Last updated

Paul's third journey
Turkey adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Coordinates: 38°55′12″N27°50′11″E / 38.920090°N 27.836253°E / 38.920090; 27.836253
Ruins of the city. Ruins of Thyateira.jpg
Ruins of the city.

Thyateira (also Thyatira; Ancient Greek : Θυάτειρα) was the name of an ancient Greek city in Asia Minor, now the modern Turkish city of Akhisar ("white castle"), Manisa Province. The name is probably Lydian. It lies in the far west of Turkey, south of Istanbul and almost due east of Athens. It is about 50 miles (80 km) from the Aegean Sea.



It was an ancient Greek city called Pelopia (Ancient Greek : Πελόπεια) and Semiramis (Ancient Greek : Σεμίραμις), [1] before it was renamed to Thyateira (Θυάτειρα), during the Hellenistic era in 290 BC, by the King Seleucus I Nicator. He was at war with Lysimachus when he learned that his wife had given birth to a daughter. According to Stephanus of Byzantium, he called this city "Thuateira" from Greek θυγάτηρ, θυγατέρα (thugatēr, thugatera), meaning "daughter", although it is likely that it is an older, Lydian name. [2] [3] In classical times, Thyatira stood on the border between Lydia and Mysia. During the Roman era, (1st century AD), it was famous for its dyeing facilities and was a center of the purple cloth trade.[ citation needed ] Among the ancient ruins of the city, inscriptions have been found relating to the guild of dyers in the city. Indeed, more guilds συντεχνία suntechuia (syndicate) are known in Thyatira than any other contemporary city in the Roman province of Asia (inscriptions mention the following: wool-workers, linen-workers, makers of outer garments, dyers, leather-workers, tanners, potters, bakers, slave-dealers, and bronze-smiths). [4]

In early Christian times, Thyateira was home to a significant Christian church, mentioned as one of the seven Churches of the Book of Revelation in the Book of Revelation. [5] According to Revelation, a woman named Jezebel (who called herself a prophetess) taught and seduced the Christians of Thyateira to commit sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols. [6] However, some commentators such as Benson and Doddridge have concluded that what is being here practised in Thyatira is the same apostasy promoted in Israel by Jezebel as mentioned in the Books of Kings and that use of her name here is a direct reference to such. Indeed, as Doddridge notes, "the resemblance appears so great" that, in his view, it is the "same heresy which is represented". [7]

The Apostle Paul and Silas might have visited Thyateira during Paul's second or third journey, Acts 16:13-16. They visited several small unnamed towns in the general vicinity during the second journey. While in Philippi, Paul and Silas stayed with a woman named Lydia from Thyateira, who continued to help them even after they were jailed and released.

In 366, a battle fought near Thyateira saw the army of Roman emperor Valens defeat Roman usurper Procopius.

Notable people

Artemidorus (Ancient Greek : Ἀρτεμίδωρος) of Thyateira was an athlete who won the Stadion race in the 193rd Olympiad (8 BC). [8]

Nicander (Ancient Greek : Νίκανδρος), also known as Nicander of Thyateira (Ancient Greek : Νίκανδρος ὁ Θυατειρηνός) was an ancient Greek grammarian. [9] [10]

Lydia of Thyatira, businesswoman in the Acts of the Apostles chapter 16 verse 11–40. [11]


19th-century Thyatira A dictionary of the Bible.. (1887) (14595164770).jpg
19th-century Thyatira

The city was home to a Christian community from the apostolic period. The community continued until 1922, when the Orthodox Christian population was deported.

Byzantine basilica of Thatira ThyatiraBasilika.jpg
Byzantine basilica of Thatira

In 1922, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople appointed an exarch for Western and Central Europe with the title Archbishop of Thyateira. The current archbishop of Thyateira (since 2019) is Nikitas Lulias. [13] The Archbishop of Thyateira resides in London and has pastoral responsibility for the Greek Orthodox Church in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Malta.

