Thyamis

Last updated
Thyamis
Kalamas.jpg
Country Greece
Physical characteristics
River mouth Ionian Sea
39°35′12″N20°8′32″E / 39.58667°N 20.14222°E / 39.58667; 20.14222 Coordinates: 39°35′12″N20°8′32″E / 39.58667°N 20.14222°E / 39.58667; 20.14222
Length 115 km (71 mi)

The Thyamis (Greek : Θύαμις), also known as Glykys (Γλυκύς) [1] or Kalamas (Καλαμάς), [2] is a river in the Epirus region of Greece. It flows into the Ionian Sea. It is 115 km (71 mi) long. [3] The names of the Chameria region (Tsamouria in Greek), as well as the former Cham minority, derive from the river's name. Thyamis in ancient Greece was mentioned by Pausanias [4] as forming the boundary between Thesprotis and Kestrine. [5] [6]

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Epirus (region) Place in Epirus and Western Macedonia, Greece

Epirus, is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region in northwestern Greece. It borders the regions of West Macedonia and Thessaly to the east, West Greece to the south, the Ionian Sea and Ionian Islands to the west and Albania to the north. The region has an area of about 9,200 km2 (3,600 sq mi). It is part of the wider historical region of Epirus, which overlaps modern Albania and Greece but lies mostly within Greek territory.

Greece republic in Southeast Europe

Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki.

Contents

Some Renaissance scholars believed that the English River Thames owed its name to the River Thyamis, as early Celtic tribes were thought to have migrated from the Epirus region to England. While this belief influenced the modern spelling of the English river's name, it is no longer regarded as credible.

Renaissance cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the middle ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

River Thames river in southern England

The River Thames, known alternatively in parts as the Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At 215 miles (346 km), it is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom, after the River Severn.

Geography

The hydroelectric dam of river Thyamis, in Thesprotia Kalamas-staudamm.JPG
The hydroelectric dam of river Thyamis, in Thesprotia

The source of the river is near the village Kalpaki, in the northwestern part of the Ioannina regional unit. It flows south at first, and turns southwest near Soulopoulo. It receives its tributary Tyria near Vrosina, and turns west near Kyparisso in Thesprotia, where the hydroelectric dam is located. It empties into the Ionian Sea near the village Kestrini, between Igoumenitsa and Sagiada, close to the Albanian border.

Kalpaki Place in Greece

Kalpaki is a former municipality in the Ioannina regional unit, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pogoni, of which it is a municipal unit. It is situated about 30 km (19 mi) northwest of Ioannina, and southwest of Konitsa. The municipal unit has an area of 116.756 km2, the community 13.189 km2. Population 1,719 (2011). The Greek National Road 20 connects Kalpaki with Ioannina and Konitsa. The GR-22 connects Kalpaki with Kakavia, the border crossing into southern Albania.

Ioannina (regional unit) Regional unit in Epirus, Greece

Ioannina is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the Epirus region. Its capital is the city of Ioannina. It is the largest regional unit in Epirus, and one of the largest regional units of Greece.

Evrymenes, Ioannina Place in Greece

Evrymenes was a short-lived municipality (1996–2010) in the Ioannina Prefecture, Greece. Following the massive mergers that took place in accordance to Kallikratis Plan, since 2011 it holds the status of "municipal entity" (subdivision) within the Municipality of Zitsa. The municipal unit has an area of 73.958 km2. In 2011 its population was 1,009. The seat of the entity was in Klimatia. It is situated in the mountainous western part of the Ioannina regional unit.

Places along the river include, from source to mouth: Mazaraki, Soulopoulo, Vrosina, Raveni, Pente Ekklisies, Kyparisso, Parapotamos and Kestrini.

Ano Kalamas Place in Greece

Ano Kalamas is a former municipality in the Ioannina regional unit, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pogoni, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 86.50 km2. Population 2,526 (2011). The seat of the municipality was in Parakalamos.

Molossoi Place in Greece

Molossoi is a former municipality in the Ioannina regional unit, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Zitsa, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 241.281 km2. In 2011 its population was 1,646. The seat of the municipality is in Voutsaras.

Raveni Place in Greece

Raveni is a village in Thesprotia, Greece. The village is situated on the right bank of the river Thyamis, which flows into the Ionian Sea near Sagiada. It was the ancient city of Phanote, part of the kingdom of Thesprotia. It lies in the foothills of the mountain of Mourgana, where many battles of the Greek civil war took place after the Second World War. Raveni is part of the municipality of Filiates. In 2011 its population was 123. Raveni is 16 km northeast of Filiates town, 26 km northeast of Igoumenitsa and 32 km west of Ioannina.

