Thymbra

Last updated
See Battle of Thymbra for the fight in Lydia between the Persians and the Lydians . See Thymbra (plant) for the plant genus.

Thymbra or Thymbre (Ancient Greek : Θύμβρα or Θύμβρη) was a town in the Troad, near Troy. [1] The second of the six gates of Troy was named after it, according to John Lydgate. [2] The location is about five miles from present day Hissarlik, the site of the present archaeological excavations. [3]

The town was located on the plain by the same name (reported in modern times in the Turkish language as Thimbrek-Déré by Chateaubriand [4] ) formed by the river Thymbrios (Latin: Thymbrium), today known as the Kemer River, [5] at the confluence of the Thymbrios and the Scamander. [6] According to Strabo, The plain of Thymbra . . . and the Thymbrios River, which flows through the plain and empties into the River Skamandros at the temple of Apollon Thymbraios. [7] Also according to Strabo, the distance from Ilium, the town erected by the Romans on the old site of Troy, to the temple was about 50 stadia. [8]

Thymbra was also the location of a major temple and sanctuary of Apollo (one of his epithets is Lord of Delphi and Thymbra). The god was known there as Apollo Thymbraios, a localizing epithet. In Greek mythology, the temple is tied to the fall of Troy as the location of Achilles' murder of Troilus upon that god's altar, as well as the place where Cassandra received her prophetic powers. [9] It is also the place where Laocoön and his sons were torn to pieces by the snake. It has been hypothesized that the two deaths within the sacred precinct point to an ancient sacrificial practice. [10] Finally, there is one version, by Dictys Cretensis in which Achilles himself dies at Thymbra, ambushed by Paris, who draws him there promising Polyxena as wife in exchange for his defection to the Trojans. [11]

The valley of the Thymbrios had as one of its main features the hill of Callicolone (Καλλικολώνη). The city disappeared probably before the 4th century BCE.

Notes

  1. Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
  2. John Lydgate: Troy Boke (1513)
    "His cyte compassed enuyrowne
    Hadde gates VI. to entre into the to towne.
    The firste of all…was…called Dardanydes;
    …Tymbria was named the seconde;
    And the thyrde called Helyas;
    The fourthe gate hyghte also Cetheas;
    The fyfthe Trojana; syxth Anthonydês"
  3. Samuel Butler, Notebooks. p. 193 (On line at )
  4. Chateaubriand, Itinéraire de Paris à Jérusalem Wikisource text at
  5. J. V. LUCE (1984), THE HOMERIC TOPOGRAPHY OF THE TROJAN PLAIN RECONSIDERED Oxford Journal of Archaeology 3 (1), 31–43.
  6. Karl Otfried Müller, The History and Antiquities of the Doric Race p. 247
  7. Strabo, Geography 13. 1. 35
  8. Strabo, Geography, 13.1.35 Strabo text at the Perseus Project
  9. William Aylward, The Roman Aqueduct Bridge at Kemerdere near Ilion; in American Journal of Archaeology, V.102, 2 April 2002, p. 112
  10. Di James, Medea: Essays on Medea in Myth, Literature, Philosophy, and Art, p. 87
  11. Dictys Cretensis (iii. 29)


Related Research Articles

Hector Greek mythological hero

In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, Hector was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War. He acted as leader of the Trojans and their allies in the defence of Troy, "killing 31,000 Greek fighters." He was ultimately killed by Achilles.

Trojan War Mythological war

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. The war is one of the most important events in Greek mythology and has been narrated through many works of Greek literature, most notably Homer's Iliad. The core of the Iliad describes a period of four days and two nights in the tenth year of the decade-long siege of Troy; the Odyssey describes the journey home of Odysseus, one of the war's heroes. Other parts of the war are described in a cycle of epic poems, which have survived through fragments. Episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy and other works of Greek literature, and for Roman poets including Virgil and Ovid.

Penthesilea mythical character

Penthesilea was an Amazonian queen in Greek mythology, the daughter of Ares and Otrera and the sister of Hippolyta, Antiope and Melanippe. She assisted Troy in the Trojan War, during which she was killed by Achilles.

