The Thuyền Tôn Temple is a historic pagoda in the central Vietnamese city of Huế.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula. With an estimated 94.6 million inhabitants as of 2016, it is the 15th most populous country in the world. Vietnam is bordered by China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, part of Thailand to the southwest, and the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast. Its capital city has been Hanoi since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1976, while its most populous city is Ho Chi Minh City.
Huế (Vietnamese: [hwě] is a city in central Vietnam that was the capital of Đàng Trong Kingdom from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyễn Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. A major attraction is its vast, 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls. It encompasses the Imperial City, with palaces and shrines; the Forbidden Purple City, once the emperor's home; and a replica of the Royal Theater. The city was also the battleground for the Battle of Huế, which was one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.
The temple was founded by Zen Master Thích Liễu Quán, who arrived north from the southern Phú Yên Province at the end of the 17th century. Thích Liễu Quán opened the Thuyền Tôn Temple in approximately 1708.
Phú Yên is a coastal province in the South Central Coast of Vietnam. It is the easternmost province of Vietnam's mainland.
A stupa was built to inter his remains after his death. At the entrance of the stupa, the words “Đàm hoa lạc khứ hữu dư hương” are inscribed. Today, this is the only part of the original temple that remains.
The main temple has since moved to Ngũ Tây in the Thủy An ward of Huế. The current temple stands to left of Thiên Thai mountain, so it is also known by the alternative name Thiên Thai Thuyền Tôn Tự (Hán tự: 天 台 禪 宗 寺).
In approximately the middle of the 18th century, a government official known as Mai Van Hoan had engaged in activism to raise funds to construct a temple, approximately one kilometre from the original site. The giant bell of the temple was cast during this period, with the stamp on the showing the year 1747. The temple was further renovated and expanded due to the private funding of a lady named Lê Thị Tạ in 1808.
The abbots of the newly rebuilt temple were Thích Tế Hiệp, Thích Tế Mẫn, Thích Đại Huệ, Thích Đại Nghĩa, Thích Đạo Tâm and Thích Đạo Tại, Thích Tánh Thiện, Thích Hải Nhuận, Thích Thanh Liêm, Thích Thanh Đức.
In 1937, Thích Giác Nhiên organised a major building works program for the temple. Thích Giác Nhiên was well known for his major efforts in the revival of Buddhism in the first half of the 20th century of Vietnam. He played a major role in the running of the temple and held major roles on the leadership of the United Vietnamese Buddhist Congregation until his death at the age of 102 in 1979.
The temple is known for its classical architecture and traditional layout of the altars in the temple. At the front of the main ceremonial hall is a statue of Gautama Buddha. There are statues of the Pho Hien, Van Thu Su Loi and Chuan De bodhisattvas. The temple has a ceremonial bell and wooden fish gong. There is a statue of Avalokiteśvara, flanked by Ananda and Mahākāśyapa, the personal attendant of the Buddha and the first patriarch of Buddhism respectively. There is another statue of Ksitigarbha in the temple.
Looking in from the front of the triple gate, the quarters of Thích Giác Nhiên has remained in the same state. The stupa dedicated to him is directly in front of the door of his room, against the backdrop of Thiên Thai mountain.
Buddhism in Vietnam, as practised by the ethnic Vietnamese, is mainly of the Mahayana tradition. Buddhism may have first come to Vietnam as early as the 3rd or 2nd century BCE from the Indian subcontinent or from China in the 1st or 2nd century CE. Vietnamese Buddhism has had a syncretic relationship with certain elements of Taoism, Chinese spirituality and the Vietnamese folk religion.
Trần Nhân Tông, given name Trần Khâm, was the third emperor of the Trần dynasty, reigning over Đại Việt from 1278 to 1293. After ceding the throne to his son Trần Anh Tông, Nhân Tông held the title Retired Emperor from 1294 to his death in 1308. During the second and third Mongol invasions of Đại Việt, the Emperor Nhân Tông and his father the Retired Emperor Thánh Tông were credited as the supreme commanders who led the Trần dynasty to the final victories and since established a long period of peace and prosperity over the country.
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[[File:A temple in Hương Pagoda.jpg|thumb|A temple in the Perfume Temple Complex]]
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Prince Tĩnh Quốc Trần Quốc Khang (1237–1300) was the first prince of the Emperor Trần Thái Tông, the eldest brother of Trần Thánh Tông and princes Trần Quang Khải, Trần Ích Tắc and Trần Nhật Duật. Although a son of Thái Tông in name, Trần Quốc Khang's father was actually Prince Hoài Trần Liễu, who was forced by grand chancellor Trần Thủ Độ to give up his wife, Princess Thuận Thiên, to his younger brother Thái Tông when she was already pregnant with Trần Quốc Khang. For this reason, Trần Quốc Khang was not chosen as successor of Thái Tông for the throne and he did not have a significant role in royal court either, as his younger brothers did. Afterwards he was appointed as governor of Nghệ An, a position that his descendants inherited. Since Trần Quốc Khang was in fact a son of Trần Liễu, he was also a natural brother of general Trần Hưng Đạo, commander-in-chief of Đại Việt army.
Prince Yên Sinh Trần Liễu (1211–1251) was the elder brother of the Trần Thái Tông, the first emperor of Trần Dynasty. Initially, Trần Liễu was honoured by his younger brother with the title King Hiển but he was downgraded to Prince Yên Sinh after the short-lived revolt in fury of losing his pregnant wife, Princess Thuận Thiên, to the Emperor under the pressure of Imperial Regent Trần Thủ Độ. Besides this event, Trần Liễu was well known in the history of Vietnam for being father of Trần Hưng Đạo, commander-in-chief of the Đại Việt army during the second and third war of resistance against the Mongol invasion.
Prince Hưng Nhượng Trần Quốc Tảng was the third son of Prince Hưng Đạo Trần Quốc Tuấn. He was a general of the Trần Dynasty during the reign of emperors Trần Nhân Tông and Trần Anh Tông who was also his son-in-law. As a member of Yên Sinh's line in Trần clan, Trần Quốc Tảng supported the plot of taking over the throne from Trần Cảnh's line which was opposed by his father Trần Quốc Tuấn and his elder brother Trần Quốc Nghiễn, this difference made Prince Hưng Đạo break off the paternal relation with Trần Quốc Tảng until his death in 1300.
Thiền Buddhism is the Vietnamese name for the Zen school of Buddhism. Thiền is derived from Chinese Chán (禪), which is in turn derived from the Pali term jhāna.