During the interwar period of the 20th century, Albanian speaking villages of the Thyamis delta and river basin were small and scattered compared to the upland larger Greek villages of the hilly area to the north. [7]

Albanian language Indo-European language

Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. It comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other language in Europe.

Environment

Thyamis forms a river delta where it empties in the Ionian Sea, north of Igoumenitsa. The delta is known for being rich in flora and migrating birds stop in its waters for food and rest.

River delta Silt deposition landform at the mouth of a river

A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment that is carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, or another river that cannot carry away the supplied sediment. The size and shape of a delta is controlled by the balance between watershed processes that supply sediment, and receiving basin processes that redistribute, sequester, and export that sediment. The size, geometry, and location of the receiving basin also plays an important role in delta evolution. River deltas are important in human civilization, as they are major agricultural production centers and population centers. They can provide coastline defense and can impact drinking water supply. They are also ecologically important, with different species' assemblages depending on their landscape position.

Bird migration seasonal movement of birds

Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between breeding and wintering grounds. Many species of bird migrate. Migration carries high costs in predation and mortality, including from hunting by humans, and is driven primarily by availability of food. It occurs mainly in the northern hemisphere, where birds are funneled on to specific routes by natural barriers such as the Mediterranean Sea or the Caribbean Sea.

The river, however, has suffered from environmental degradation for decades, due to uncontrolled human activities (farming activity, urban and industrial effluents and waste, lack of management plan and poor coordination of competent authorities for its protection).

See also

Related Research Articles

Thesprotia Regional unit in Epirus, Greece

Thesprotia is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the Epirus region. Its capital and largest town is Igoumenitsa. Thesprotia is named after the Thesprotians, an ancient Greek tribe that inhabited the region in antiquity.

Aoös river

The Aoös or Vjosë is a river in northwestern Greece and southwestern Albania. Its total length is about 272 kilometres (169 mi), of which the first 80 kilometres (50 mi) are in Greece, and the remaining 192 kilometres (119 mi) are in Albania. Its drainage basin is 6,706 km2 (2,589 sq mi) and its average discharge is 195 m3/s (6,900 cu ft/s). It is fed by several tributaries, such as the Voidomatis, Sarantaporos, Drino and Shushicë.

Chameria Albanian designation for regions of Epirus

Chameria is a term used today mostly by Albanians for parts of the coastal region of Epirus in southern Albania and the historical Greek region of Epirus, traditionally associated with an Albanian speaking population called Chams. Apart from geographical usages, in contemporary times within Albania the toponym has also acquired irredentist connotations. During the interwar period, the toponym was in common use and the official name of the area above the Acheron river in all Greek state documents. Today it is obsolete in Greek, surviving in some old folk songs. Most of what is called Chameria is divided between the Greek regional units of Thesprotia and Preveza, the southern extremity of Albania's Sarandë District and some villages in eastern Ioannina regional unit. As the Greek toponyms Epirus and Thesprotia have been established for the region since antiquity, and given the negative sentiments towards Albanian irredentism, the term is not used by the locals on the Greek side of the border.

Thesprotians

The Thesprotians were an ancient Greek tribe and kingdom of Thesprotis, Epirus, akin to the Molossians. The poet Homer frequently mentions Thesprotia which had friendly relations with Ithaca and Doulichi. On their northeast frontier they had the Chaonians and to the north the kingdom of the Molossians. The Thesprotians originally controlled the Dodona oracle, the oldest in Greece. Later, they were part of the Epirus until they were annexed into the Roman Empire.

Igoumenitsa Place in Greece

Igoumenitsa, is a coastal city in northwestern Greece. It is the capital of the regional unit of Thesprotia.

Margariti Place in Greece

Margariti is a village and a former municipality in Thesprotia, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Igoumenitsa, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 149.223 km2. Population 2,491 (2011).

Paramythia Place in Greece

Paramythia is a town and a former municipality in Thesprotia, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Souli, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 342.197 km2. The town's population is 2,730 as of the 2011 census.

Parapotamos Place in Greece

Parapotamos is a village and a former municipality in Thesprotia, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Igoumenitsa, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 60.334 km2. Population 1,168 (2011). The village of Parapotamos, the former municipality's seat, was home to Cham Albanians, before 1944, when they were expelled for collaborating with Nazi forces.

Sagiada Place in Greece

Sagiada is a village and a former municipality in Thesprotia, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Filiates, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 87.803 km2. In 2011 its population was 594 for the village and 1,740 for the municipal unit. The seat of the municipality was in Asprokklisi. Sagiada stretches between the Ionian Sea to the west and Albania to the north. It is the westernmost point of mainland Greece. The river Thyamis flows into sea 4 km south of the village Sagiada. There are plains in the southern part of the municipal unit, and mountains on the Albanian border. The village Sagiada is 10 km west of Filiates, 15 km northwest of the capital of Thesprotia, Igoumenitsa, and 4 km south of the Albanian town of Konispol.

