Thymine

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Thymine
Thymin.svg
Thymine-3D-balls.png
Thymine-3D-vdW.png
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
5-Methylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione
Other names
5-Methyluracil
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.560 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
MeSH Thymine
PubChem CID
UNII
  • InChI=1S/C5H6N2O2/c1-3-2-6-5(9)7-4(3)8/h2H,1H3,(H2,6,7,8,9) Yes check.svgY
    Key: RWQNBRDOKXIBIV-UHFFFAOYSA-N Yes check.svgY
  • O=C1NC(=O)NC=C1C
Properties
C5H6N2O2
Molar mass 126.115 g·mol−1
Density 1.223 g cm−3 (calculated)
Melting point 316 to 317 °C (601 to 603 °F; 589 to 590 K)
Boiling point 335 °C (635 °F; 608 K) (decomposes)
3.82 g/L [1]
Acidity (pKa)9.7
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Thymine ( /ˈθmɪn/ ) (symbol T or Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T. The others are adenine, guanine, and cytosine. Thymine is also known as 5-methyluracil, a pyrimidine nucleobase. In RNA, thymine is replaced by the nucleobase uracil. Thymine was first isolated in 1893 by Albrecht Kossel and Albert Neumann from calf thymus glands, hence its name. [2]

Contents

Derivation

As its alternate name (5-methyluracil) suggests, thymine may be derived by methylation of uracil at the 5th carbon. In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil in most cases. In DNA, thymine (T) binds to adenine (A) via two hydrogen bonds, thereby stabilizing the nucleic acid structures.

Thymine combined with deoxyribose creates the nucleoside deoxythymidine, which is synonymous with the term thymidine. Thymidine can be phosphorylated with up to three phosphoric acid groups, producing dTMP (deoxythymidine monophosphate), dTDP, or dTTP (for the di- and tri- phosphates, respectively).

One of the common mutations of DNA involves two adjacent thymines or cytosine, which, in presence of ultraviolet light, may form thymine dimers, causing "kinks" in the DNA molecule that inhibit normal function.

Thymine could also be a target for actions of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in cancer treatment. 5-FU can be a metabolic analog of thymine (in DNA synthesis) or uracil (in RNA synthesis). Substitution of this analog inhibits DNA synthesis in actively dividing cells.

Thymine bases are frequently oxidized to hydantoins over time after the death of an organism. [3]

Thymine imbalance causes mutation

During growth of bacteriophage T4, an imbalance of thymine availability, either a deficiency or an excess of thymine, causes increased mutation. [4] The mutations caused by thymine deficiency appear to occur only at AT base pair sites in DNA and are often AT to GC transition mutations. [5] In the bacterium Escherichia coli , thymine deficiency was also found to be mutagenic and cause AT to GC transitions. [6]

Theoretical aspects

In March 2015, NASA scientists reported that, for the first time, complex DNA and RNA organic compounds of life, including uracil, cytosine and thymine, have been formed in the laboratory under outer space conditions, using starting chemicals, such as pyrimidine, found in meteorites. Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), another carbon-rich compound, may have been formed in red giants or in interstellar dust and gas clouds, according to the scientists. [7] Thymine has not been found in meteorites, which suggests the first strands of DNA had to look elsewhere to obtain this building block. Thymine likely formed within some meteorite parent bodies, but may not have persisted within these bodies due to an oxidation reaction with hydrogen peroxide. [8]

Synthesis

Laboratory synthesis

Thymine was first prepared by hydrolysis of the corresponding nucleoside obtained from natural sources. Interest in its direct chemical synthesis began in the early 1900s: Emil Fischer published a method starting from urea but a more practical synthesis used methylisothiourea in a condensation reaction with ethyl formyl propionate, followed by hydrolysis of the pyrimidine intermediate: [9]

Thymine synthesis (1903).svg

Many other preparative methods have been developed, including optimised conditions so that urea can be used directly in the reaction shown above, preferably with methyl formyl propionate. [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cytosine</span> Chemical compound in nucleic acids

Cytosine is one of the four nucleobases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached. The nucleoside of cytosine is cytidine. In Watson-Crick base pairing, it forms three hydrogen bonds with guanine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">DNA</span> Molecule that carries genetic information

Deoxyribonucleic acid is a polymer composed of two polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a double helix. The polymer carries genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids. Alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Guanine</span> Chemical compound of DNA and RNA

Guanine is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine. In DNA, guanine is paired with cytosine. The guanine nucleoside is called guanosine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nucleic acid</span> Class of large biomolecules essential to all known life

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, macromolecules, essential to all known forms of life. They are composed of nucleotides, which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. The two main classes of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). If the sugar is ribose, the polymer is RNA; if the sugar is the ribose derivative deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nucleotide</span> Biological molecules that form the building blocks of nucleic acids

Nucleotides are organic molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate. They serve as monomeric units of the nucleic acid polymers – deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth. Nucleotides are obtained in the diet and are also synthesized from common nutrients by the liver.

