Thutade Lake

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Thutade Lake
Canada British Columbia relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Thutade Lake
Location British Columbia
Coordinates 56°53′N127°00′W / 56.883°N 127.000°W / 56.883; -127.000 Coordinates: 56°53′N127°00′W / 56.883°N 127.000°W / 56.883; -127.000
Primary inflows Thutade Creek (Originating from Alma Peak, it is the most distant headwater of the Mackenzie River system)
Primary outflows Finlay River
Basin  countriesCanada
Max. length40 km (25 mi)
Max. width2 km (1.2 mi)
Surface elevation1,200 meters (3,900 ft)

Thutade Lake is located in the Omineca Mountains of the Northern Interior of British Columbia, Canada. About 40 km in length, and no more than about 2 km wide, the lake is primarily significant as the ultimate source of the Mackenzie River. [1] The lake is at the head of the Finlay River, [2] which joins the Peace River via Williston Lake. The area is very remote, being located about 260 km north of Smithers, although several mining operations for ores containing copper, lead, zinc and silver have occurred around the lake. [3] [4] The largest of these is the Kemess Mine, an iron and copper property originally owned by Royal Oak Mines and now by Northgate Minerals, located in the valley of Kemess Creek, which is off the northeast end of Thutade Lake. The mine is accessed by the Omineca Resource Road and other resource routes, and is 400 km by road from Prince George. Just downstream from the outlet of Thutade Lake, the Finlay plunges over 180-foot (55 m) Cascadero Falls, [5] and then through a series of cataracts in a twisting course until it begins its main northeastward trend. Cascadero Falls is slated for hydroelectric development in connection with the power needs of the area's mines.

History

The first European to explore the lake and its surrounding area was Samuel Black in 1824. [6] The upper end of the lake is the Tatlatui Range, which is astride the Continental Divide of the Americas, and which with the adjoining valley of Tatlatui Lake forms Tatlatui Provincial Park.

Related Research Articles

Peace River

The Peace River is a 1,923-kilometre-long (1,195 mi) river in Canada that originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows to the northeast through northern Alberta. The Peace River joins the Athabasca River in the Peace-Athabasca Delta to form the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River. The Finlay River, the main headwater of the Peace River, is regarded as the ultimate source of the Mackenzie River. The combined Finlay–Peace–Slave–Mackenzie river system is the 13th longest river system in the world.

Williston Lake

Williston Lake is a reservoir created by the W. A. C. Bennett Dam and is located in the Northern Interior of British Columbia, Canada.

Rocky Mountain Trench

The Rocky Mountain Trench, also known as the Valley of a Thousand Peaks or simply the Trench, is a large valley on the western side of the northern part of North America's Rocky Mountains. The Trench is both visually and cartographically a striking physiographic feature extending approximately 1,600 km (1,000 mi) from Flathead Lake, Montana to the Liard River, just south of the British Columbia–Yukon border near Watson Lake, Yukon. The trench bottom is 3–16 km (1.9–9.9 mi) wide and is 600–900 m (2,000–3,000 ft) above sea level. The general orientation of the Trench is an almost straight 150/330° geographic north vector and has become convenient as a visual guide for aviators heading north or south.

Samuel Black British fur trader and explorer, Clerk in the New North Nest Company (XYC) and Wintering Partner in the North West Company (NWC), and later Clerk, Chief Trader, and Chief factor in the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) for the Columbia District. In 1824, he explored the Finlay River and its tributaries in present-day north-central British Columbia, including the Muskwa, Omineca and Stikine for the HBC, his journals later published by the Hudson's Bay Record Society in 1955.

Finlay River

The Finlay River is a 402 km long river in north-central British Columbia flowing north and thence south from Thutade Lake in the Omineca Mountains to Williston Lake, the impounded waters of the Peace River formed by the completion of the W.A.C. Bennett Dam in 1968. Prior to this, the Finlay joined with the Parsnip River to form the Peace. The headwaters of the Finlay at Thutade Lake are considered the ultimate source of the Mackenzie River. Deserters Canyon is located just north of Williston Lake.

Fort Ware Place in British Columbia, Canada

Fort Ware, is now the former name of the community of Kwadacha. Referred to by locals simply as Ware it is an aboriginal community in northern British Columbia, Canada, located in the Rocky Mountain Trench at the confluence of the Finlay, Kwadacha and Fox Rivers, in the Rocky Mountain Trench upstream from the end of the Finlay Reach of Williston Lake. According to the Natural Resources Canada website, the population of Fort Ware is 350. Fort Ware is in the federal electoral riding of Prince George-Peace River.

Omineca Mountains

The Omineca Mountains, also known as "the Ominecas", are a group of remote mountain ranges in the Boreal Cordillera of north-central British Columbia, Canada. They are bounded by the Finlay River on the north, the Rocky Mountain Trench on the east, the Nation Lakes on the south, and the upper reaches of the Omineca River on the west. They form a section of the Continental Divide, that, in this region, separates water drainage between the Arctic and Pacific Oceans. The lower course of the Omineca River flows through the heart of the range. To the south of the Ominecas is the Nechako Plateau, to the west the Skeena Mountains and Hazelton Mountains, to the north the Spatsizi Plateau and the Stikine Ranges, while east across the Rocky Mountain Trench are the Muskwa Ranges.

