|Thygeson's superficial punctate keratopathy|
|Other names||Thygeson Superficial Punctate Keratitis|
|Full resolution of opacities. From Hasanreisoglu and Avisar, 2008.|
Thygeson's superficial punctate keratopathy (TSPK) is a disease of the eyes. The causes of TSPK are not currently known, but details of the disease were first published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1950 by renowned American ophthalmologist Phillips Thygeson (1903–2002), after whom it is named.
A patient with TSPK may complain of blurred vision, dry eyes, a sensation of having a foreign body stuck in the eye, photophobia (sensitivity to bright light), burning sensations and watery eyes. On inspection with a slit lamp, tiny lumps can be found on the cornea of the eye. These lumps can be more easily seen after applying fluorescein or rose Bengal dye eye-drops. The lumps appear to be randomly positioned on the cornea and they may appear and disappear over a period of time (with or without treatment).
TSPK may affect one or both eyes. When both eyes are affected, the tiny lumps found on the cornea may differ in number between eyes. The severity of the symptoms often vary during the course of the disease. The disease may appear to go into remission, only to later reappear after months or years.
The causes of TSPK are currently not yet well known. However, there seem to be indications that dysfunctioning of the Meibomian gland can cause the condition. Inflammation of the meibomian glands (also known as meibomitis, meibomian gland dysfunction, or posterior blepharitis) causes the glands to be obstructed by thick waxy secretions. Besides leading to dry eyes, the obstructions can be degraded by bacterial lipases, resulting in the formation of free fatty acids, which irritate the eyes and sometimes cause punctate keratopathy.
There are a number of different treatments to deal with TSPK. Symptoms may disappear if untreated, but treatment may decrease both the healing time and the chances of remission.
Keratitis is a condition in which the eye's cornea, the clear dome on the front surface of the eye, becomes inflamed. The condition is often marked by moderate to intense pain and usually involves any of the following symptoms: pain, impaired eyesight, photophobia, red eye and a 'gritty' sensation.
Blepharitis is one of the most common ocular conditions characterized by inflammation, scaling, reddening, and crusting of the eyelid. This condition may also cause burning, itching, or a grainy sensation when introducing foreign objects or substances to the eye. Although blepharitis is not sight-threatening, it can lead to permanent alterations of the eyelid margin. The overall etiology is a result of bacteria and inflammation from congested meibomian oil glands at the base of each eyelash. Other conditions may give rise to blepharitis, whether they be infectious or noninfectious, including, but not limited to, bacterial infections or allergies.
Dry eye syndrome (DES), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), is the condition of having dry eyes. Other associated symptoms include irritation, redness, discharge, and easily fatigued eyes. Blurred vision may also occur. The symptoms can range from mild and occasional to severe and continuous. Scarring of the cornea may occur in some cases without treatment.
Chalazion is a cyst in the eyelid due to a blocked oil gland. They are typically in the middle of the eyelid, red, and not painful. They tend to come on gradually over a few weeks.
Meibomian glands are holocrine type exocrine glands, along the rims of the eyelid inside the tarsal plate. They produce meibum, an oily substance that prevents evaporation of the eye's tear film. Meibum prevents tears from spilling onto the cheek, traps them between the oiled edge and the eyeball, and makes the closed lids airtight. There are about 25 such glands on the upper eyelid, and 20 on the lower eyelid.
Corneal abrasion is a scratch to the surface of the cornea of the eye. Symptoms include pain, redness, light sensitivity, and a feeling like a foreign body is in the eye. Most people recover completely within three days.
A topical anesthetic is a local anesthetic that is used to numb the surface of a body part. They can be used to numb any area of the skin as well as the front of the eyeball, the inside of the nose, ear or throat, the anus and the genital area. Topical anesthetics are available in creams, ointments, aerosols, sprays, lotions, and jellies. Examples include benzocaine, butamben, dibucaine, lidocaine, oxybuprocaine, pramoxine, proxymetacaine (proparacaine), and tetracaine.
A corneal ulcer, or ulcerative keratitis, is an inflammatory condition of the cornea involving loss of its outer layer. It is very common in dogs and is sometimes seen in cats. In veterinary medicine, the term corneal ulcer is a generic name for any condition involving the loss of the outer layer of the cornea, and as such is used to describe conditions with both inflammatory and traumatic causes.
Corneal dystrophy is a group of rare hereditary disorders characterised by bilateral abnormal deposition of substances in the transparent front part of the eye called the cornea.
Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a recurrent, bilateral, and self-limiting inflammation of conjunctiva, having a periodic seasonal incidence.
Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare disease in which amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba invade the clear portion of the front (cornea) of the eye, and affects roughly 100 people in the United States each year. Acanthamoeba are protozoa found nearly ubiquitously in soil and water, and can cause infections of the skin, eyes, and central nervous system. Infection of the cornea by Acanthamoeba is difficult to treat with conventional medications, and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) may cause permanent visual impairment or blindness, due to damage to the cornea or through damage to other structures important to vision. Recently, AK has been recognized as an orphan disease and a funded project, orphan diseases Acanthamoeba keratitis (ODAK), has tested the effects of a diverse range drugs and biocides on AK.
Punctate epithelial erosions are a pathology affecting the cornea.
Corneal neovascularization (CNV) is the in-growth of new blood vessels from the pericorneal plexus into avascular corneal tissue as a result of oxygen deprivation. Maintaining avascularity of the corneal stroma is an important aspect of corneal pathophysiology as it is required for corneal transparency and optimal vision. A decrease in corneal transparency causes visual acuity deterioration. Corneal tissue is avascular in nature and the presence of vascularization, which can be deep or superficial, is always pathologically related.
Corneal ulcer is an inflammatory or, more seriously, infective condition of the cornea involving disruption of its epithelial layer with involvement of the corneal stroma. It is a common condition in humans particularly in the tropics and the agrarian societies. In developing countries, children afflicted by Vitamin A deficiency are at high risk for corneal ulcer and may become blind in both eyes, which may persist lifelong. In ophthalmology, a corneal ulcer usually refers to having an infectious cause while the term corneal abrasion refers more to physical abrasions.
Chronic superficial keratitis (CSK), also known as pannus or Uberreiter's disease, is an inflammatory condition of the cornea in dogs, particularly seen in the German Shepherd. Both eyes are usually affected. The corneas gradually become pigmented and infiltrated by blood vessels, and the dog may eventually become blind.
Corneal dystrophies are a group of diseases that affect the cornea in dogs.
Diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) is a sterile inflammation of the cornea which may occur after refractive surgery, such as LASIK. Its incidence has been estimated to be 1 in 500 patients, though this may be as high as 32% in some cases.
Herpetic simplex keratitis is a form of keratitis caused by recurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the cornea.
Neurotrophic keratitis (NK) is a degenerative disease of the cornea caused by damage of the trigeminal nerve, which results in impairment of corneal sensitivity, spontaneous corneal epithelium breakdown, poor corneal healing and development of corneal ulceration, melting and perforation. This is because, in addition to the primary sensory role, the nerve also plays a role maintaining the integrity of the cornea by supplying it with trophic factors and regulating tissue metabolism.
Exposure keratopathy is medical condition affecting the cornea of eyes. It can lead to corneal ulceration and permanent loss of vision due to corneal opacity.