  4. Federal Department of Statistics (2008). "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit, Geschlecht und Kantonen". Archived from the original (Microsoft Excel) on 15 December 2008. Retrieved 5 November 2008.
  5. Federal Department of Statistics (2004). "Wohnbevölkerung nach Religion". Archived from the original (Interactive Map) on 2016-09-24. Retrieved 2009-01-15.
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2012-01-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. "Liste officielle des communes de la Suisse - 01.01.2008". Office fédéral de la statistique. Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2008.
  8. Nationalratswahlen: Stärke der Parteien nach Kantonen (Schweiz = 100%) (Report). Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-08-02. Retrieved 2016-08-08.

Related Research Articles

Canton of St. Gallen Canton of Switzerland

The canton of St. Gallen, also canton of St Gall, is a canton of Switzerland. The capital is St. Gallen.

Municipalities of the canton of Thurgau

The following are the 80 municipalities of the canton of Thurgau, as of 2009.

Kreuzlingen Municipality in Switzerland in Thurgau

Kreuzlingen is a municipality in the district of Kreuzlingen in the canton of Thurgau in north-eastern Switzerland. It is the seat of the district and is the second-largest city of the canton, after Frauenfeld, with a population of about 22,000. Together with the adjoining city of Konstanz just across the border in Germany, Kreuzlingen is part of the largest conurbation on Lake Constance with a population of almost 120,000.

Districts of Switzerland

In contrast to centrally organised states, in the federally constituted Switzerland each canton is completely free to decide its own internal organisation. Therefore, there exists a variety of structures and terminology for the subnational entities between canton and municipality, loosely termed districts.

Frauenfeld Municipality in Switzerland in Thurgau

Frauenfeld is the capital of the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.

Schönholzerswilen Municipality in Switzerland in Thurgau

Schönholzerswilen is a municipality in the district of Münchwilen in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.

Weinfelden Municipality in Switzerland in Thurgau

Weinfelden is a municipality in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland. It is the capital of the district of the same name.

THURBO

THURBO is a railway company in eastern Switzerland, jointly owned by Swiss Federal Railways (90%) and the canton of Thurgau.

Pfyn Place in Thurgau, Switzerland

Pfyn is a municipality in Frauenfeld District in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.

Berg, Thurgau Municipality in Switzerland in Thurgau

Berg is a municipality in the district of Weinfelden in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.

Bussnang municipality in the canton of Thurgau, Switzerland

Bussnang is a municipality in the district of Weinfelden in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.

Bischofszell Municipality in Switzerland in Thurgau

Bischofszell is a village and a municipality in Weinfelden District in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland. It is the seat of the district. In 1987, the city was awarded the Wakker Prize for the preservation of its architectural heritage. So was its neighboring city Hauptwil-Gottshaus in 1999.

Roggwil, Thurgau Municipality in Switzerland in Thurgau

Roggwil is a municipality in the district of Arbon in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.

Arbon Place in Thurgau, Switzerland

Arbon is a historic town and a municipality and district capital of the district of Arbon in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.

Gachnang Municipality in Switzerland in Thurgau

Gachnang is a municipality in the district of Frauenfeld in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.

Wiesendangen Municipality in Switzerland in Zürich

Wiesendangen is a municipality in the district of Winterthur in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. On 1 January 2014 the former municipality of Bertschikon merged into the municipality of Wiesendangen. At the same time the Community Identification Number changed from 0229 to 0298

Wil railway station

Wil railway station is a railway station in Wil, in the Swiss canton of St. Gallen. It sits at the junction of three standard-gauge railway lines: Wil–Kreuzlingen, St. Gallen–Winterthur, and Wil–Ebnat-Kappel. In addition, the 1,000 mmmetre gauge Frauenfeld–Wil line terminates across the street.

History of Thurgau

The Thurgau was a pagus of the Duchy of Alamannia in the early medieval period. A County of Thurgau existed from the 13th century until 1798. Parts of Thurgau were acquired by the Old Swiss Confederacy during the early 15th century, and the entire county passed to the Confederacy as a condominium in 1460.

Winterthur–Romanshorn railway Railway line in Switzerland (opened 1855)

The Winterthur–Romanshorn railway, also known in German as the Thurtallinie, is a Swiss railway line and was built as part of the railway between Zürich and Lake Constance (Bodensee). It connects Winterthur with Romanshorn, where it formerly connected to train ferries over Lake Constance. It is the fourth oldest internal railway in Switzerland. Its construction was to be funded by the Zürich-Lake Constance Railway (Zürich-Bodenseebahn), but during the construction the company was merged with the Swiss Northern Railway to form the Swiss Northeastern Railway. The Winterthur–Romanshorn railway was opened on 16 May 1855 and the line from Winterthur to Oerlikon was opened on 27 December 1855. Zürich was reached on 26 June 1856 and the two existing NOB lines were connected.

There are 26 constituencies in Switzerland – one for each of the 26 cantons of Switzerland – for the election of the National Council and the Council of States.