Thyristor

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Thyristor
SCR1369.jpg
Thyristor
Type Active
First production1956
Pin configuration anode, gate and cathode
Electronic symbol
Thyristor circuit symbol.svg

A thyristor ( /θˈrɪstər/ ) is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating P- and N-type materials. It acts exclusively as a bistable switch, conducting when the gate receives a current trigger, and continuing to conduct until the voltage across the device is reversed biased, or until the voltage is removed (by some other means). There are two designs, differing in what triggers the conducting state. In a three-lead thyristor, a small current on its Gate lead controls the larger current of the Anode to Cathode path. In a two-lead thyristor, conduction begins when the potential difference between the Anode and Cathode themselves is sufficiently large (breakdown voltage).

A semiconductor device is an electronic component that exploits the electronic properties of semiconductor material, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors. Semiconductor devices have replaced vacuum tubes in most applications. They use electrical conduction in the solid state rather than the gaseous state or thermionic emission in a vacuum.

Flip-flop (electronics) circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information

In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information – a bistable multivibrator. The circuit can be made to change state by signals applied to one or more control inputs and will have one or two outputs. It is the basic storage element in sequential logic. Flip-flops and latches are fundamental building blocks of digital electronics systems used in computers, communications, and many other types of systems.

Contents

Some sources define silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) and thyristor as synonymous. [1] Other sources define thyristors as more ornately constructed devices that incorporate at least four layers of alternating N-type and P-type substrate.

The first thyristor devices were released commercially in 1956. Because thyristors can control a relatively large amount of power and voltage with a small device, they find wide application in control of electric power, ranging from light dimmers and electric motor speed control to high-voltage direct-current power transmission. Thyristors may be used in power-switching circuits, relay-replacement circuits, inverter circuits, oscillator circuits, level-detector circuits, chopper circuits, light-dimming circuits, low-cost timer circuits, logic circuits, speed-control circuits, phase-control circuits, etc. Originally, thyristors relied only on current reversal to turn them off, making them difficult to apply for direct current; newer device types can be turned on and off through the control gate signal. The latter is known as a gate turn-off thyristor, or GTO thyristor. A thyristor is not a proportional device like a transistor. In other words, a thyristor can only be fully on or off, while a transistor can lie in between on and off states. This makes a thyristor unsuitable as an analog amplifier, but useful as a switch.

Dimmer device used to lower the brightness of a light

Dimmers are devices connected to a light fixture and used to lower the brightness of light. By changing the voltage waveform applied to the lamp, it is possible to lower the intensity of the light output. Although variable-voltage devices are used for various purposes, the term dimmer is generally reserved for those intended to control light output from resistive incandescent, halogen, and compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). More specialized equipment is needed to dim fluorescent, mercury vapor, solid-state, and other arc lighting.

Gate turn-off thyristor

A gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) is a special type of thyristor, which is a high-power semiconductor device. It was invented by General Electric. GTOs, as opposed to normal thyristors, are fully controllable switches which can be turned on and off by their third lead, the gate lead.

Transistor Basic electronics component

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.

Introduction

The thyristor is a four-layered, three-terminal semiconductor device, with each layer consisting of alternately N-type or P-type material, for example P-N-P-N. The main terminals, labelled anode and cathode, are across all four layers. The control terminal, called the gate, is attached to p-type material near the cathode. (A variant called an SCS—silicon controlled switch—brings all four layers out to terminals.) The operation of a thyristor can be understood in terms of a pair of tightly coupled bipolar junction transistors, arranged to cause a self-latching action:

Bipolar junction transistor transistor that uses both electron and hole charge carriers.In contrast,unipolar transistors such as field-effect transistors,only use one kind of charge carrier.For their operation,BJTs use 2 junctions between 2 semiconductor types,n-type and p-type

A bipolar junction transistor is a type of transistor that uses both electrons and holes as charge carriers.

Structure on the physical and electronic level, and the thyristor symbol. Thyristor.svg
Structure on the physical and electronic level, and the thyristor symbol.

Thyristors have three states:

  1. Reverse blocking mode – Voltage is applied in the direction that would be blocked by a diode
  2. Forward blocking mode – Voltage is applied in the direction that would cause a diode to conduct, but the thyristor has not been triggered into conduction
  3. Forward conducting mode – The thyristor has been triggered into conduction and will remain conducting until the forward current drops below a threshold value known as the "holding current"

Function of the gate terminal

The thyristor has three p-n junctions (serially named J1, J2, J3 from the anode).

Layer diagram of thyristor. Thyristor layers.svg
Layer diagram of thyristor.

When the anode is at a positive potential VAK with respect to the cathode with no voltage applied at the gate, junctions J1 and J3 are forward biased, while junction J2 is reverse biased. As J2 is reverse biased, no conduction takes place (Off state). Now if VAK is increased beyond the breakdown voltage VBO of the thyristor, avalanche breakdown of J2 takes place and the thyristor starts conducting (On state).

