Thymosin α1

Last updated
PTMA
2l9i thymosin alpha-1.png
Available structures
PDB Human UniProt search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases PTMA , prothymosin, alpha, TMSA, prothymosin alpha
External IDs OMIM: 188390 HomoloGene: 136511 GeneCards: PTMA
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001099285
NM_002823

n/a

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001092755
NP_002814

n/a

Location (UCSC) Chr 2: 231.71 – 231.71 Mb n/a
PubMed search [2] n/a
Wikidata
View/Edit Human

Thymosin α1 is a peptide fragment derived from prothymosin alpha, a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTMA gene. [3]

Contents

It was the first of the peptides from Thymosin Fraction 5 to be completely sequenced and synthesized. Unlike β thymosins, to which it is genetically and chemically unrelated, thymosin α1 is produced as a 28-amino acid fragment, from a longer, 113-amino acid precursor, prothymosin α. [4]

Function

Thymosin α1 is believed to be a major component of Thymosin Fraction 5 responsible for the activity of that preparation in restoring immune function in animals lacking thymus glands. It has been found to enhance cell-mediated immunity in humans as well as experimental animals. [5]

Therapeutic application

As of 2009 Thymosin α1 is approved in 35 under-developed or developing countries for the treatment of Hepatitis B and C, and it is also used to boost the immune response in the treatment of other diseases. [6] [7]

Clinical studies

Clinical trials suggest it may be useful in cystic fibrosis, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, peritonitis, acute cytomegalovirus infection, TB, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and lung infections in critically ill patients., [7] and for chronic hepatitis B. [8]

It has been studied for possible use in treating cancer (e.g. with chemotherapy). [9]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">P2RY2</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

P2Y purinoceptor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RY2 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">INHA</span> Protein and coding gene in humans

Inhibin, alpha, also known as INHA, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the INHA gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">HBE1</span>

Hemoglobin subunit epsilon is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HBE1 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">GNAO1</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAO1 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Crystallin, gamma D</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Gamma-crystallin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGD gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">AZGP1</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AZGP1 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">GRK6</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and is most highly similar to GRK4 and GRK5. The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors to regulate their signaling.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">COPA (gene)</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Coatomer subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COPA gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">AMFR</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Autocrine motility factor receptor, isoform 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AMFR gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">GABRB1</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRB1 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">NUPR1</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Nuclear protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUPR1 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">MT1F</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Metallothionein-1F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MT1F gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">PHB2</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Prohibitin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PHB2 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">PASK</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

PAS domain-containing serine/threonine-protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PASK gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nucleobindin 1</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Nucleobindin-1 (NUCB1), also known as calnuc, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUCB1 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">GNAT1</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAT1 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sodium- and chloride-dependent taurine transporter</span> Protein

Sodium- and chloride-dependent taurine transporter is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A6 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">B3GAT3</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the B3GAT3 gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">PTMS (gene)</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Parathymosin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTMS gene.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">GNAT3</span> Protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-3, also known as gustducin alpha-3 chain, is a protein subunit that in humans is encoded by the GNAT3 gene.

References

  1. 1 2 3 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000187514 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  3. Manrow RE, Leone A, Krug MS, Eschenfeldt WH, Berger SL (Jul 1992). "The human prothymosin alpha gene family contains several processed pseudogenes lacking deleterious lesions". Genomics. 13 (2): 319–31. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(92)90248-Q. PMID   1612591.
  4. Garaci E (September 2007). "Thymosin alpha1: a historical overview". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1112: 14–20. doi:10.1196/annals.1415.039. PMID   17567941. S2CID   222082988.
  5. Wara DW, Goldstein AL, Doyle NE, Ammann AJ (January 1975). "Thymosin activity in patients with cellular immunodeficiency". N. Engl. J. Med. 292 (2): 70–4. doi:10.1056/NEJM197501092920204. PMID   1078552.
  6. Garaci E, Favalli C, Pica F, et al. (September 2007). "Thymosin alpha 1: from bench to bedside". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1112 (1): 225–34. Bibcode:2007NYASA1112..225G. doi:10.1196/annals.1415.044. PMID   17600290. S2CID   28283520.
  7. 1 2 Goldstein AL, Goldstein AL (May 2009). "From lab to bedside: emerging clinical applications of thymosin alpha 1". Expert Opin Biol Ther. 9 (5): 593–608. doi:10.1517/14712590902911412. PMID   19392576. S2CID   71893579.
  8. Wu X, Jia J, You H (2015). "Thymosin alpha-1 treatment in chronic hepatitis B". Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. 15: 129–132. doi:10.1517/14712598.2015.1007948. PMID   25640173. S2CID   41148652.
  9. Garaci E, Pica F, Rasi G, Favalli C (2000). "Thymosin alpha 1 in the treatment of cancer: from basic research to clinical application". Int J Immunopharmacol. 22 (12): 1067–76. doi:10.1016/s0192-0561(00)00075-8. PMID   11137613.

Further reading