Thymiaterion

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Attis thymiaterion Louvre Tarse61.jpg
"The thymiama". Painting by Theodoros Rallis (1852 - 1909). Reproduced in post-card. Aspiotis 148.jpg
"The thymiama". Painting by Theodoros Rallis (1852 - 1909). Reproduced in post-card.

Religious Object

A thymiaterion (from Ancient Greek: θυμιατήριον from θυμιάειν thymiaein "to smoke"; plural thymiateria) is a type of censer or incense burner, used in the Mediterranean region since antiquity for spiritual and religious purposes and especially in religious ceremonies.

Contents

The term is used not only for the censers of ancient Greece, from where the term comes, but also to describe the censers of other peoples of the ancient world, such as the Phoenicians and Etruscans.

Thymiateria could take a wide variety of forms, ranging from simple earthenware pots to elaborate carved, moulded or cast items made from clay or bronze.

Various types of thymiateria are still used in the Greek Orthodox rituals in churches, homes, cemeteries etc. They are commonly known also as "livanisteria" (from the w. Livanos, incense). [1]

City

Thymiaterion (Ancient Greek : Θυμιατήριον) a city beyond the Pillars of Hercules which was founded by Hanno the Navigator. [2]

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Censer Vessel for burning incense or perfume

A censer, incense burner, perfume burner or pastille burner is a vessel made for burning incense or perfume in some solid form. They vary greatly in size, form, and material of construction, and have been in use since ancient times throughout the world. They may consist of simple earthenware bowls or fire pots to intricately carved silver or gold vessels, small table top objects a few centimetres tall to as many as several metres high. Many designs use openwork to allow a flow of air. In many cultures, burning incense has spiritual and religious connotations, and this influences the design and decoration of the censer.

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Thurible

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Prosphora

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Botafumeiro

The Botafumeiro is a famous thurible in the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral. In the past, similar devices were used in large churches in Galicia; one is still used in the Tui Cathedral. Incense is burned in this swinging metal container, or censer.

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Eastern Orthodox worship

Eastern Orthodox worship in this article is distinguished from Eastern Orthodox prayer in that 'worship' refers to the activity of the Christian Church as a body offering up prayers to God while 'prayer' refers to the individual devotional traditions of the Orthodox.

Religious use of incense has its origins in antiquity. The burned incense may be intended as a symbolic or sacrificial offering to various deities or spirits, or to serve as an aid in prayer.

The ancient Egyptian Incense burner: arm is a horizontal hieroglyph representing various types of horizontal tools used to offer, and burn incense. In tomb scenes it is often shown with an attached small box, or cup region, for holding incense, located on the upper surface; the offering individual is sometimes holding a grain-pellet of incense, with lines of incense, or connected grains-in-a-line equal to wafting smoke.

The ancient Egyptian Censer pot, is most commonly seen in Ancient Egyptian iconography as an offering, held in hand by the offering person or god. Many pots are offered in hands, or a single hand with offerings of oils, a liquid-(water), or other item in the pot.

Incense in China

Incense in China is traditionally used in a wide range of Chinese cultural activities including religious ceremonies, ancestor veneration, traditional medicine, and in daily life. Known as xiang, incense was used by the Chinese cultures starting from Neolithic times with it coming to greater prominence starting from the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties.

Thymiaterium

Thymiaterium or Thymiaterion was an ancient Carthaginian colony in present-day Morocco. It was founded by Hanno the Navigator on his journey of exploration beyond the Pillars of Hercules. The city is mentioned in the Periplus (Περίπλους). The manuscript is a copy of another Greek work which translated the Punic original and is part of the Codex Palatines Graecus 398 which belongs to the Heidelberg University.

References

  1. St Vasilios Greek Orthodox Church. Incense. With a photograph of a typical themiaterion used officially in churches.
  2. Periplus of Hanno, 2