Thyatira

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Thyatira
Θυάτειρα
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Paul's third journey
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Thyatira
Coordinates: 38°55′12″N27°50′11″E / 38.920090°N 27.836253°E / 38.920090; 27.836253
Ruins of the city. Ruins of Thyateira.jpg
Ruins of the city.

Thyateira (also Thyatira; Ancient Greek : Θυάτειρα) was the name of an ancient Greek city in Asia Minor, now the modern Turkish city of Akhisar ("white castle"), Manisa Province. The name is probably Lydian. It lies in the far west of Turkey, south of Istanbul and almost due east of Athens. It is about 50 miles (80 km) from the Aegean Sea.

Contents

History

It was an ancient Greek city called Pelopia (Ancient Greek : Πελόπεια) and Semiramis (Ancient Greek : Σεμίραμις), [1] before it was renamed to Thyateira (Θυάτειρα), during the Hellenistic era in 290 BC, by the King Seleucus I Nicator. He was at war with Lysimachus when he learned that his wife had given birth to a daughter. According to Stephanus of Byzantium, he called this city "Thuateira" from Greek θυγάτηρ, θυγατέρα (thugatēr, thugatera), meaning "daughter", although it is likely that it is an older, Lydian name. [2] [3] In classical times, Thyatira stood on the border between Lydia and Mysia. During the Roman era, (1st century AD), it was famous for its dyeing facilities and was a center of the purple cloth trade.[ citation needed ] Among the ancient ruins of the city, inscriptions have been found relating to the guild of dyers in the city. Indeed, more guilds συντεχνία suntechuia (syndicate) are known in Thyatira than any other contemporary city in the Roman province of Asia (inscriptions mention the following: wool-workers, linen-workers, makers of outer garments, dyers, leather-workers, tanners, potters, bakers, slave-dealers, and bronze-smiths). [4]

In early Christian times, Thyateira was home to a significant Christian church, mentioned as one of the seven Churches of the Book of Revelation in the Book of Revelation. [5] According to Revelation, a woman named Jezebel (who called herself a prophetess) taught and seduced the Christians of Thyateira to commit sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols. [6] However, some commentators such as Benson and Doddridge have concluded that what is being here practised in Thyatira is the same apostasy promoted in Israel by Jezebel as mentioned in the Books of Kings and that use of her name here is a direct reference to such. Indeed, as Doddridge notes, "the resemblance appears so great" that, in his view, it is the "same heresy which is represented". [7]

The Apostle Paul and Silas might have visited Thyateira during Paul's second or third journey, Acts 16:13-16. They visited several small unnamed towns in the general vicinity during the second journey. While in Philippi, Paul and Silas stayed with a woman named Lydia from Thyateira, who continued to help them even after they were jailed and released.

In 366, a battle fought near Thyateira saw the army of Roman emperor Valens defeat Roman usurper Procopius.

Notable people

Artemidorus (Ancient Greek : Ἀρτεμίδωρος) of Thyateira was an athlete who won the Stadion race in the 193rd Olympiad (8 BC). [8]

Nicander (Ancient Greek : Νίκανδρος), also known as Nicander of Thyateira (Ancient Greek : Νίκανδρος ὁ Θυατειρηνός) was an ancient Greek grammarian. [9] [10]

Lydia of Thyatira, businesswoman in the Acts of the Apostles chapter 16 verse 11–40. [11]

Bishopric

19th-century Thyatira A dictionary of the Bible.. (1887) (14595164770).jpg
19th-century Thyatira

The city was home to a Christian community from the apostolic period. The community continued until 1922, when the Orthodox Christian population was deported.

Byzantine basilica of Thatira ThyatiraBasilika.jpg
Byzantine basilica of Thatira

In 1922, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople appointed an exarch for Western and Central Europe with the title Archbishop of Thyateira. The current archbishop of Thyateira (since 2019) is Nikitas Lulias. [13] The Archbishop of Thyateira resides in London and has pastoral responsibility for the Greek Orthodox Church in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Malta.

The see of Thyatira is also included, without archiepiscopal rank, in the Roman Catholic Church's list of titular sees. [14]

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica, Th319.1
  2. Stephanus of Byzantium, De Urbibus ("On cities")
  3. Θυγάτηρ, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project
  4. W.M. Ramsey, The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, (Hodder, 1904), pp. 324–35.
  5. Rev. 1:11; 2:18–28.
  6. Rev. 2:20
  7. Benson. "Revelation 2 Benson Commentary". Biblehub. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  8. Eusebius, Chronography, 79
  9. Harpokration, Lexicon of the Ten Orators, Th33
  10. Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae, § 11.5
  11. Acts 16:14.
  12. Schaff, Philip, A dictionary of the Bible(1887).
  13. [ permanent dead link ] – Biography at the website of the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain
  14. Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN   978-88-209-9070-1), p. 988