Pyrimidine is an aromatic, heterocyclic, organic compound similar to pyridine. One of the three diazines, it has nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 in the ring. The other diazines are pyrazine and pyridazine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">RNA world</span> Hypothetical stage in the early evolutionary history of life on Earth

The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins. The term also refers to the hypothesis that posits the existence of this stage.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Adenine</span> Chemical compound in DNA and RNA

Adenine is a nucleobase. It is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T. The three others are guanine, cytosine and thymine. Its derivatives have a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and Coenzyme A. It also has functions in protein synthesis and as a chemical component of DNA and RNA. The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Uracil</span> Chemical compound of RNA

Uracil is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid RNA. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). In RNA, uracil binds to adenine via two hydrogen bonds. In DNA, the uracil nucleobase is replaced by thymine (T). Uracil is a demethylated form of thymine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nucleobase</span> Nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides

Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which, in turn, are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids. The ability of nucleobases to form base pairs and to stack one upon another leads directly to long-chain helical structures such as ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Five nucleobases—adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), and uracil (U)—are called primary or canonical. They function as the fundamental units of the genetic code, with the bases A, G, C, and T being found in DNA while A, G, C, and U are found in RNA. Thymine and uracil are distinguished by merely the presence or absence of a methyl group on the fifth carbon (C5) of these heterocyclic six-membered rings. In addition, some viruses have aminoadenine (Z) instead of adenine. It differs in having an extra amine group, creating a more stable bond to thymine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nucleoside</span> Any of several glycosylamines comprising a nucleobase and a sugar molecule

Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group. A nucleoside consists simply of a nucleobase and a five-carbon sugar whereas a nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase, a five-carbon sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. In a nucleoside, the anomeric carbon is linked through a glycosidic bond to the N9 of a purine or the N1 of a pyrimidine. Nucleotides are the molecular building-blocks of DNA and RNA.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thymidine</span> Chemical compound

Thymidine, also known as deoxythymidine, deoxyribosylthymine, or thymine deoxyriboside, is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside. Deoxythymidine is the DNA nucleoside T, which pairs with deoxyadenosine (A) in double-stranded DNA. In cell biology it is used to synchronize the cells in G1/early S phase. The prefix deoxy- is often left out since there are no precursors of thymine nucleotides involved in RNA synthesis.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ribonucleotide</span> Nucleotide containing ribose as its pentose component

In biochemistry, a ribonucleotide is a nucleotide containing ribose as its pentose component. It is considered a molecular precursor of nucleic acids. Nucleotides are the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA. Ribonucleotides themselves are basic monomeric building blocks for RNA. Deoxyribonucleotides, formed by reducing ribonucleotides with the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), are essential building blocks for DNA. There are several differences between DNA deoxyribonucleotides and RNA ribonucleotides. Successive nucleotides are linked together via phosphodiester bonds.

A salvage pathway is a pathway in which a biological product is produced from intermediates in the degradative pathway of its own or a similar substance. The term often refers to nucleotide salvage in particular, in which nucleotides are synthesized from intermediates in their degradative pathway.

An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal metabolism. Such substances are often similar in structure to the metabolite that they interfere with, such as the antifolates that interfere with the use of folic acid; thus, competitive inhibition can occur, and the presence of antimetabolites can have toxic effects on cells, such as halting cell growth and cell division, so these compounds are used as chemotherapy for cancer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nucleic acid metabolism</span> Process

Nucleic acid metabolism is a collective term that refers to the variety of chemical reactions by which nucleic acids are either synthesized or degraded. Nucleic acids are polymers made up of a variety of monomers called nucleotides. Nucleotide synthesis is an anabolic mechanism generally involving the chemical reaction of phosphate, pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base. Degradation of nucleic acids is a catabolic reaction and the resulting parts of the nucleotides or nucleobases can be salvaged to recreate new nucleotides. Both synthesis and degradation reactions require multiple enzymes to facilitate the event. Defects or deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to a variety of diseases.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nucleic acid analogue</span> Compound analogous to naturally occurring RNA and DNA

