Thuringian-Franconian Highlands

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The Thuringian-Franconian Highlands (German : Thüringisch-Fränkische Mittelgebirge) are a natural region of Germany which is designated as D48 or 39 by the BfN. It consists mainly of a ridge of mountains up to just under 1,000 m high between the Central Upland areas of the Thuringian Forest, Thuringian Slate Mountains, Franconian Forest and Fichtel Mountains, and which runs from west and south Thuringia through Upper Franconia and southeast to just before the Czech border and the so-called Bohemian Massif.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Natural regions of Germany

This division of Germany into major natural regions takes account primarily of geomorphological, geological, hydrological, and pedological criteria in order to divide the country into large, physical units with a common geographical basis. Political boundaries play no part in this, apart from defining the national border.

Central Uplands

The Central Uplands is one of the three major natural regions of Germany and covers most of the land area of the country. To the north lies the North German Plain or Northern Lowland; to the south, the Alps and the Alpine Foreland.

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Major natural divisions

Thuringian Forest mountain range in the German state of Thuringia

The Thuringian Forest, is a mountain range in the southern parts of the German state of Thuringia, running northwest to southeast between the valley of the river Werra near Eisenach and the Thuringian-Vogtlandian Slate Mountains. The geographical boundary with the latter range follows approximately a line from Gehren via Großbreitenbach to Schönbrunn near Schleusingen, defined by the rivers Schleuse and Neubrunn on the southwestern slope, and Talwasser, Wohlrose and Möhre on the northeastern slope.

Thuringian Highland mountain range

The Thuringian HighlandThuringian Highlands or Thuringian-Vogtlandian Slate Mountains is a low range of mountains in the German state of Thuringia.

Franconian Forest mid-altitude mountain range in Northern Bavaria, Germany

The Franconian Forest, is a mid-altitude mountain range in Northern Bavaria, Germany. It is located in the district of Upper Franconia (Oberfranken) and forms the geological connection between the Fichtelgebirge and the Thuringian Forest. It is a broad well-wooded plateau, running for about 45 kilometres (28 mi) in a northwesterly direction, descending gently on the north and eastern sides towards the Saale river, but more precipitously to the Bavarian plain in the west, and attaining its highest elevation in the Döbraberg near Schwarzenbach am Wald. Along the centre lies the watershed between the basins of the Main and the Saale, belonging to the systems of the Rhine and Elbe respectively.

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Coordinates: 50°28′43″N11°12′22″E / 50.4785°N 11.2061°E / 50.4785; 11.2061

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

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Fichtel Mountains low-mountain range in Bavaria, Germany

The Fichtel Mountains, form a small horseshoe-shaped mountain range in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. They extend from the valley of the Red Main River to the Czech border, a few foothills spilling over into the Czech Republic. They continue in a northeasterly direction as the Ore Mountains, and in a southeasterly direction as the Bohemian Forest. The Fichtel Mountains contain an important nature park, the Fichtel Mountain Nature Park, with an area of 1,020 square kilometres (390 sq mi).

Franconian Jura mountains in Germany

The Franconian Jura is an upland in Bavaria, Germany. Located between two rivers, the Danube in the south and the Main in the north, its peaks reach elevations of up to 600 metres (2,000 ft) and it has an area of some 7053.8 km2.

The Upper Palatine-Bavarian Forest, is a natural region in Germany in the northeast of Bavaria. It mainly comprises the low mountain ranges of the Bavarian Forest and Upper Palatine Forest which are up to 1456 m high and border on the Bohemian Massif immediately inside the Czech Republic's southwestern border with Germany.

The Saxon-Bohemian Chalk Sandstone Region is a natural region in south Saxony on the southern border with the Czech Republic. It forms part of the northern perimeter of the Bohemian Massif and comprises Saxon Switzerland, the German part of the Elbsandsteingebirge and the Zittau Hills, a small section of the Lusatian Mountains on German soil. Because the boundary between the Elbsandsteingebirge and the Lusatian Uplands is on Czech territory, the two natural regions are physically separated.

Gladenbach Uplands mountain range

The Gladenbach Uplands, named after their central town of Gladenbach, is a range of hills up to 609 m high in the Rhine Massif in Germany, on the junction of the Rothaar Mountains, Westerwald (southwest), (Eastern) Hintertaunus and West Hesse Highlands in the east. It lies in Central Hesse within the districts of Marburg-Biedenkopf, Lahn-Dill and Gießen within the so-called Lahn-Dill-(Dietzhölze-) loop. Small parts of the Upper Lahn Valley in the northwest belong, together with the town of Bad Laasphe, also to the district of Siegen-Wittgenstein, North Rhine-Westphalia.

