Thusnelda

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Thusnelda statue in Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence. Thusnelda Loggia dei Lanzi 2005 09 13.jpg
Thusnelda statue in Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence.
Thusnelda at the Triumph of Germanicus, by Karl von Piloty, 1873 Carl Theodor von Piloty Thusnelda im Triumphzug des Germanicus.jpg
Thusnelda at the Triumph of Germanicus, by Karl von Piloty, 1873

Thusnelda /ðʌsˈnɛldə/ (c. 10 BC – unknown) was a Germanic noblewoman who was captured by the Roman general Germanicus during his invasion of Germania. She was the wife of Arminius. Tacitus and Strabo cite her capture as evidence of both the firmness and restraint of Roman arms.

Contents

Biography

Thusnelda was the daughter of the pro-Roman Cheruscan prince Segestes. In 9 AD, Arminius, Thusnelda's future husband, led a coalition of Germanic tribes that defeated the legions of Publius Quinctilius Varus at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. The conflict between the Roman Empire and the Germanic tribes continued after the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, and Arminius abducted and impregnated Thusnelda circa 14 AD, likely as a result of a dispute with her pro-Roman father. [1]

In May 15 AD, Thusnelda was captured by Germanicus, who commanded the invasion of Germania. She was pregnant and staying with her father, who had seized her from Arminius at some point. It was Segestes who delivered her to Germanicus, after the latter saved the former by driving off Arminius' forces, who had besieged Segestes. [2] Arminius grieved his loss of Thusnelda deeply and did not marry again. [3] According to Tacitus, Arminius was "driven to frenzy" by the loss of his wife. [4] [5]

During her captivity, Thusnelda gave birth to her and Arminius' only child, Thumelicus. At the Battle of the Weser River, Arminius engaged in a famous disputation with his brother Flavus, who was still serving in the Roman army. Flavus informed Arminius that Thusnelda was being well-treated — as, he claimed, was typical of Rome. On May 26, 17 AD, Thusnelda and her son Thumelicus were displayed as prized trophies of the triumph granted to Germanicus. During the triumphal parade, her father was forced to watch from the stands. [6] Contemporary historians evince discomfort with her display as evidence of Roman victory in Germania, as Arminius had resisted capture. [7]

Thusnelda's son, Thumelicus, was trained at the gladiator school in Ravenna and is believed to have died in a gladiator show at a young age. Tacitus wrote that he would report on Thumelicus' fate "at the proper time" — i.e., when he discussed the year in question in his chronicle. [8] The main gap in the text of the Annals is for 30 and 31 AD, so it could be that Thumelicus died then, aged 15 or 16.

Details of Thusnelda's life after the triumph of 17 AD and her date of death are unknown.

See also

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References

  1. Tacitus, The Annals 1.55
  2. Tacitus, The Annals 1.57
  3. "Thusnelda, Wife of Hermann". www.germanamericanpioneers.org. Retrieved 2019-06-01.
  4. "Arminius". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2019-06-01.
  5. Tacitus, The Annals 1.59
  6. Strabo, Geography, VII.4.33–38
  7. Beard, Mary (2007). The Roman Triumph . The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p.  107. ISBN   978-0-674-02613-1.
  8. Tacitus, The Annals 1.58