The Thurstan Holland sign or fragment, also known as the shiny corner sign, is the small metaphyseal triangular portion of bone carried with the physis in type II and IV Salter–Harris fractures. The sign was named after the Liverpool pioneer in Radiology, Dr Charles Thurstan Holland (1863–1941).
The metaphysis is the narrow portion of a long bone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis. It contains the growth plate, the part of the bone that grows during childhood, and as it grows it ossifies near the diaphysis and the epiphyses.
Physis is a Greek theological, philosophical, and scientific term usually translated into English as "nature".
A Salter–Harris fracture or growth plate fracture is a fracture that involves the epiphyseal plate or growth plate of a bone. It is thus a form of child bone fracture. It is a common injury found in children, occurring in 15% of childhood long bone fractures. This type of fracture and its classification system is named for Robert B. Salter and William H. Harris, who created and published this classification system in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery in 1963.
Coxa vara is a deformity of the hip, whereby the angle between the head and the shaft of the femur is reduced to less than 120 degrees. This results in the leg being shortened, and the development of a limp. It is commonly caused by injury, such as a fracture. It can also occur when the bone tissue in the neck of the femur is softer than normal, causing it to bend under the weight of the body. This may either be congenital or the result of a bone disorder. The most common cause of coxa vara is either congenital or developmental. Other common causes include metabolic bone diseases, post-Perthes deformity, osteomyelitis, and post traumatic. Shepherd's Crook deformity is a severe form of coxa vara where the proximal femur is severely deformed with a reduction in the neck shaft angle beyond 90 degrees. It is most commonly a sequela of osteogenesis imperfecta, Pagets disease, osteomyelitis, tumour and tumour-like conditions.
A Colles' fracture is a type of fracture of the distal forearm in which the broken end of the radius is bent backwards. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, deformity, and bruising. Complications may include damage to the median nerve.
A distal radius fracture, also known as wrist fracture, is a break of the part of the radius bone which is close to the wrist. Symptoms include pain, bruising, and rapid-onset swelling. The wrist may be deformed. The ulna bone may also be broken.
An ankle fracture is a break of the ankle bones. It is typically diagnosed by X-ray. Treatment is with splinting, casting or surgery. In children ankle fractures occur in about 1 per 1000 per year.
Osteochondrodysplasia or skeletal dysplasia is a general term for a disorder of the development (dysplasia) of bone ("osteo") and cartilage ("chondro").
The epiphyseal plate is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone. It is the part of a long bone where new bone growth takes place; that is, the whole bone is alive, with maintenance remodeling throughout its existing bone tissue, but the growth plate is the place where the long bone grows longer.
Fairbank's disease or multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the growing ends of bones. Long bones normally elongate by expansion of cartilage in the growth plate near their ends. As it expands outward from the growth plate, the cartilage mineralizes and hardens to become bone (ossification). In MED, this process is defective.
Pseudoachondroplasia is an inherited disorder of bone growth. It is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder. It is generally not discovered until 2-3 years of age, since growth is normal at first. Pseudoachondroplasia is usually first detected by a drop of linear growth in contrast to peers, a curious, waddling gait or arising lower limb deformities.
Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (JMC) is a disease that results from ligand-independent activation of the type 1 (PTH1R) of the parathyroid hormone receptor, due to one of three reported mutations.
A Chance fracture is a type of vertebral fracture that results from excessive flexion of the spine. Symptoms may include abdominal bruising, or less commonly paralysis of the legs. In around half of cases there is an associated abdominal injury such as a splenic rupture, small bowel injury, pancreatic injury, or mesenteric tear. Injury to the bowel may not be apparent in the first day.
Gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO), also called geroderma osteodysplasticum and Walt Disney dwarfism, is a rare autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder included in the spectrum of cutis laxa syndromes.
A supracondylar humerus fracture is a fracture of the distal humerus just above the elbow joint. The fracture is usually transverse or oblique and above the medial and lateral condyles and epicondyles. This fracture pattern is relatively rare in adults, but is the most common type of elbow fracture in children. In children, many of these fractures are non-displaced and can be treated with casting. Some are angulated or displaced and are best treated with surgery. In children, most of these fractures can be treated effectively with expectation for full recovery. Some of these injuries can be complicated by poor healing or by associated blood vessel or nerve injuries with serious complications.
The International Congress of Radiology (ICR) is a meeting of radiologists for the exchange of ideas and the harmonisation of international standards and practice, first held in 1925 in London and held at regular intervals since then. Since 1994 it has become a biennial event. Until 1953 each congress was organised by radiological society of the host country, but in that year, a formal organisation, the International Society for Radiology was set up to provide continuity between the congresses.
Orthopedic surgery is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal injuries, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, bone tumours, and congenital limb deformities. Trauma surgery and traumatology is a sub-specialty dealing with the operative management of fractures, major trauma and the multiply-injured patient.
A Tillaux fracture is a Salter–Harris type III fracture through the anterolateral aspect of the distal tibial epiphysis. It occurs in older adolescents between the ages of 12 and 15 when the medial epiphysis had closed but before the lateral side has done so, due to an avulsion of the anterior tibiofibular ligament, at the opposite end to a Wagstaffe-Le Fort avulsion fracture
Charles Thurstan Holland (1863–1941) was a general practitioner in Liverpool who was best known by his pioneering research in the field of Radiology. The Thurstan Holland sign is named after him.
Triplane fracture is a fracture at the epiphyseal plate of the tibia in early adolescence with involvement of the epiphysis and metaphysis of the tibia. The link presents two types of imaging. The first four images are radiographic images while the last 3 are CT scans of the left distal tibia and fibula. The first radiographic image is an anterior-posterior view of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula. The image presents a fracture of the distal epiphyseal plate of the tibia and fibula. The primary imaging (radiograph) identifies the abnormality in the anatomy of subject’s left distal tibia and fibula. However, it is difficult to view the extent of the fracture and classify the fracture based on radiographic image. Figure four is a CT scan of the posterior aspect of the left distal tibia and fibula. Note that in this image the extent of the fracture is more visible extending to the epiphysis and metaphysis. The type of fracture is a Salter-Harris type IV. The CT scan was an appropriate choice of advance imaging which helps clinicians determine the extent of the fracture and enable us to address the problem appropriately.
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