Thurston Island

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Thurston
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Map of Thurston Island
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Thurston
Location of Thurston Island
Geography
Location Antarctica
Coordinates 72°6′S99°0′W / 72.100°S 99.000°W / -72.100; -99.000 Coordinates: 72°6′S99°0′W / 72.100°S 99.000°W / -72.100; -99.000
Area15,700 km2 (6,100 sq mi)
Area rank 56th
Length215 km (133.6 mi)
Width90 km (56 mi)
Highest elevation750 m (2,460 ft)
Highest pointMount Howell
Administration
Administered under the Antarctic Treaty System

Thurston Island is an ice-covered, glacially dissected island, 215 km (134 mi) long, 90 km (56 mi) wide and 15,700 km2 (6,062 sq mi) in area, lying a short way off the northwest end of Ellsworth Land, Antarctica. It is the third largest island of Antarctica, after Alexander Island and Berkner Island.

Contents

The island was discovered from the air by Rear Admiral Byrd on February 27, 1940, who named it for W. Harris Thurston, New York textile manufacturer, designer of the windproof "Byrd Cloth" and sponsor of Antarctic expeditions. [1] Thurston Island is separated from the mainland by Peacock Sound, which is occupied by the western portion of Abbot Ice Shelf. [2] It divides Bellingshausen Sea to the east from Amundsen Sea to the west.

Originally charted as a peninsula, the feature was not recognised an island until 1960. [2]

Geography

The western extremity of the island is Cape Flying Fish. [3] The eastern extremity is Cape Annawan, off Tierney Peninsula. [4] The southeast end of the island is Cape Walker. [5]

The island is divided south-north by the Walker Mountains, a range of peaks and nunataks. [6] Several other peaks are situated on the Edwards and Noville Peninsulas. There are a large number of glaciers on Thurston Island.

Features by coast

North coast

The north coast of the island is indented by a series of alternating inlets and peninsulas. Cape Petersen forms the westernmost portion of the northern coast. East of that is Jones Peninsula, then Dyer Point and Hughes Peninsula. Henry Inlet indents the coast to the east, and Tinglof Peninsula forms its eastern shore. Wagoner Inlet is east of that, followed by Starr Peninsula. Glacier Bight is to the east, and just north off the coast from them are the hazardous Porters Pinnacles. East of Starr Peninsula are Potaka Inlet, Kearns Peninsula, followed by Peale Inlet. The larger Noville Peninsula is to the east. It is bordered by Murphy Inlet, whose southern end is split into two prongs by Linsley Peninsula and Ball Peninsula. Edwards Peninsula, Koether Inlet, and the larger Evans Peninsula are to the east. Cadwalader Inlet, Lofgren Peninsula, and Morgan Inlet form the northeastern coast.

East coast

Satellite image of the island (northeast-up oriented) ThurstonIsland Terra MODIS.jpg
Satellite image of the island (northeast-up oriented)

The easternmost point of the island is Tierney Peninsula, southeast of which is Seraph Bay. Simpson Bluff, a broad ice-covered bluff sits between Levko Glacier and Savage Glacier where they enter the bay. [7] Nearby Baker Knob is a small rounded coastal elevation which has an abrupt east face. [8] Both Simpson Bluff and Baker Knob were named by US-ACAN for personnel from the Eastern Group of U.S. Navy Operation Highjump: Photographer's Mates R.M. Simpson and T.W. Baker, respectively. Operation Highjump obtained aerial photographs of Thurston Island and adjacent coastal areas, 1946-47. [7] [8]

Snow-covered Harrison Nunatak stands 4 nautical miles (7 km) south of Savage Glacier. It was discovered on helicopter flights from the USS Burton Island (AGB-1) and USS Glacier (AGB-4) during the U.S. Navy Bellingshausen Sea Expedition in February 1960, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Henry T. Harrison, Jr., a U.S. Weather Bureau meteorologist with the Byrd Antarctic Expedition in 1928–30. [9] [10]

The southeast point of the island is Cape Walker.

South coast

On the south side of the island are King Peninsula, Williamson Peninsula, Evans Point, and Von der Wall Point, projecting into Peacock Sound. Williamson Peninsula is bordered by Schwartz Cove and O'Dowd Cove.