Gäu Plateaus

The Gäu Plateaus form the largest natural region in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Not surprisingly, the individual geographical units of this large region show considerable variations in climate and soil types. A common feature of the region, however, is its landscape of flat-topped hills of Muschelkalk, gently rolling tracts of loess and plateaus in which the layers of Muschelkalk have been covered by sediments of Gipskeuper and Lettenkeuper.

The Oberwälder Land is a natural region in the extreme east of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia with small elements parts in Hesse and Lower Saxony. It consists of Muschelkalk upland, heavily dissected by the Nethe and its tributaries, between the Eggegebirge to the west, the Lippe Uplands to the north, the Weser Valley around Holzminden to the east, the West Hesse Depression to the southeast and the Warburg Börde to the south. This natural region is part of the upper Weser Uplands and hence the German Central Uplands.

Middle Weser Valley

The Middle Weser Valley is part of the Weser Depression around the River Weser on the North German Plain, extending from the gap of Porta Westfalica to the town of Hoya. It is not a true valley, because it is only bordered by low hills at two points. It lies in the German federal states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia.

The Waldeck Plateau is a natural 'upper main unit' in the German state of Hesse between the rivers Eder and Diemel, the East Sauerland Hills in the west and the East Waldeck Basin in the east.

The Rahden-Diepenau Geest is a natural region in the extreme northeast of North Rhine-Westphalia and in the neighbouring state of Lower Saxony in north Germany. It includes the overwhelmingly gently rolling geest between the Lübbecker Lößland to the south, the Diepholz Moor Depression to the north, the Middle Weser Valley to the east and the western Wiehen Hills and Bersenbrück Land to the west. The Rahden-Diepenau Geest is part of the Dümmer Geest Depression and thus belongs to the North German Plain, although they include foothills of the Central Uplands in the shape of the Stemmer Berge.

Ravensberg Basin geographic region

The Ravensberg Basin or Ravensberg Hills is a natural region in the governorate of Detmold (Ostwestfalen-Lippe) in the northeastern part of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia; small elements also fall within the neighbouring state of Lower Saxony. It is part of the lower Weser Uplands and includes the hilly basin country between the Wiehen Hills in the north, Lippe Uplands in the east, Teutoburg Forest in the south and Osnabrück Hills in the west. The heart of the Ravensberg Basin is almost coincident with the cultural region of the Ravensberg Land.

The Franconian Keuper-Lias Plains or Franconian Keuper-Lias Lands are a major natural region in the South German Scarplands in Upper Franconia and to a lesser extent in the north, in the Thuringian district of Hildburghausen. As the name betrays, the term embraces both the Keuper landscapes and lias landscapes in Franconia. In addition, the foreland of the Franconian Jura, in which part of the Brown Jurassic occurs, as well as parts of the former volcanic region of Heldburger Gangschar belong to this region.

Mangfall Mountains mountain range

The Mangfall Mountains, or sometimes Mangfall Alps, are the easternmost part of the Bavarian Prealps that, in turn, belong to the Northern Limestone Alps. The name comes from the river Mangfall, whose tributaries, the Rottach, Weißach, Schlierach and Leitzach, drain large parts of the area and form an important drinking water reservoir for the city of Munich.

The Handbook of Natural Region Divisions of Germany was a book series resulting from a project by the former German Federal Institute for Regional Studies to determine the division of Germany into natural regions. It was published in several books over the period 1953-1962. Around 400 authors, mostly geographers, took part. This natural region division of Germany is still used, with amendments, today.

The Upper Palatine-Upper Main Hills, also called the Upper Palatine-Upper Main Hills and Uplands form a landscape of low, rolling hills between the Franconian Jura in the southwest and the Franconian Forest, Fichtel Mountains and Upper Palatine Forest in the northeast.

Rammert mountains in Germany

The Rammert is a forested hill range, up to 590 m above sea level (NN), in the Keuper Uplands of central Baden-Württemberg, which belongs to the natural region major unit of Schönbuch and Glemswald in the Swabian Keuper-Lias Land. It continues the Schönbuch to the south(west) and is separated from it by the Tübingen Bay at the Neckar near Tübingen. The majority of the ridge lies in the county of Tübingen, with small elements in the county of Zollernalbkreis.

As well as being a low mountain range, the Westerwald is also a natural region in the system of natural regional division of Germany. Within that it is a major unit group with the number "32". According to this system the major unit group of the Westerwald belongs to the basement plate (Grundgebirgsschollenland), which describes the type of mountain-building process by which it was formed. The major unit group extends across the states of Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate. It is roughly bounded by the valleys of the Lahn, Rhine and Sieg, whereby the hills immediately south of the Heller and Sieg are not considered to be part of it.

The Falkensteiner Vorwald is the gently rolling westernmost part of the Bavarian Forest in northern Lower Bavaria and southern Upper Palatinate in the German state of Bavaria.