Thymosin α1

Last updated
PTMA
2l9i thymosin alpha-1.png
Available structures
PDB Human UniProt search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases PTMA , prothymosin, alpha, TMSA, prothymosin alpha
External IDs OMIM: 188390 HomoloGene: 136511 GeneCards: PTMA
Gene location (Human)
Ideogram human chromosome 2.svg
Chr. Chromosome 2 (human) [1]
Human chromosome 2 ideogram.svg
HSR 1996 II 3.5e.svg
Red rectangle 2x18.png
Band 2q37.1Start231,706,895 bp [1]
End231,713,541 bp [1]
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001099285
NM_002823

n/a

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001092755
NP_002814

n/a

Location (UCSC) Chr 2: 231.71 – 231.71 Mb n/a
PubMed search [2] n/a
Wikidata
View/Edit Human

Thymosin α1 is a peptide fragment derived from prothymosin alpha, a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTMA gene. [3]

Contents

It was the first of the peptides from Thymosin Fraction 5 to be completely sequenced and synthesized. Unlike β thymosins, to which it is genetically and chemically unrelated, thymosin α1 is produced as a 28-amino acid fragment, from a longer, 113-amino acid precursor, prothymosin α. [4]

Function

Thymosin α1 is believed to be a major component of Thymosin Fraction 5 responsible for the activity of that preparation in restoring immune function in animals lacking thymus glands. It has been found to enhance cell-mediated immunity in humans as well as experimental animals. [5]

Therapeutic application

As of 2009 Thymosin α1 is approved in 35 under-developed or developing countries for the treatment of Hepatitis B and C, and it is also used to boost the immune response in the treatment of other diseases. [6] [7]

Clinical studies

Clinical trials suggest it may be useful in cystic fibrosis, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, peritonitis, acute cytomegalovirus infection, TB, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and lung infections in critically ill patients., [7] and for chronic hepatitis B. [8]

It has been studied for possible use in treating cancer (e.g. with chemotherapy). [9]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000187514 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  3. Manrow RE, Leone A, Krug MS, Eschenfeldt WH, Berger SL (Jul 1992). "The human prothymosin alpha gene family contains several processed pseudogenes lacking deleterious lesions". Genomics. 13 (2): 319–31. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(92)90248-Q. PMID   1612591.
  4. Garaci E (September 2007). "Thymosin alpha1: a historical overview". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1112: 14–20. doi:10.1196/annals.1415.039. PMID   17567941.
  5. Wara DW, Goldstein AL, Doyle NE, Ammann AJ (January 1975). "Thymosin activity in patients with cellular immunodeficiency". N. Engl. J. Med. 292 (2): 70–4. doi:10.1056/NEJM197501092920204. PMID   1078552.
  6. Garaci E, Favalli C, Pica F, et al. (September 2007). "Thymosin alpha 1: from bench to bedside". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1112: 225–34. doi:10.1196/annals.1415.044. PMID   17600290. S2CID   28283520.
  7. 1 2 Goldstein AL, Goldstein AL (May 2009). "From lab to bedside: emerging clinical applications of thymosin alpha 1". Expert Opin Biol Ther. 9 (5): 593–608. doi:10.1517/14712590902911412. PMID   19392576. S2CID   71893579.
  8. Wu X, Jia J, You H (2015). "Thymosin alpha-1 treatment in chronic hepatitis B". Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. 15: 129–132. doi: 10.1517/14712598.2015.1007948 . PMID   25640173.
  9. Garaci E, Pica F, Rasi G, Favalli C (2000). "Thymosin alpha 1 in the treatment of cancer: from basic research to clinical application". Int J Immunopharmacol. 22 (12): 1067–76. doi:10.1016/s0192-0561(00)00075-8. PMID   11137613.

Further reading