Shelton Head is a headland marked by exposed rock, located 12 nmi (22 km) west of Long Glacier on the south coast of Thurston Island. It was mapped by the USGS from surveys and U.S. Navy air photos, 1960–66, and named by US-ACAN for John A. Shelton meteorologist at Byrd Station, 1963-64. [11]

Prickly Ridge is a rounded ice-covered ridge 4 nmi (7.4 km) west of Shelton Head on the south side of Thurston Island. The descriptive name was given by Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN); small dispersed nunataks rise above the ice surface giving the feature a prickly appearance. [12] Belknap Nunatak, an ice-covered spur, is the largest outcrop on the ridge. It was mapped by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) from surveys and from U.S. Navy air photos, 1960–66, and named by US-ACAN for William Belknap, a field assistant at Byrd Station, 1964–65. [13]

See also

Further reading

• International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences 5th : 1987, Geological Evolution of Antarctica , Cambridge, England, P 401
• A.M. GRUNO, D. V. Kent, I. W. D. Dalzeil, New Paleomagnetic Data From Thurston Island' Implications for the Tectonics of West Antarctica and Weddell Sea Opening , JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 96, NO. Bll, PAGES 17,935-17,954, OCTOBER 10, 1991

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Bear Peninsula

Bear Peninsula is a peninsula about 80 km (50 mi) long and 40 km (25 mi) wide which is ice covered except for several isolated rock bluffs and outcrops along its margins, lying 48 km 30 mi) east of Martin Peninsula on Walgreen Coast, Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica.

Zinberg Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Zinberg Glacier is a glacier in east Thurston Island; it flows east-northeast into Morgan Inlet between Tierney Peninsula and the promontory ending in Ryan Point. Named by Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) after Cpl. E. Zinberg, U.S. Army photographer in the Eastern Group of U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, which obtained aerial photographs of Thurston Island and adjacent coastal areas, 1946–47.

Noville Peninsula peninsula in Ellsworthland, Antarctica

Noville Peninsula is a high ice-covered peninsula about 30 nautical miles (60 km) long, between Peale and Murphy Inlets on the north side of Thurston Island in Antarctica. Delineated from aerial photographs made by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump in December 1946. Named for George O. Noville, executive officer of Byrd Antarctic Expedition, 1933–35.

Koether Inlet landform

Koether Inlet is an ice-filled inlet about 18 nautical miles (33 km) long, indenting the north coast of Thurston Island, Antarctica, between Edwards Peninsula and Evans Peninsula. It was first delineated from air photos taken by U.S. Navy Squadron VX-6 in January 1960. The inlet was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for Ensign Bernard Koether, a navigator on USS Glacier (AGB-4) in February 1960 who assisted in the charting of the Thurston Island coastline and in the accurate location of soundings.

Murphy Inlet landform

Murphy Inlet is an ice-filled inlet about 18 nautical miles (33 km) long, with two parallel branches at the head, lying between Noville and Edwards Peninsulas on the north side of Thurston Island. Delineated from aerial photographs taken by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump in December 1946. Named by Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for Charles J. V. Murphy, assistant to R. Admiral Byrd after Byrd Antarctic Expedition of 1928–30, and member of the wintering party of Byrd Antarctic Expedition of 1933–35.

Potaka Inlet landform

Potaka Inlet is a narrow ice-filled inlet about 8 nautical miles (15 km) long, indenting the north side of Thurston Island immediately east of Starr Peninsula. First delineated from air photos taken by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump in December 1946. Named by Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for Dr. Louis H. Potaka, medical officer with the Byrd Antarctic Expedition, 1933–35.

Pelter Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Pelter Glacier is a glacier about 5 nautical miles long on Thurston Island, flowing from the east side of Noville Peninsula into the west side of Murphy Inlet. Delineated from air photos taken by U.S. Navy Squadron VX-6 in January 1960. Named by Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for J.A. Pelter, aerial photographer with the Byrd Antarctic Expedition in 1933–35.

Evans Peninsula

Evans Peninsula is an ice-covered peninsula about 30 nautical miles (60 km) long, between Koether Inlet and Cadwalader Inlet in the northeast part of Thurston Island. Cape Braathen is an ice-covered cape at the northwest termination of Evans Peninsula. It was discovered in flights from the USS Burton Island and USS Glacier by personnel of the U.S. Navy Bellingshausen Sea Expedition in February 1960, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for Commander Griffith Evans, Jr., commander of the icebreaker Burton Island during this expedition.

Payne Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Payne Glacier is a glacier in the north part of Evans Peninsula, Thurston Island. It flows into the sea east of Cape Walden. Named by Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) after Photographer's Mate J.B. Payne, aircrewman in the Eastern Group of U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, which obtained aerial photographs of Thurston Island and adjacent coastal areas, 1946–47.

