Thyatira

Last updated
Thyatira (Θυάτειρα)

Ancient City of Greece

CNM21-Pauls3rdJourney.gif
Paul's third journey
Turkey adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Thyatira
Coordinates: 38°55′12″N27°50′10″E / 38.92°N 27.836111°E / 38.92; 27.836111
Ruins of the city. Ruins of Thyateira.jpg
Ruins of the city.

Thyateira (also Thyatira) (Ancient Greek : Θυάτειρα) was the name of an ancient Greek city in Asia Minor, now the modern Turkish city of Akhisar ("white castle"). The name is probably Lydian. It lies in the far west of Turkey, south of Istanbul and almost due east of Athens. It is about 50 miles (80 km) from the Aegean Sea.

Contents

History

It was an ancient Greek city called Pelopia (Ancient Greek : Πελόπεια) and Semiramis (Ancient Greek : Σεμίραμις), [1] before it was renamed to Thyateira (Θυάτειρα), during the Hellenistic era in 290 BC, by the King Seleucus I Nicator. He was at war with Lysimachus when he learned that his wife had given birth to a daughter. According to Stephanus of Byzantium, he called this city "Thuateira" from Greek θυγάτηρ, θυγατέρα (thugatēr, thugatera), meaning "daughter", although it is likely that it is an older, Lydian name. [2] [3] In classical times, Thyatira stood on the border between Lydia and Mysia. During the Roman era, (1st century AD), it was famous for its dyeing facilities and was a center of the purple cloth trade. [4] Among the ancient ruins of the city, inscriptions have been found relating to the guild of dyers in the city. Indeed, more guilds συντεχνία suntechuia (syndicate) are known in Thyatira than any other contemporary city in the Roman province of Asia (inscriptions mention the following: wool-workers, linen-workers, makers of outer garments, dyers, leather-workers, tanners, potters, bakers, slave-dealers, and bronze-smiths). [5]

In early Christian times, Thyateira was home to a significant Christian church, mentioned as one of the seven Churches of the Book of Revelation in the Book of Revelation. [6] According to Revelation, a woman named Jezebel (who called herself a prophetess) taught and seduced the Christians of Thyateira to commit sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols. [7] However, some commentators such as Benson and Doddridge have concluded that what is being here practised in Thyatira is the same apostasy promoted in Israel by Jezebel as mentioned in the Books of Kings and that use of her name here is a direct reference to such. Indeed, as Doddridge notes, "the resemblance appears so great" that, in his view, it is the "same heresy which is represented" [8]

The Apostle Paul and Silas might have visited Thyateira during Paul's second or third journey, although the evidence is entirely circumstantial. They visited several small unnamed towns in the general vicinity during the second journey. While in Philippi, Paul and Silas stayed with a woman named Lydia from Thyateira, who continued to help them even after they were jailed and released.

In 366, a battle fought near Thyateira saw the army of Roman emperor Valens defeat Roman usurper Procopius.

Notable people

Artemidorus (Ancient Greek : Ἀρτεμίδωρος) of Thyateira was an ancient Greek Olympic winners of the Stadion race, in the 193rd Olympiad at 8 BC. [9]

Nicander (Ancient Greek : Νίκανδρος), also known as Nicander of Thyateira (Ancient Greek : Νίκανδρος ὁ Θυατειρηνός) was an ancient Greek grammarian. [10] [11]

Lydia of Thyatira, businesswoman and deaconess in the Acts of the Apostles chapter 16 verse 11-40. She was the apostle Paul's first convert to Christianity in Europe.

Bishopric

19th-century Thyatira A dictionary of the Bible.. (1887) (14595164770).jpg
19th-century Thyatira

The city was home to a Christian community from the apostolic period. The community continued until 1922, when the Orthodox Christian population was deported.

Byzantine basilica of Thatira ThyatiraBasilika.jpg
Byzantine basilica of Thatira

In 1922, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople appointed an exarch for Western and Central Europe with the title Archbishop of Thyateira. The current archbishop of Thyateira (since 2019) is Nikitas Lulias. [13] The Archbishop of Thyateira resides in London and has pastoral responsibility for the Greek Orthodox Church in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Malta.

The see of Thyatira is also included, without archiepiscopal rank, in the Roman Catholic Church's list of titular sees. [14]

See also

Related Research Articles

Lydia Old Age kingdom of western Asia Minor

Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Indo-European language part of the Anatolian languages family known as Lydian. Its capital was Sardis.

Smyrna Ancient city

Smyrna was a Greek city located at a strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. Due to its advantageous port conditions, its ease of defense and its good inland connections, Smyrna rose to prominence. The modern name of the city is Izmir.

Akhisar Place in Manisa, Turkey

Akhisar is a county district and its town center in Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Western Turkey. Akhisar is also the ancient city of Thyatira.

Phoebe was a first-century Christian woman mentioned by the Apostle Paul in his Epistle to the Romans, verses 16:1-2. A notable woman in the church of Cenchreae, she was trusted by Paul to deliver his letter to the Romans. Paul refers to her both as a "servant" or "deacon" and as a helper or patron of many. This is the only place in the New Testament where a woman is specifically referred to with these two distinctions. Paul introduces Phoebe as his emissary to the church in Rome and, because they are not acquainted with her, Paul provides them with her credentials.

Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America

The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, headquartered in New York City, is an eparchy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Its current primate is Archbishop Elpidophoros of America.

Apamea Myrlea

Apamea Myrlea was an ancient city and bishopric on the Sea of Marmara, in Bithynia, Anatolia; its ruins are a few kilometers south of Mudanya, Bursa Province in the Marmara Region of Asian Turkey.