Nucleic acid analogues are compounds which are analogous to naturally occurring RNA and DNA, used in medicine and in molecular biology research. Nucleic acids are chains of nucleotides, which are composed of three parts: a phosphate backbone, a pentose sugar, either ribose or deoxyribose, and one of four nucleobases. An analogue may have any of these altered. Typically the analogue nucleobases confer, among other things, different base pairing and base stacking properties. Examples include universal bases, which can pair with all four canonical bases, and phosphate-sugar backbone analogues such as PNA, which affect the properties of the chain . Nucleic acid analogues are also called Xeno Nucleic Acid and represent one of the main pillars of xenobiology, the design of new-to-nature forms of life based on alternative biochemistries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thymidine phosphorylase</span>

Thymidine phosphorylase is an enzyme that is encoded by the TYMP gene and catalyzes the reaction:

A bridged nucleic acid (BNA) is a modified RNA nucleotide. They are sometimes also referred to as constrained or inaccessible RNA molecules. BNA monomers can contain a five-membered, six-membered or even a seven-membered bridged structure with a "fixed" C3'-endo sugar puckering. The bridge is synthetically incorporated at the 2', 4'-position of the ribose to afford a 2', 4'-BNA monomer. The monomers can be incorporated into oligonucleotide polymeric structures using standard phosphoamidite chemistry. BNAs are structurally rigid oligo-nucleotides with increased binding affinities and stability.

This glossary of genetics is a list of definitions of terms and concepts commonly used in the study of genetics and related disciplines in biology, including molecular biology, cell biology, and evolutionary biology. It is intended as introductory material for novices; for more specific and technical detail, see the article corresponding to each term. For related terms, see Glossary of evolutionary biology.

References

  1. Dannenfelser, R.-M.; Yalkowsky, S.H. (December 1991). "Data base of aqueous solubility for organic non-electrolytes". Science of the Total Environment . 109–110 (C): 625–628. Bibcode:1991ScTEn.109..625D. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(91)90214-Y . Retrieved 2021-11-14.
  2. Albrecht, Kossel; Neumann, Albert (Oct–Dec 1893). "Ueber das Thymin, ein Spaltungsproduct der Nucleïnsäure" [On thymine, a cleavage product of nucleic acid]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft . 26 (3): 2753–2756. doi:10.1002/cber.18930260379 . Retrieved 2021-11-14. p. 2754: Wir bezeichnen diese Substanz als Thymin.[We designate this substance as thymine.]
  3. Hofreiter, Michael; Serre, David; Poinar, Henrik N.; Kuch, Melanie; Pääbo, Svante (2001-05-01). "Ancient DNA". Nature Reviews Genetics . 2 (5): 353–359. doi:10.1038/35072071. PMID   11331901. S2CID   205016024.
  4. Bernstein, Carol; Bernstein, Harris; Mufti, Siraj; Strom, Barbara (October 1972). "Stimulation of mutation in phage T 4 by lesions in gene 32 and by thymidine imbalance". Mutat. Res. 16 (2): 113–119. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(72)90171-6. PMID   4561494.
  5. Smith, M. Diane; Green, Ronald R.; Ripley, Lynn S.; Drake, John W. (July 1973). "Thymineless mutagenesis in bacteriophage T4". Genetics . 74 (3): 393–403. doi:10.1093/genetics/74.3.393. PMC   1212957 . PMID   4270369.
  6. Deutch, Charles E.; Pauling, Crellin (Sep 1974). "Thymineless mutagenesis in Escherichia coli". J. Bacteriol. 119 (3): 861–7. doi:10.1128/JB.119.3.861-867.1974. PMC   245692 . PMID   4605383.
  7. Marlaire, Ruth (2015-03-03). "NASA Ames Reproduces the Building Blocks of Life in Laboratory". www.nasa.gov. NASA . Retrieved 2021-11-15.
  8. Tasker, Elizabeth (2016-11-10). "Did the Seeds of Life Come from Space?". blogs.scientificamerican.com. Scientific American . Retrieved 2016-11-24.
  9. Wheeler, H.I.; Merriam, H.F. (1903). "On some condensation products of the pseudothioureas: synthesis of uracil, thymine, and similar compounds". American Chemical Journal. 29 (5): 478–492.
  10. Guo, Xianghai; Shen, Jiaxiang (2014). "An environmentally benign approach to the synthesis of thymine via hydroformylation of methyl acrylate". Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly. 145 (4): 657–661. doi:10.1007/s00706-013-1128-y. S2CID   97367180.