Avalanche breakdown is a phenomenon that can occur in both insulating and semiconducting materials. It is a form of electric current multiplication that can allow very large currents within materials which are otherwise good insulators. It is a type of electron avalanche. The avalanche process occurs when carriers in the transition region are accelerated by the electric field to energies sufficient to create mobile or free electron-hole pairs via collisions with bound electrons.

If a positive potential VG is applied at the gate terminal with respect to the cathode, the breakdown of the junction J2 occurs at a lower value of VAK. By selecting an appropriate value of VG, the thyristor can be switched into the on state quickly.

Once avalanche breakdown has occurred, the thyristor continues to conduct, irrespective of the gate voltage, until: (a) the potential VAK is removed or (b) the current through the device (anode−cathode) becomes less than the holding current specified by the manufacturer. Hence VG can be a voltage pulse, such as the voltage output from a UJT relaxation oscillator.

The gate pulses are characterized in terms of gate trigger voltage (VGT) and gate trigger current (IGT). Gate trigger current varies inversely with gate pulse width in such a way that it is evident that there is a minimum gate charge required to trigger the thyristor.

Switching characteristics

V - I characteristics. Thyristor I-V diagram.svg
VI characteristics.

In a conventional thyristor, once it has been switched on by the gate terminal, the device remains latched in the on-state (i.e. does not need a continuous supply of gate current to remain in the on state), providing the anode current has exceeded the latching current (IL). As long as the anode remains positively biased, it cannot be switched off until the anode current falls below the holding current (IH). In normal working condition the latching current is always greater than holding current. In the above figure IL has to come above the IH on y-axis since IL>IH.

A thyristor can be switched off if the external circuit causes the anode to become negatively biased (a method known as natural, or line, commutation). In some applications this is done by switching a second thyristor to discharge a capacitor into the cathode of the first thyristor. This method is called forced commutation.

After the current in a thyristor has extinguished, a finite time delay must elapse before the anode can again be positively biased and retain the thyristor in the off-state. This minimum delay is called the circuit commutated turn off time (tQ). Attempting to positively bias the anode within this time causes the thyristor to be self-triggered by the remaining charge carriers (holes and electrons) that have not yet recombined.

For applications with frequencies higher than the domestic AC mains supply (e.g. 50 Hz or 60 Hz), thyristors with lower values of tQ are required. Such fast thyristors can be made by diffusing heavy metal ions such as gold or platinum which act as charge combination centers into the silicon. Today, fast thyristors are more usually made by electron or proton irradiation of the silicon, or by ion implantation. Irradiation is more versatile than heavy metal doping because it permits the dosage to be adjusted in fine steps, even at quite a late stage in the processing of the silicon.

History

The silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) or thyristor proposed by William Shockley in 1950 and championed by Moll and others at Bell Labs was developed in 1956 by power engineers at General Electric (G.E.), led by Gordon Hall and commercialized by G.E.'s Frank W. "Bill" Gutzwiller. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers recognized the invention by placing a plaque at the invention site in Clyde, NY and declaring it an IEEE Historic Milestone.

A bank of six 2000 A thyristors (white disks arranged in a row at top, and seen edge-on) Nelson Bipole Thyristors.jpg
A bank of six 2000 A thyristors (white disks arranged in a row at top, and seen edge-on)

Etymology

An earlier gas-filled tube device called a thyratron provided a similar electronic switching capability, where a small control voltage could switch a large current. It is from a combination of "thyratron" and "transistor" that the term "thyristor" is derived. [2]

Applications

Waveforms in a rectified multiple thyristor circuit controlling an AC current.
Red trace: load (output) voltage
Blue trace: trigger voltage. Regulated rectifier.gif
Waveforms in a rectified multiple thyristor circuit controlling an AC current.
Red trace: load (output) voltage
Blue trace: trigger voltage.

Thyristors are mainly used where high currents and voltages are involved, and are often used to control alternating currents, where the change of polarity of the current causes the device to switch off automatically, referred to as "zero cross" operation. The device can be said to operate synchronously; being that, once the device is triggered, it conducts current in phase with the voltage applied over its cathode to anode junction with no further gate modulation being required, i.e., the device is biased fully on. This is not to be confused with asymmetrical operation, as the output is unidirectional, flowing only from cathode to anode, and so is asymmetrical in nature.

Thyristors can be used as the control elements for phase angle triggered controllers, also known as phase fired controllers.

They can also be found in power supplies for digital circuits, where they are used as a sort of "enhanced circuit breaker" to prevent a failure in the power supply from damaging downstream components. A thyristor is used in conjunction with a Zener diode attached to its gate, and if the output voltage of the supply rises above the Zener voltage, the thyristor will conduct and short-circuit the power supply output to ground (in general also tripping an upstream breaker or fuse). This kind of protection circuit is known as a crowbar, and has the advantage over a standard circuit breaker or fuse in that it creates a high-conductance path to ground for the damaging supply voltage and potentially for stored energy in the system being powered.

