Thutmose IV

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Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian : ḏḥwtj.msj(.w) "Thoth is born") [1] was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, who ruled in approximately the 14th century BC. His prenomen or royal name, Menkheperure, means "Established in forms is Re." [2]

Contents

Life

Close-up of a scene from the Dream Stele depicting Thutmose IV giving offerings to the Great Sphinx of Giza. From a full-sized reproduction on display at the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, San Jose. ReproductionOfDreamSteleOfThutmoseIV-CloseUp RosicrucianEgyptianMuseum.png
Close-up of a scene from the Dream Stele depicting Thutmose IV giving offerings to the Great Sphinx of Giza. From a full-sized reproduction on display at the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, San Jose.

Thutmose IV was born to Amenhotep II and Tiaa, but was not actually the crown prince and Amenhotep II's chosen successor to the throne. Some scholars speculate that Thutmose ousted his older brother in order to usurp power and then commissioned the Dream Stele in order to justify his unexpected kingship. Thutmose's most celebrated accomplishment was the restoration of the Great Sphinx of Giza and subsequent commission of the Dream Stele. According to Thutmose's account on the Dream Stele, while the young prince was out on a hunting trip, he stopped to rest under the head of the Sphinx, which was buried up to the neck in sand. He soon fell asleep and had a dream in which the Sphinx told him that if he cleared away the sand and restored it he would become the next pharaoh. After completing the restoration of the Sphinx, he placed a carved stone tablet, now known as the Dream Stele, between the two paws of the Sphinx. The restoration of the Sphinx, and the text of the Dream Stele would then be a piece of propaganda on Thutmose's part, meant to bestow legitimacy upon his unexpected kingship. [3]

Syrian ("Retjenu") tribute bearers in the tomb of Sobekhotep, during the reign of Thutmose IV, Thebes. British Museum West Asiatic tribute bearers tomb of Sobekhotep 18th Dynasty Thebes.jpg
Syrian (" Retjenu ") tribute bearers in the tomb of Sobekhotep, during the reign of Thutmose IV, Thebes. British Museum

Little is known about his brief ten-year rule. He suppressed a minor uprising in Nubia in his 8th year (attested in his Konosso stela) around 1393 BC and was referred to in a stela as the Conqueror of Syria, [4] but little else has been pieced together about his military exploits. Betsy Bryan, who penned a biography of Thutmose IV, says that Thutmose IV's Konosso stela appears to refer to a minor desert patrol action on the part of the king's forces to protect certain gold-mine routes in Egypt's Eastern Desert from occasional attacks by the Nubians. [5] Thutmose IV's rule is significant because he established peaceful relations with Mitanni and married a Mitannian princess to seal this new alliance. Thutmose IV's role in initiating contact with Egypt's former rival, Mitanni, is documented by Amarna letter EA 29 composed decades later by Tushratta, a Mittanian king who ruled during the reign of Akhenaten, Thutmose IV's grandson. Tushratta states to Akhenaten that:

When [Menkheperure], the father of Nimmureya (i.e., Amenhotep III) wrote to Artatama, my grandfather, he asked for the daughter of my grandfather, the sister of my father. He wrote 5, 6 times, but he did not give her. When he wrote my grandfather 7 times, then only under such pressure, did he give her. (EA 29) [6]

Dates and length of reign

Thutmose IV wearing the khepresh, Musee du Louvre. Thutmosis IV.jpg
Thutmose IV wearing the khepresh, Musée du Louvre.
Fragment of a crudely carved limestone stela showing king Thutmose IV adoring a goddess (probably Astarte). From Thebes, Egypt. 18th Dynasty. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London Fragment of a crudely carved limestone stela showing king Thutmose IV adoring a goddess (probably Astarte). From Thebes, Egypt. 18th Dynasty. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London.jpg
Fragment of a crudely carved limestone stela showing king Thutmose IV adoring a goddess (probably Astarte). From Thebes, Egypt. 18th Dynasty. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Dating the beginning of the reign of Thutmose IV is difficult to do with certainty because he is several generations removed from the astronomical dates which are usually used to calculate Egyptian chronologies, and the debate over the proper interpretation of these observances has not been settled. Thutmose's grandfather Thutmose III almost certainly acceded the throne in either 1504 or 1479, based upon two lunar observances during his reign, [7] and ruled for nearly 54 years. [8] His successor Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV's father, took the throne and ruled for at least 26 years [9] but has been assigned up to 35 years in some chronological reconstructions. [10] The currently preferred reconstruction, after analyzing all this evidence, usually comes to an accession date around 1401 BC [11] or 1400 BC [12] for the beginning of Thutmose IV's reign.