Filiates Place in Greece

Filiates is a town and a municipality in Thesprotia, Greece. It is located in the northernmost part of the regional unit, bordering western Ioannina regional unit and southern Albania.

Polydroso, Thesprotia Place in Greece

Polydroso is a small village in the municipal unit of Paramythia in Thesprotia, Greece. Its population in 2011 was 73. It is situated on a forested mountainside above the left bank of the river Thyamis, at about 450 m elevation. It is 10 km southwest of Voutsaras, 24 km northeast of Igoumenitsa and 31 km west of Ioannina. The Greek National Road 6 passes east of the village.

The Tyria is a river in the western part of the Ioannina regional unit in Epirus, Greece. It is a left tributary of the Thyamis. The source of the river Tyria is near the village Platania, on the western slope of the Tomaros mountain. It flows into a generally northwestern direction. It flows into the Thyamis, near Vrosina.

Agios Nikolaos, Thesprotia Place in Greece

Agios Nikolaos is a village in the municipality of Filiates, Thesprotia, Greece. It is situated in the forested mountains near the Albanian border. The river Kalpakioti flows east of the village. In 2011 its population was 78. It is 3 km southeast of the Albanian border, 12 km north of Filiates town, 23 km northeast of Igoumenitsa, 33 km southeast of Sarandë (Albania) and 45 km west of Ioannina.

Cham Albanian dialect

The Cham Albanian dialect is the dialect of the Albanian language spoken by the Cham Albanians, an ethnic Albanian minority in the Epirus region of northwestern Greece.

The Pavllë is a river in northwestern Greece and southern Albania. Its source is in the Mourgana mountains in Greece, near the village Ampelonas, Thesprotia. It flows west into Albania, along the villages Vagalat and Shkallë. It flows into the Ionian Sea a few km southwest of the archaeological site Butrint. There is a bridge across the river near the village Ampelonas, built in 1798.

Cestria or Kestria, also known as Ilium or Ilion (Ἴλιον), or Troja (Τροΐα), was a town in ancient Epirus. Its district was called Cestrine or Kestrine (Κεστρίνη), and was in the south of Chaonia, separated from Thesprotia by the river Thyamis. It is said to have received its name from Cestrinus, son of Helenus and Andromache, having been previously called Cammania or Kammania (Καμμανία). The principal town of the district was Cestria, but its more usual name appears to have been Ilium or Troja, in memory of the Trojan colony of Helenus. In the neighbourhood are those fertile pastures, which were celebrated in ancient times for the Cestrinic oxen. The inhabitants of the district were called Κεστρηνοί by the poet Rhianus.

References

  1. Strabo. Geography, 7.7. Note #35: "The Thyamus, or Thyamis, is now called Glycys, and the Acheron, Calamas."
  2. Peck, Harry Thurston. Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, 1898, p. 1579. "(Thuamis). Now Kalama; a river in Epirus, forming the boundary between Thesprotia and the district of Cestryna."
  3. Greece in Figures January - March 2018, p. 12
  4. Pausanias. Description of Greece, Attica, 1.11.2. "Helenus on his death passed on the kingdom to Molossus, son of Pyrrhus, so that Cestrinus with volunteers from the Epeirots took possession of the region beyond the river Thyamis, while Pergamus crossed into Asia and killed Areius..."
  5. Finley, M. I. The Portable Greek Historians: The Essence of Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius. Viking Portable Library, 1977, p. 220: "There also the river Thyamis flows, forming the boundary between Thesprotis and Kes-trine..."
  6. Pliny the Elder. Natural History, 4.1.2, "the Thyamis, a river of Thesprotia..."
  7. Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière (1967). Epirus: the Geography, the Ancient Remains, the History and Topography of Epirus and Adjacent Areas. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 89–90. ISBN   9780198142539. "The greater part of the canton of Filiates lies north of the lower Kalamas. It is contained between the river and its northern watershed, along which the present frontier runs between Greece and Albania. There is little fertile land except in the delta and the inner basin of the Kalamas. The northern part of the canton is broken up by a tangle of mountain peaks, and i found it difficult to traverse.... In contrast to the Albanian-speaking villages of the Kalamas delta and basin, these villages are Greek in speech and outlook,.... The other villages have on average some 200 houses, and they are considerably larger than the scattered Albanian-speaking villages of the Kalamas basin."