A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
Thurgoland Tunnel is a double-bore abandoned railway tunnel between Penistone and Wortley. 924 feet (282 m). The original tunnel, a single bore carrying two tracks, was opened in 1845 on the Sheffield, Ashton-Under-Lyne and Manchester Railway between Manchester Store Street and Sheffield.Its total length is
Penistone railway station is a railway station which serves the town of Penistone, in the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley, South Yorkshire, England. Train services are provided by Northern. The current station opened in 1874, replacing a station solely on the Woodhead Line dating from the line's opening by the Sheffield, Ashton-Under-Lyne and Manchester Railway in 1845.
Wortley railway station was a railway station on the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway lying between Deepcar and Penistone. It was built to serve the village of Wortley, near Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Wortley Hall, near the village, was the home of the Earl of Wharncliffe, long time associated with railway development in the area.
Manchester Piccadilly is the principal railway station in Manchester, England. Opened as Store Street in 1842, it was renamed Manchester London Road in 1847 and Manchester Piccadilly in 1960. Located to the south-east of Manchester city centre, it hosts long-distance intercity and cross-country services to national destinations including London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Cardiff, Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth, Reading, Southampton, and Bournemouth; regional services to destinations in Northern England including Liverpool, Leeds, Sheffield, Newcastle and York; and local commuter services around Greater Manchester. It is one of 19 major stations managed by Network Rail. The station has 14 platforms, twelve terminal and two through platforms. Piccadilly is also a major interchange with the Metrolink light rail system with two tram platforms in its undercroft.
It is characterised by a curve of 60 chains (4,000 ft; 1,200 m) radius on a falling gradient of 1 in 131. Due to the difficulties in laying the original tunnel out, it consists of a series of straight sections in a series of erratic curves varying in radius from 100 to 20 chains (6,600 to 1,300 ft; 2,010 to 400 m). Maximum clearance was only obtained by reducing the normal six-foot spacing between the tracks.
The chain is a unit of length equal to 66 feet. It is subdivided into 100 links or 4 rods. There are 10 chains in a furlong, and 80 chains in one statute mile. In metric terms, it is 20.1168 m long. By extension, chainage is the distance along a curved or straight survey line from a fixed commencing point, as given by an odometer.
Because of the clearance problems the original construction caused for the planned LNER electrification, and because opening-out was deemed too expensive, in 1948 a second single-line tunnel was built for the up line and the old tunnel was converted to carry only the down line. As this project was begun in 1947 just before railway nationalisation (British Railways), each of the up tunnel portals host twin dates, with "LNER 1947" inscribed in the central parapet panel at the top of the portals and "BR 1948" below in the keystone. Due to the anticipated interim period of steam working before the new electric Woodhead 3 tunnel was completed, a cast-iron smokeplate lined the roof of the tunnel to protect the concrete lining.Electric working commenced in 1954 and ceased in 1981.
The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) was the second largest of the "Big Four" railway companies created by the Railways Act 1921 in Britain. It operated from 1 January 1923 until nationalisation on 1 January 1948. At that time, it was divided into the new British Railways' Eastern Region, North Eastern Region, and partially the Scottish Region.
Daylighting a tunnel is to remove its "roof" of overlying rock and soil, exposing the railway or roadway to daylight and converting it to a railway or roadway cut. Tunnels are often daylighted to improve vertical or horizontal clearances—for example, to accommodate double-stack container trains or electrifying rail lines, where increasing the size of the tunnel bore is impractical.
A keystone is the wedge-shaped stone piece at the apex of a masonry arch, or the generally round one at the apex of a vault. In both cases it is the final piece placed during construction and locks all the stones into position, allowing the arch or vault to bear weight. In both arches and vaults, keystones are often enlarged beyond the structural requirements, and often decorated in some way. Keystones are often placed in the centre of the flat top of openings such as doors and windows, essentially for decorative effect.
The tunnels ceased to carry trains in 1983 when the local Sheffield–Huddersfield train service was diverted via Barnsley.
Huddersfield is a large market and university town in West Yorkshire, England. It is the 11th largest town in the United Kingdom, with a population of 162,949 at the 2011 census. It lies 14 miles (23 km) southwest of Leeds and 24 miles (39 km) northeast of Manchester.
The Penistone Line is operated by Northern in the West Yorkshire Metro/ Travel South Yorkshire area of northern England. It connects Huddersfield and Sheffield via Penistone and Barnsley, serving many rural communities. Metrocards can be used for travel between Huddersfield and Denby Dale and intermediate stations.
Barnsley is a town in South Yorkshire, England, located halfway between Leeds and Sheffield. Historically in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the town centre lies on the west bank of the Dearne Valley. Barnsley is surrounded by several smaller settlements which together form the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley, of which Barnsley is the largest and its administrative centre. At the 2011 Census, Barnsley had a population of 91,297.
The up tunnel, being much newer, has been re-utilised for a walking trail, whilst the down bore has been blocked off.
Longdendale is a valley in the Peak District of England, north of Glossop and southwest of Holmfirth. The name means "long wooded valley" and the valley marks the boundary between the counties of Derbyshire and Greater Manchester.
Sheffield Victoria was the main railway station in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, on the Great Central Railway, between Chesterfield and Penistone.