Nechako Plateau

The Nechako Plateau is the northernmost subdivision of the Interior Plateau, one of the main geographic regions of the Canadian province of British Columbia. It spans the basin of the Nechako River and its tributaries the Stuart River and Endako Rivers, and is bounded on the south by the West Road River, south of which is the Chilcotin Plateau and on the north by the Nation River and the valleys of Babine and Takla Lakes, beyond which are the Omineca Mountains (N) and Skeena Mountains (NW). To the west, it abuts the various ranges of the Hazelton Mountains while on its east it is bounded by the pass between Prince George, British Columbia and the Parsnip Arm of Williston Lake, beyond which is the McGregor Plateau, which skirts the Northern Rockies. Some classification systems include the plateau area on the east bank of the Fraser River beyond the city of Prince George; this area neighbours the northernmost reaches of the Quesnel Highland and Cariboo Mountains.

Interior Mountains

The Interior Mountains or Northern Interior Mountains are the semi-official names for a huge collection of mountain ranges that comprises much of the northern half of the Canadian province of British Columbia and a large area of southern Yukon.

British Columbia Interior Region in British Columbia, Canada

The British Columbia Interior, popularly referred to as the BC Interior or simply the Interior, is a geographic region of the Canadian province of British Columbia. While the exact boundaries are variously defined, the British Columbia Interior is generally defined to include the 14 regional districts that do not have coastline along the Pacific Ocean or Salish Sea, and are not part of the Lower Mainland. Other boundaries may exclude parts of or even entire regional districts, or expand the definition to include the regional districts of Fraser Valley, Squamish-Lillooet, and Kitimat-Stikine.

Frank Swannell

Frank Cyril Swannell was one of British Columbia's most famous surveyors.

Kemess Mine

The Kemess Mine was an open-pit copper and gold mine, located just northeast of the foot of Thutade Lake, at the head of the Finlay River, in the Omineca Mountains of the Northern Interior of British Columbia, Canada. It was operated by Royal Oak Mines from 1998 to 1999, when it was bought by Northgate Minerals. Northgate operated the mine until its closure in 2011; that year Northgate was taken over by AuRico Gold. In 2014 AuRico Gold partitioned off its portion of Kemess Mine ownership creating a new company called AuRico Metals.

The Metsantan Range are a mountain range between the upper Stikine and the Finlay River drainages in northern British Columbia, Canada. It has an area of 1116 km2 and is a subrange of the Omineca Mountains which in turn form part of the Interior Mountains.

The Tatlatui Range is a large and very alpine mountain range on the east flank of the upper Skeena River in northern British Columbia, Canada. It has an area of 2307 km2 and is a subrange of the Omineca Mountains which in turn form part of the Interior Mountains. The range features several lakes, the largest of which, Thutade Lake, is at the head of the Finlay River, and is considered the ultimate source of the Mackenzie River. Tatlatui Lake, the next largest lake in the range, to the northwest of Thutade Lake, is at the head of the Firesteel River, a tributary of the Finlay. Various summits of the range, which as described separates the Pacific and Arctic drainages, form part of the Continental Divide. Most of the range and its lakes are in Tatlatui Provincial Park.

Tatlatui Lake

Tatlatui Lake is a lake in the Tatlatui Range of the Omineca Mountains of the Northern Interior of British Columbia, Canada. It is the source of the Firesteel River, the uppermost left tributary of the Finlay River, which begins just southeast at Thutade Lake, which is considered the ultimate source of the Mackenzie River. The lake and adjoining summits are part of Tatlatui Provincial Park.

Cascadero Falls is a waterfall on the Finlay River in the Northern Interior of British Columbia, Canada, located just below that river's head at the outlet of Thutade Lake. The height of the falls is 180 ft and below it there are numerous cascades or rapids in a twisting course prior to the river's general northeastward trend from this area. The falls are slated for hydroelectric development in connection with the area's mines, the largest of which is the Kemess Mine owned by Northgate Minerals Inc., located just east of the foot of Thutade Lake in the valley of Kemess Creek.

Metsantan Pass, 1,270 metres (4,167 ft), is a mountain pass in the Metsantan Range of the Omineca Mountains in the Northern Interior of British Columbia, Canada. It is located between Metsantan Lake, in the drainage basin of the Stikine River (NW) and the headwaters of the Toodoggone River (SE), a tributary of the Finlay River which is part of the Peace-Mackenzie River drainage area, and therefore is located along the Continental Divide.

Vital Creek is a creek located in the Omineca Country region of British Columbia, flowing eastward from its source in the Vital Range to meet Silver Creek, joining that creek from the west about 5 miles from its mouth into the Omineca River, about 41 km northeast of Takla Landing.

Duncan (Amazay) Lake

Duncan Lake – known as Amazay Lake in Sekani– is a natural 6 km (3.7 mi)-long wilderness fish-bearing lake with rainbow trout and whitefish populations, located at the headwaters of the Findlay watershed. in the Omineca Mountains of the Northern Interior of British Columbia, Canada. The Finlay River

References

  1. Atlas of Canada, Rivers of Canada page
  2. "Thutade Lake". BC Geographical Names.
  3. BC Minfile report summary
  4. BC Minfile report summary
  5. "Cascadero Falls". BC Geographical Names.
  6. Black, Samuel, A Voyage of Discovery from Rocky Mountain Portage on Peace River to the Source of Finlays Branch and North-Westward, 13 May to 23 June 1824, British Columbia Archives