In Greek mythology, Dardanus was a son of Zeus and Electra and founder of the city of Dardanus at the foot of Mount Ida in the Troad.

Briseis Greek mythological character

Brisēís, also known as Hippodámeia, is a significant character in the Iliad. Her role as a status symbol is at the heart of the dispute between Achilles and Agamemnon that initiates the plot of Homer's epic. She was married to Mynes, a son of the King of Lyrnessus, until Achilles sacked her city and enslaved her shortly before the events of the poem. Being forced to give Briseis to Agamemnon, Achilles refused to reenter the battle.

Chryseis mythological Greek character

In Greek mythology, Chryseis is a Trojan woman, the daughter of Chryses. Chryseis, her apparent name in the Iliad, means simply "Chryses' daughter"; later writers give her real name as Astynome (Ἀστυνόμη). The poet Tzetzes describes her to be "very young and thin, with milky skin; had blond hair and small breasts; nineteen years old and still a virgin".

In Greek mythology, Hicetaon may refer to:

The mythical King Erichthonius of Dardania was the son of Dardanus, King of Dardania and Batea and thus brother of Ilus and Zacynthus. Erichthonius was said to have enjoyed a peaceful and prosperous reign.

Troilus mythical prince of Troy in Greek mythology

Troilus is a legendary character associated with the story of the Trojan War. The first surviving reference to him is in Homer's Iliad, which some scholars theorize was composed by bards and sung in the late 9th or 8th century BC.

In Greek mythology, Asius refers to two people who fought during the Trojan War:

In Greek mythology, Gorgythion was one of the sons of King Priam of Troy at the time of the Trojan War and appears as a minor character in Homer's Iliad. His mother was Castianeira of Aisyme.

In Greek mythology, Pylaeus, son of Lethus, son of Teutamides, descendant of Pelasgus. He was one of the allies to King Priam in the Trojan War; he commanded the Pelasgian contingent together with his brother Hippothous. Pylaeus is hardly ever mentioned separately from his brother; they are said to have fallen in battle together by Dictys Cretensis and to have been buried "in a garden" according to the late Latin poet Ausonius.

In Greek mythology, the name Xanthus or Xanthos may refer to:

Neandreia Polis

Neandreia, Neandrium or Neandrion (Νεάνδριον), also known as Neandrus or Neandros (Νέανδρος), was a Greek city in the south-west of the Troad region of Anatolia. Its site has been located on Çığrı Dağ, about 9 km east of the remains of the ancient city of Alexandria Troas in the Ezine district of Çanakkale province, Turkey. The site was first identified as Neandreia by Frank Calvert in 1865 and Joseph Thacher Clarke in 1886 and was first excavated by the German architect Robert Koldewey when he excavated in 1889.

Eurypylus (son of Telephus) mythical son of Telephus

In Greek mythology, Eurypylus ("Broadgate") was the son of Telephus, king of Mysia. He was a great warrior, who led a Mysian contingent that fought alongside the Trojans against the Greeks in the Trojan War. He killed Machaon, and was himself killed by Achilles' son Neoptolemus.

In Greek mythology, Cycnus or Cygnus, was the king of the town of Kolonai in the southern Troad.

In Greek mythology, Dymas was a Phrygian king.

In Greek mythology, Ilus was a king of Dardania.

In Greek mythology, Ilus was the founder of the city called Ilios or Ilion to which he gave his name. When the latter became the chief city of the Trojan people it was also often called Troy, the name by which it is best known today. In some accounts, Ilus was described to have a plume of horsehair.

Sarpedon (Trojan War hero) Greek mythology character, son of Laodamia

In Greek mythology, Sarpedon, was a son of Zeus, who fought on the side of Troy in the Trojan War. Although in the Iliad, he was the son of Zeus and Laodamia, the daughter of Bellerophon, in the later standard tradition, he was the son of Zeus and Europa, and the brother of Minos and Rhadamanthus, while in other accounts the Sarpedon who fought at Troy was the grandson of the Sarpedon who was the brother of Minos.