The Woodhead Tunnels are three parallel trans-Pennine 3-mile (4.8 km) long railway tunnels on the Woodhead Line, a former major rail link from Manchester to Sheffield in Northern England. The western portals of the tunnels are at Woodhead in Derbyshire and the eastern portals are at Dunford Bridge, near Penistone, South Yorkshire.
Woodhead is a small and scattered settlement at the head of the Longdendale valley in Derbyshire, England. It lies on the trans-Pennine A628 road connecting Greater Manchester and South Yorkshire, 6 miles (10 km) north of Glossop, 19 miles (31 km) east of Manchester and 18 miles (29 km) west of Barnsley. It is close to the River Etherow and the Trans Pennine Trail. Like nearby Tintwistle and Crowden, the hamlet lies within the historic county boundaries of Cheshire.
The Woodhead line was a railway line linking Sheffield, Penistone and Manchester in the north of England. A key feature of the route is the passage under the high moorlands of the northern Peak District through the Woodhead Tunnels. The line was electrified in 1953 and closed between Hadfield and Penistone in 1981.
The British Rail Class 76, also known as Class EM1, is a class of 1.5 kV DC, Bo+Bo electric locomotive designed for use on the now-closed Woodhead Line in Northern England.
New Mills Central railway station serves the town of New Mills in Derbyshire, England. It is on the Hope Valley Line between Manchester Piccadilly and Sheffield, 12 3⁄4 miles (20.5 km) east of the former. The locality is also served by New Mills Newtown station on the Buxton to Stockport and Manchester line.
The London and North Eastern Railway Class U1 was a solitary 2-8-0+0-8-2 Beyer-Garratt locomotive designed for banking coal trains over the Worsborough Bank, a steeply graded line in South Yorkshire and part of the Woodhead Route. It was both the longest and the most powerful steam locomotive ever to run in Britain. It was built in 1925 with the motion at each end being based on an existing 2-8-0 design. The original number was 2395, and it was renumbered 9999 in March 1946, and then 69999 after nationalisation in 1948, although it retained its cab-side plate bearing its original number throughout its life. The locomotive ran for some time as an oil burner, and was tried out on the Lickey Incline in 1949–1950 and again, after the electrification of its home line, in 1955. These trials were unsuccessful, and so the locomotive was withdrawn in 1955 and scrapped.
Gorton railway station serves Gorton district of the city of Manchester, England. The station is on the Manchester-Glossop Line and the 2 1⁄2 miles (4.0 km) east of Manchester Piccadilly.
The Manchester–Sheffield–Wath electric railway was an electrification scheme on British railways. The route featured long ascents on both sides of the Pennines with the long Woodhead Tunnel at its central summit close to the Woodhead pass. This led to the route being called the Woodhead Line.
The British Rail Class 506 was a 3 carriage Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) built for local services between Manchester, Glossop and Hadfield on the Woodhead Line, which was electrified in 1954 on the 1,500 V DC overhead system.
The Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway was an early British railway company which opened in stages between 1841 and 1845 between Sheffield and Manchester via Ashton-under-Lyne. In conjunction with the proposed Sheffield and Lincolnshire Junction Railway and Great Grimsby and Sheffield Junction Railway, it was renamed the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway in 1847.
Hadfield railway station serves the town of Hadfield in Derbyshire, England. The station is one of the twin termini at the Derbyshire end of the Manchester-Glossop Line, the other being Glossop. It was opened by the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway in 1844.
Dunford Bridge railway station was a railway station that served the village of Dunford Bridge on the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway situated immediately east of the Woodhead Tunnel, 5 miles (8 km) west of Penistone, within the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley, South Yorkshire, England.
Godley East was a railway station in the Godley area of Hyde, Tameside, Greater Manchester, on the Woodhead Line.
The Victoria Tunnel is a railway tunnel located in Queensland, Australia. At 537 metres (1,762 ft), the tunnel is the longer of the two oldest railway tunnels in Queensland, the other being known as the 'Six Chain', either because it is 6 chains long, or is situated entirely on a 6-chain radius curve, or both. Both are situated on the Main Line from Brisbane to Toowoomba, being part of the first narrow gauge main line in the world.
The minimum railway curve radius is the shortest allowable design radius for the center line of railway tracks under a particular set of conditions. It has an important bearing on constructions costs and operating costs and, in combination with superelevation in the case of train tracks, determines the maximum safe speed of a curve. Minimum radius of curve is one parameter in the design of railway vehicles as well as trams. Monorails and guideways are also subject to minimum radii.
Gorton Locomotive Works, known locally as Gorton Tank, was in West Gorton in Manchester, England and was completed in 1848 by the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway. Even in the 1960s the number of men who worked there was large enough to support nine public houses in the nearby Ogden Lane.
The four Hex River Tunnels consist of a twin tunnel of 0.5 kilometres and three single tunnels of 1.1 kilometres, 1.2 kilometres and 13.5 kilometres, on the Hexton railway route between De Doorns and Kleinstraat through the Hex River Mountains of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The line, which connects De Doorns in the Hex River valley with Touws River in the Great Karoo, is part of the main rail route between Cape Town and Johannesburg. Of the 30 kilometres of track, 16.8 kilometres are underground. Construction of the line eliminated the bottleneck of the Hex River rail pass.
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