The see of Thyatira is also included, without archiepiscopal rank, in the Roman Catholic Church's list of titular sees. [14]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lydia</span> Ancient Anatolian kingdom

Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom situated in the west of Asia Minor, in modern-day Turkey. The ethnic group inhabiting this kingdom are known as the Lydians, and their language as Lydian and their capital was Sardis.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Silas</span> 1st century AD Christian saint and bishop

Silas or Silvanus was a leading member of the Early Christian community, who according to the New Testament accompanied Paul the Apostle on his second missionary journey.

Greek Orthodox Church is a Christian term that can refer to any one of three classes of church, each associated in some way with Greek Christianity or the Eastern Roman Empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Akhisar</span> District and municipality in Manisa, Turkey

Akhisar is a municipality and district of Manisa Province, Turkey. Its area is 1,645 km2, and its population is 177,419 (2022). It is the site of the ancient city of Thyatira.

Phoebe [Koine Greek: Φοίβη; Latin: Phœbē, Church Slavonic: Фива (Fiva), Armenian: Փիբէին (P̕ibēin)] was a first-century Christian woman mentioned by the Apostle Paul in his Epistle to the Romans, verses 16:1–2. A notable woman in the church of Cenchreae, she was trusted by Paul to deliver his letter to the Romans. Paul refers to her both as a "servant" or "deacon" and as a helper or patron of many. This is the only place in the New Testament where a woman is specifically referred to with these two distinctions. Paul introduces Phoebe as his emissary to the church in Rome and, because they are not acquainted with her, Paul provides them with her credentials.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alinda</span> Ancient city in Caria

Alinda was an inland city and bishopric in ancient Caria, in Asia Minor (Anatolia). Modern scholars identify Alinda with the Hellenistic foundation of Alexandria ad Latmum noted by Stephanus of Byzantium.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lydia of Thyatira</span> Christian saint

Lydia of Thyatira is a woman mentioned in the New Testament who is regarded as the first documented convert to Christianity in Europe. Several Christian denominations have designated her a saint.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tripolis on the Meander</span> Ancient Greek city in Turkey

Tripolis on the Meander – also Neapolis, Apollonia, and Antoniopolis – was an ancient city on the borders of Phrygia, Caria and Lydia, on the northern bank of the upper course of the Maeander, and on the road leading from Sardes by Philadelphia to Laodicea ad Lycum. It was situated 20 km to the northwest of Hierapolis.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Derbe</span> Ancient city

Derbe or Dervi, also called Derveia, was a city of Galatia in Asia Minor, and later of Lycaonia, and still later of Isauria and Cappadocia. It is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles at 14:6, 14:20, 16:1 and 20:4. Derbe is the only city mentioned in the New Testament where the message of the Gospel was accepted from the beginning by its inhabitants.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain</span> Greek Orthodox diocese covering the British Isles

The Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain is an archdiocese of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople in the Eastern Orthodox Church. The incumbent archeparch is Nikitas Loulias. Its jurisdiction covers those Orthodox Christians living in Great Britain, the Republic of Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands. The adherents are largely of Cypriot Greek descent, mainland Greek migrants and their descendants, and more recently native British converts along with a few Poles, Belarusians, and Ukrainians. The episcopal seat is the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom which is situated in the city of London.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Beroea</span>

Beroea was an ancient city of the Hellenistic period and Roman Empire now known as Veria in Macedonia, Northern Greece. It is a small city on the eastern side of the Vermio Mountains north of Mount Olympus. The town is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles as a place in which the apostles Paul, Silas and Timothy preached the Christian Gospel.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">See of Sardis</span> Episcopal See in Sardis, Asia Minor

The See of Sardis or Sardes was an episcopal see in the city of that name. It was one of the Seven Churches of the Apocalypse, held by metropolitan bishops since the middle to late 1st century, with jurisdiction over the province of Lydia, when this was formed in 295. After 1369 it became a titular see both for the Greek Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

Lydia is a feminine first name. It derives from the Greek Λυδία, Ludía, from λυδία, a feminine form of the ancient given name Λυδός (Lydus). The region of Lydia is said to be named for a king named Λυδός; the given name Lydia originally indicated ancestry or residence in the region of Lydia.