The length of his reign is not as clear as one would wish. He is usually given about nine or ten years of reign. Manetho credits him a reign of 9 years and 8 months. [13] However, Manetho's other figures for the 18th Dynasty are frequently assigned to the wrong kings or simply incorrect, so monumental evidence is also used to determine his reign length. [14] Of all of Thutmose IV's dated monuments, three date to his first regnal year, one to his fourth, possibly one to his fifth, one to his sixth, two to his seventh, and one to his eighth. [15] Two other dated objects, one dated to a Year 19 and another year 20, have been suggested as possibly belonging to him, but neither have been accepted as dating to his reign. [15] The readings of the king's name in these dates are today accepted as referring to the prenomen of Thutmose III—Menkheperre—and not Menkhepe[ru]re Thutmose IV himself. Due to the absence of higher dates for Thutmose IV after his Year 8 Konosso stela, [16] Manetho's figures here are usually accepted. [13] There were once chronological reconstructions which gave him a reign as long as 34–35 years. [13] [17] Today, however, most scholars ascribe him a 10-year reign from 1401 to 1391 BC, within a small margin of error.

Monuments

Thutmose IV's Karnak chapel Karnak Musee 03.jpg
Thutmose IV's Karnak chapel
Thutmose IV's peristyle hall at Karnak Thutmose IV's peristyle hall (Horus-2009).jpg
Thutmose IV's peristyle hall at Karnak

Like most of the Thutmoside kings, he built on a grand scale. Thutmose IV completed the eastern obelisk at the Temple of Karnak started by Thutmose III, which, at 32 m (105 ft), was the tallest obelisk ever erected in Egypt. [4] Thutmose IV called it the tekhen waty or 'unique obelisk.' It was transported to the grounds of the Circus Maximus in Rome by Emperor Constantius II in 357 AD and, later, "re-erected by Pope Sixtus V in 1588 at the Piazza San Giovanni" where it is today known as the Lateran Obelisk. [18]

Thutmose IV also built a unique chapel and peristyle hall against the back or eastern walls of the main Karnak temple building. [19] The chapel was intended for people "who had no right of access to the main [Karnak] temple. It was a 'place of the ear' for the god Amun where the god could hear the prayers of the townspeople." [20] This small alabaster chapel and peristyle hall of Thutmose IV [21] has today been carefully restored by French scholars from the Centre Franco-Egyptien D'Étude des Temple de Karnak (CFEETK) mission in Karnak. [22]

Burial and mummy

Thutmose IV's mummy. Thutmosis IV mummy head.png
Thutmose IV's mummy.

Thutmose IV was buried in tomb KV43 the Valley of the Kings but his body was later moved to the mummy cache in KV35, where it was discovered by Victor Loret in 1898. An examination of his mummy conducted by Grafton Elliot Smith revealed that he was extremely emaciated at the time of his death. His height was given as 1.646 m (5 ft 4.8 in) but considering that the feet have been broken off post-mortem, his height in life would have been taller. The forearms are crossed over the chest, right over left. His hair, which is parted in the middle, is about 16 cm (6.3 in) long and dark reddish-brown. His ears are also pierced. Elliot Smith estimated his age to be 25–28 years or possibly older. [23] He was succeeded to the throne by his son, Amenhotep III.

Recently a surgeon at Imperial College London analysed the early death of Thutmose IV and the premature deaths of other Eighteenth Dynasty pharaohs (including Tutankhamun and Akhenaten). He concludes that their early deaths were likely as a result of a familial temporal epilepsy. This would account for both the untimely death of Thutmose IV and also his religious vision described on the Dream Stele, due to this type of epilepsy's association with intense spiritual visions and religiosity. [24]

See also

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References

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  2. Clayton 1994, p. 112.
  3. Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1994. pp.113-114
  4. 1 2 Clayton 1994, p. 114.
  5. Bryan 1991, p. 335.
  6. William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. p.93
  7. Bryan 1991, p. 14.
  8. Peter Der Manuelian. Studies in the Reign of Amenophis II. p.20. Hildesheimer Ägyptologische Beiträge(HÄB) Verlag: 1987
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  10. Charles C. Van Siclen. "Amenhotep II", The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Ed. Donald Redford. Vol. 1, p.71. Oxford University Press, 2001.
  11. Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, (1997) p.190
  12. Shaw, Ian; and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. p.290. The British Museum Press, 1995.
  13. 1 2 3 Bryan 1991, p. 4.
  14. Bryan 1991, p. 5.
  15. 1 2 Bryan 1991, p. 6.
  16. BAR II, 823-829
  17. Wente, E.F.; and Van Siclen, C. "A Chronology of the New Kingdom." SAOC 39
  18. Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Books, 1992. p.303
  19. Kemp 1989, p. 202.
  20. Kemp 1989, p. 303.
  21. Accessible online in the Karnak project database: http://www.cfeetk.cnrs.fr/karnak/?iu=2775&hl=en
  22. Al-Ahram, Fruitful seasons, 21–27 November 2002, Issue No.613
  23. Elliot Smith, G. (1912). The Royal Mummies (2000 reprint ed.). Bath, UK: Duckworth. pp. 42–46. ISBN   0-7156-2959-X.
  24. Ashrafian, Hutan. "Familial epilepsy in the pharaohs of ancient Egypt's eighteenth dynasty". Epilepsy Behav. 25: 23–31. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2012.06.014. PMID   22980077.

Sources

Further reading