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In enzymology, a thymidylate 5'-phosphatase (EC 220.127.116.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
The Enzyme Commission number is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. As a system of enzyme nomenclature, every EC number is associated with a recommended name for the respective enzyme.
Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Because of this, only very small amounts of catalyst are required to alter the reaction rate in principle.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei, and can often be described by a chemical equation. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes can occur.
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are thymidylate and H2O, whereas its two products are thymidine and phosphate.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. Water is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard ambient temperature and pressure. It forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds are formed from suspended droplets of water and ice, its solid state. When finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is steam or water vapor. Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation, transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea.
Products are the species formed from chemical reactions. During a chemical reaction reactants are transformed into products after passing through a high energy transition state. This process results in the consumption of the reactants. It can be a spontaneous reaction or mediated by catalysts which lower the energy of the transition state, and by solvents which provide the chemical environment necessary for the reaction to take place. When represented in chemical equations products are by convention drawn on the right-hand side, even in the case of reversible reactions. The properties of products such as their energies help determine several characteristics of a chemical reaction such as whether the reaction is exergonic or endergonic. Additionally the properties of a product can make it easier to extract and purify following a chemical reaction, especially if the product has a different state of matter than the reactants. Reactants are molecular materials used to create chemical reactions. The atoms aren't created or destroyed. The materials are reactive and reactants are rearranging during a chemical reaction. Here is an example of reactants: CH4 + O2. A non-example is CO2 + H2O or "energy".
Thymidine is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside. Deoxythymidine is the DNA nucleoside T, which pairs with deoxyadenosine (A) in double-stranded DNA. In cell biology it is used to synchronize the cells in G1/early S phase.
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on phosphoric monoester bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is thymidylate 5'-phosphohydrolase. Other names in common use include thymidylate 5'-nucleotidase, deoxythymidylate 5'-nucleotidase, thymidylate nucleotidase, deoxythymidylic 5'-nucleotidase, deoxythymidylate phosphohydrolase, and dTMPase.
Hydrolase is a class of enzyme that commonly perform as biochemical catalysts that use water to break a chemical bond, which typically results in dividing a larger molecule to smaller molecules. Some common examples of hydrolase enzymes are esterases including lipases, phosphatases, glycosidases, peptidases, and nucleosidases.
In chemistry, an ester − as opposed to an ether − is a chemical compound derived from an acid in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group. Usually, esters are derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Glycerides, which are fatty acid esters of glycerol, are important esters in biology, being one of the main classes of lipids, and making up the bulk of animal fats and vegetable oils. Esters with low molecular weight are commonly used as fragrances and found in essential oils and pheromones. Phosphoesters form the backbone of DNA molecules. Nitrate esters, such as nitroglycerin, are known for their explosive properties, while polyesters are important plastics, with monomers linked by ester moieties. Esters usually have a sweet smell and are considered high-quality solvents for a broad array of plastics, plasticizers, resins, and lacquers. They are also one of the largest classes of synthetic lubricants on the commercial market.
Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group. A nucleoside consists simply of a nucleobase and a five-carbon sugar, whereas a nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase, a five-carbon sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. In a nucleoside, the anomeric carbon is linked through a glycosidic bond to the N9 of a purine or the N1 of a pyrimidine. Examples of nucleosides include cytidine, uridine, adenosine, guanosine, thymidine and inosine.
A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides are synthesized from intermediates in the degradative pathway for nucleotides.
Thymidine monophosphate (TMP), also known as thymidylic acid, deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP), or deoxythymidylic acid, is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in DNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside thymidine. dTMP consists of a phosphate group, the pentose sugar deoxyribose, and the nucleobase thymine. Unlike the other deoxyribonucleotides, thymidine monophosphate often does not contain the "deoxy" prefix in its name; nevertheless, its symbol often includes a "d" ("dTMP"). Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary provides an explanation of the nomenclature variation at its entry for thymidine.
5'-nucleotidase is an enzyme which catalyzes the phosphorylytic cleavage of 5'nucleotides. Although originally found in snake venom, the activity of 5'nucleotidase has been described for bacteria and plant cells, and is widely distributed in vertebrate tissue. In mammalian cells the enzyme is predominantly located in the plasma membrane and its primary role is in the conversion of extracellular nucleotides, which are generally impermeable, to the corresponding nucleoside which can readily enter most cells. Consequently, the enzyme plays a key role in the metabolism of nucleotides.
A nucleotidase is a hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a nucleotide into a nucleoside and a phosphate.
Nucleic acid metabolism is the process by which nucleic acids are synthesized and degraded. Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. Nucleotide synthesis is an anabolic mechanism generally involving the chemical reaction of phosphate, pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base. Destruction of nucleic acid is a catabolic reaction. Additionally, parts of the nucleotides or nucleobases can be salvaged to recreate new nucleotides. Both synthesis and degradation reactions require enzymes to facilitate the event. Defects or deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to a variety of diseases.
In enzymology, a dolichyldiphosphatase (EC 18.104.22.168) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a nucleoside-diphosphatase (EC 22.214.171.124) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase (EC 126.96.36.199) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase (EC 188.8.131.52) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a 3'-nucleotidase (EC 184.108.40.206) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 6-phosphatase (EC 220.127.116.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, an inositol-phosphate phosphatase (EC 18.104.22.168) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a streptomycin-6-phosphatase (EC 22.214.171.124) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a sucrose-phosphatase (EC 126.96.36.199) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a sugar-terminal-phosphatase (EC 188.8.131.52) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
Thymidine phosphorylase is an enzyme that is encoded by the TYMP gene and catalyzes the reaction:
In enzymology, a dTMP kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
Thymidylate kinase also known as deoxythymidylate kinase or dTMP kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DTYMK gene. and belongs to thymidylate kinase family of proteins.
Thymidylate kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine 5'-monophosphate (dTMP) to form thymidine 5'-diphosphate (dTDP) in the presence of ATP and magnesium:
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