Lydia of Thyatira

Lydia of Thyatira is a woman mentioned in the New Testament who is regarded as the first documented convert to Christianity in Europe. Several Christian denominations have designated her a saint.

Tripolis on the Meander Ancient Greek city in Turkey

Tripolis on the Meander – also Neapolis, Apollonia, and Antoniopolis – was an ancient city on the borders of Phrygia, Caria and Lydia, on the northern bank of the upper course of the Maeander, and on the road leading from Sardes by Philadelphia to Laodicea ad Lycum. It was situated 20 km to the northwest of Hierapolis.

Derbe

Derbe, also called Derbeia, was a city of Galatia in Asia Minor, and later of Lycaonia, and still later of Isauria and Cappadocia. It is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles at 14:6, 14:20, 16:1 and 20:4.

Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain

The Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain is an archdiocese of the Eastern Orthodox Church, part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Its present head is Archbishop Nikitas Loulias. Its jurisdiction covers those Orthodox Christians living in Great Britain, the Republic of Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands. The adherents are largely of Cypriot Greek descent, mainland Greek migrants and their descendants, and more recently native British converts along with a few Poles, Belarusians, and Ukrainians. The former archbishop, Gregorios, himself was a Cypriot whose ancestral village of Marathovounos, in the district of Famagusta, is occupied by the Turkish army. The archdiocese is based at Thyateira House, in the Bayswater district of London.

See of Sardis

The See of Sardis or Sardes was an episcopal see in the city of that name. It was one of the Seven Churches of the Apocalypse, held by metropolitan bishops since the middle to late 1st century, with jurisdiction over the province of Lydia, when this was formed in 295. After 1369 it became a titular see both for the Greek Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

Lydia is a feminine first name. It derives from the Greek Λυδία, Ludía, from λυδία, a feminine form of the ancient given name Λυδός (Lydus). The region of Lydia is said to be named for a king named Λυδός; the given name Lydia originally indicated ancestry or residence in the region of Lydia.

In Greek mythology, Carius or Karios was the son of Zeus and Torrhebia. His mother's name is connected to Torrhebos, name of a city in Lydia. According to Hellanicus, there was a mountain named Karios (Carius) near this city, with the sanctuary of Carius situated on it. Nicolaus Damascenus related of him the following tale. As Carius was wandering by a lake which later received the name Torrhebis, he heard the voices of nymphs singing; these nymphs, Nicolaus remarked, were also called the Muses by the Lydians. Carius learned the music from them, and taught it to the Lydians. This kind of music was known as "Torrhebian songs".

Articles related to Christianity include:

Acts 16

Acts 16 is the sixteenth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It records the second missionary journey of Paul, together with Silas and Timothy. The book containing this chapter is anonymous but early Christian tradition uniformly affirmed that Luke composed this book as well as the Gospel of Luke.

Thyatira (titular see)

Bishopric of Thyatira is a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church centered on the ancient Roman city of Thyatira in Asia Minor.

Tabala (Lydia)

Tabala, is the name of a Roman and Byzantine town and a Bishopric in ancient Lydia. Tabala was on the Hermus River, and minted its own coins. It is no doubt the same as the one mentioned by Hierocles under the name of Gabala, which is perhaps only miswritten for Tabala. It is even possible that it may be the town of Tabae or Tabai (Τάβαι), which Stephanus of Byzantium assigns to Lydia.

Apollonis , also known as Apollonia (Ἀπολλωνία), Apollones (Ἀπολλώνης), and Apollonias (Ἀπολλωνίας), was a city in ancient Lydia. It was located south of Apollonia in Mysia, where there is a ridge of hills, after crossing which the road to Sardis had on the left Thyatira, and on the right Apollonis, which was 300 stadia from Pergamum, and the same distance from Sardis. It was named after the queen Apollonis, the mother of Eumenes II and Attalus II of Pergamum, in the place of an older city; possibly Doidye. It was mentioned by Cicero. It was destroyed in 17 CE by the great earthquake that destroyed twelve cities of Asia Minor. Tiberius rebuilt the city. It issued coins; those from Marcus Aurelius to Severus Alexander are extant. Apollonis is a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.

Heraclea or Herakleia (Ἡράκλεια), also transliterated as Heracleia, was a town of ancient Lydia at the foot of Mount Sipylus. From this town magnets were known as Heracleus lapis.

Dios Hieron was a town of ancient Lydia, in the upper valley of the Cayster River. The city became part of the Roman Republic and the Roman province of Asia with the annexation of the Kingdom of Pergamon. It also bore the name Diospolis (Διόσπολις), and was cited by the sixth century Byzantine geographer Stephanus of Byzantium under that name. It was renamed to Christopolis or Christoupolis in the 7th century and was known as Pyrgium or Pyrgion (Πυργίον) from the 12th century on. Pyrgion fell to the Turks in 1307, and became the capital of the beylik of Aydin. The town minted coins in antiquity, often with the inscription "Διοσιερειτων".

References

  1. Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica, Th319.1
  2. Stephanus of Byzantium, De Urbibus ("On cities")
  3. Θυγάτηρ, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project
  4. Acts 16:14.
  5. W.M. Ramsey, The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, (Hodder, 1904), pp. 324-35.
  6. Rev. 1:11; 2:18-28.
  7. Rev. 2:20
  8. Benson. "Revelation 2 Benson Commentary". Biblehub. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  9. Eusebius, Chronography, 79
  10. Harpokration, Lexicon of the Ten Orators, Th33
  11. Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae, § 11.5
  12. Schaff, Philip, A dictionary of the Bible(1887).
  13. - Biography at the website of the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain
  14. Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN   978-88-209-9070-1), p. 988

Coordinates: 38°55′15″N27°50′30″E / 38.9208333333°N 27.8416666667°E / 38.9208333333; 27.8416666667