In Greek mythology, Carius or Karios was the son of Zeus and Torrhebia. His mother's name is connected to Torrhebos, name of a city in Lydia. According to Hellanicus, there was a mountain named Karios (Carius) near this city, with the sanctuary of Carius situated on it. Nicolaus Damascenus related of him the following tale.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Acts 16</span> Chapter of the New Testament

Acts 16 is the sixteenth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It records the second missionary journey of Paul, together with Silas and Timothy. The book containing this chapter is anonymous but early Christian tradition uniformly affirmed that Luke composed this book as well as the Gospel of Luke.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thyatira (titular see)</span>

Bishopric of Thyatira is a titular see of the Catholic Church centered on the ancient Roman city of Thyatira in Asia Minor.

Acrassus or Akrassos was an ancient Roman and Byzantine-era city in Lydia. in the Roman province of Asia and Lydia. Apparently, it is the same place that Ptolemy calls Nacrasa or Nakrasa, placed on the road from Thyatira to Pergamum.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tabala (Lydia)</span> Roman and Byzantine town and an ancient Bishopric in Lydia

Tabala, was a Roman and Byzantine town and a Bishopric in ancient Lydia. Tabala was on the Hermus River, and minted its own coins. It was probably mentioned by Hierocles under the name of Gabala, which is perhaps only miswritten for Tabala. It is even possible that it may be the town of Tabae or Tabai (Τάβαι), which Stephanus of Byzantium assigns to Lydia.

Apollonis , also known as Apollonia (Ἀπολλωνία), Apollones (Ἀπολλώνης), and Apollonias (Ἀπολλωνίας), was a city in ancient Lydia. It was located south of Apollonia in Mysia, where there is a ridge of hills, after crossing which the road to Sardis had on the left Thyatira, and on the right Apollonis, which was 300 stadia from Pergamum, and the same distance from Sardis. It was named after the queen Apollonis, the mother of Eumenes II and Attalus II of Pergamum, in the place of an older city; possibly Doidye. It was mentioned by Cicero. It was destroyed in 17 CE by the great earthquake that destroyed twelve cities of Asia Minor. Tiberius rebuilt the city. It issued coins; those from Marcus Aurelius to Severus Alexander are extant. Apollonis is a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.

It is located 9 km. northeast of Ödemiş/İzmir.(ref: Tmolos’ta saklı kutsal bir kent Dioshieron, Hüseyin Üreten, Journal of International Social Research, Vol 9, Issue 44: 562-578) Dios Hieron was a town of ancient Lydia, in the upper valley of the Cayster River. The city became part of the Roman Republic and the Roman province of Asia with the annexation of the Attalid kingdom. It also bore the name Diospolis (Διόσπολις), and was cited by the sixth century Byzantine geographer Stephanus of Byzantium under that name. It was renamed to Christopolis or Christoupolis in the 7th century and was known as Pyrgium or Pyrgion (Πυργίον) from the 12th century on. Pyrgion fell to the Turks in 1307, and became the capital of the beylik of Aydin. The town minted coins in antiquity, often with the inscription "Διοσιερειτων".


  1. Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica, Th319.1
  2. Stephanus of Byzantium, De Urbibus ("On cities")
  3. Θυγάτηρ, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project
  4. W.M. Ramsey, The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, (Hodder, 1904), pp. 324–35.
  5. Rev. 1:11; 2:18–28.
  6. Rev. 2:20
  7. Benson. "Revelation 2 Benson Commentary". Biblehub. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  8. Eusebius, Chronography, 79
  9. Harpokration, Lexicon of the Ten Orators, Th33
  10. Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae, § 11.5
  11. Acts 16:14.
  12. Schaff, Philip, A dictionary of the Bible(1887).
  13. [ permanent dead link ] – Biography at the website of the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain
  14. Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN   978-88-209-9070-1), p. 988