Hale Glacier Glacier in Antarctica

Hale Glacier is a glacier about 6 nautical miles (11 km) long, located just east of Mount Simpson on Thurston Island, Antarctica, and flowing southwest to the Abbot Ice Shelf in Peacock Sound. It was delineated from air photos taken by U.S. Navy Squadron VX-6 in January 1960, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for Lieutenant Bill J. Hale, U.S. Navy, a helicopter pilot aboard USS Burton Island who made exploratory flights to Thurston Island in February 1960.

Long Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Long Glacier is a glacier about 8 nautical miles long in the southeastern part of Thurston Island, Antarctica. It flows south to the Abbot Ice Shelf, 14 nautical miles (26 km) west of Harrison Nunatak. The glacier was mapped by the United States Geological Survey from surveys and U.S. Navy air photos, 1960–66, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for Fred A. Long, Jr., an aviation machinist of U.S. Navy Squadron VX-6, who wintered at Little America V in 1957 and was in Antarctica in the 1960–61 and 1962–63 seasons.

Lofgren Peninsula

Lofgren Peninsula is an ice-covered peninsula about 22 nautical miles (40 km) long, projecting between Cadwalader Inlet and Morgan Inlet on the northeast side of Thurston Island, Antarctica. The northern extremity of the peninsula is Cape Menzel, a bold rock cape. These features were discovered in helicopter flights from the USS Burton Island and the USS Glacier of the U.S. Navy Bellingshausen Sea Expedition in February 1960, and was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names. The peninsula was named for Charles E. Lofgren, personnel officer with the Byrd Antarctic Expedition, 1928–30. The cape was named for Reinhard W. Menzel, a geomagnetist-seismologist with the Eights Station winter party, 1965.

Hughes Peninsula

Hughes Peninsula is an ice-covered peninsula about 18 nautical miles (33 km) long, lying west of Henry Inlet on the north side of Thurston Island, Antarctica. At the northeast end of the peninsula is ice-covered Cape Davies. These features were plotted from air photos taken by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump in December 1946 and named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names. The peninsula was named for Jerry Hughes, a photographer's mate with the U.S. Navy Bellingshausen Sea Expedition in February 1960, who took aerial photographs of Thurston Island from helicopters. The cape was named for Danny Davies, a social worker with the Byrd Antarctic Expedition in 1928–30.

Tierney Peninsula

Tierney Peninsula is an ice-covered peninsula about 14 nautical miles (26 km) long, between Savage Glacier and Morgan Inlet in the east end of Thurston Island. The east extremity of the peninsula is Cape Annawan. These features were discovered on helicopter flights from the USS Burton Island and Glacier of the U.S. Navy Bellingshausen Sea Expedition in February 1960 and named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN). The peninsula was named for J.Q. Tierney, oceanographer aboard the Burton Island on this expedition. The cape was named for the ship Annawan of the United States Expedition of 1829–31, which with the Penguin sailed west from the South Shetland Islands in February 1830, holding a course between 62S and 58S and exploring as far as 103W, northward of this cape.

Tinglof Peninsula

Tinglof Peninsula is an ice-covered peninsula, 10 nautical miles (18 km) long, between Henry and Wagoner Inlets on the north side of Thurston Island. Delineated from aerial photographs taken by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump in December 1946. Named by Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for Iver (Ivor) Tinglof, tractor mechanic of the Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition in 1933–35, who built at Little America the first heavy cargo sleds for use in the Antarctic.

Rochray Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Rochray Glacier is a glacier about 5 nautical miles (9 km) long, located just east of Hendersin Knob on Thurston Island and flowing south to Abbot Ice Shelf in Peacock Sound. First delineated from air photos taken by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump in December 1946. Named by Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) for Lieutenant (j.g.) Samuel Rochray, U.S. Navy, helicopter pilot on USS Glacier in February 1960, who made several flights in which new parts of Thurston Island were discovered. Jordan Nunatak stands between Rochray and Cox Glacier.

References

  1. "Thurston Island". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  2. 1 2 "Antarctic Gazetteer: Thurston Island". Australian Antarctic Division. Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
  3. "Cape Flying Fish". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  4. "Cape Annawan". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  5. "Cape Walker". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  6. "Walker Mountains". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  7. 1 2 "Simpson Bluff". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  8. 1 2 "Baker Knob". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2011-05-17.
  9. "Harrison Nunatak". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2012-05-28.
  10. Alberts, Fred G., ed. (June 1995). Geographic Names of the Antarctic (PDF) (second ed.). United States Board on Geographic Names. p. 314. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
  11. "Shelton Head". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  12. "Prickly Ridge". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  13. "Belknap Nunatak". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-08-29.

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