The first large-scale application of thyristors, with associated triggering diac, in consumer products related to stabilized power supplies within color television receivers in the early 1970s.[ clarification needed ] The stabilized high voltage DC supply for the receiver was obtained by moving the switching point of the thyristor device up and down the falling slope of the positive going half of the AC supply input (if the rising slope was used the output voltage would always rise towards the peak input voltage when the device was triggered and thus defeat the aim of regulation). The precise switching point was determined by the load on the DC output supply, as well as AC input fluctuations.

Thyristors have been used for decades as light dimmers in television, motion pictures, and theater, where they replaced inferior technologies such as autotransformers and rheostats. They have also been used in photography as a critical part of flashes (strobes).

Snubber circuits

Thyristors can be triggered by a high rise-rate of off-state voltage. This is prevented by connecting a resistor-capacitor (RC) snubber circuit between the anode and cathode in order to limit the dV/dt (i.e., rate of voltage change over time). Snubbers are energy-absorbing circuits used to suppress the voltage spikes caused by the circuit's inductance when a switch, electrical or mechanical, opens. The most common snubber circuit is a capacitor and resistor connected in series across the switch (transistor).

HVDC electricity transmission

Valve hall containing thyristor valve stacks used for long-distance transmission of power from Manitoba Hydro dams Manitoba Hydro-BipoleII Valve.jpg
Valve hall containing thyristor valve stacks used for long-distance transmission of power from Manitoba Hydro dams

Since modern thyristors can switch power on the scale of megawatts, thyristor valves have become the heart of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) conversion either to or from alternating current. In the realm of this and other very high-power applications, both electrically triggered (ETT) and light-triggered (LTT) thyristors [3] [4] are still the primary choice. Thyristors are arranged into a diode bridge circuit and to reduce harmonics are connected in series to form a 12-pulse converter. Each thyristor is cooled with deionized water, and the entire arrangement becomes one of multiple identical modules forming a layer in a multilayer valve stack called a quadruple valve. Three such stacks are typically mounted on the floor or hung from the ceiling of the valve hall of a long-distance transmission facility. [5] [6]

Comparisons to other devices

The functional drawback of a thyristor is that, like a diode, it only conducts in one direction. A similar self-latching 5-layer device, called a TRIAC, is able to work in both directions. This added capability, though, also can become a shortfall. Because the TRIAC can conduct in both directions, reactive loads can cause it to fail to turn off during the zero-voltage instants of the AC power cycle. Because of this, use of TRIACs with (for example) heavily inductive motor loads usually requires the use of a "snubber" circuit around the TRIAC to assure that it will turn off with each half-cycle of mains power. Inverse parallel SCRs can also be used in place of the triac; because each SCR in the pair has an entire half-cycle of reverse polarity applied to it, the SCRs, unlike TRIACs, are sure to turn off. The "price" to be paid for this arrangement, however, is the added complexity of two separate, but essentially identical gating circuits.

Although thyristors are heavily used in megawatt-scale rectification of AC to DC, in low- and medium-power (from few tens of watts to few tens of kilowatts) applications they have virtually been replaced by other devices with superior switching characteristics like Power MOSFETs or IGBTs. One major problem associated with SCRs is that they are not fully controllable switches. The GTO thyristor and IGCT are two devices related to the thyristor that address this problem. In high-frequency applications, thyristors are poor candidates due to long switching times arising from bipolar conduction. MOSFETs, on the other hand, have much faster switching capability because of their unipolar conduction (only majority carriers carry the current).

Failure modes

Thyristor manufacturers generally specify a region of safe firing defining acceptable levels of voltage and current for a given operating temperature. The boundary of this region is partly determined by the requirement that the maximum permissible gate power (PG), specified for a given trigger pulse duration, is not exceeded. [7]

As well as the usual failure modes due to exceeding voltage, current or power ratings, thyristors have their own particular modes of failure, including:

Silicon carbide thyristors

In recent years, some manufacturers [8] have developed thyristors using silicon carbide (SiC) as the semiconductor material. These have applications in high temperature environments, being capable of operating at temperatures up to 350 °C.

Types

Reverse conducting thyristor

A reverse conducting thyristor (RCT) has an integrated reverse diode, so is not capable of reverse blocking. These devices are advantageous where a reverse or freewheel diode must be used. Because the SCR and diode never conduct at the same time they do not produce heat simultaneously and can easily be integrated and cooled together. Reverse conducting thyristors are often used in frequency changers and inverters.

Photothyristors

Electronic symbol for light-activated SCR (LASCR) LASCRsymbol.png
Electronic symbol for light-activated SCR (LASCR)

Photothyristors are activated by light. The advantage of photothyristors is their insensitivity to electrical signals, which can cause faulty operation in electrically noisy environments. A light-triggered thyristor (LTT) has an optically sensitive region in its gate, into which electromagnetic radiation (usually infrared) is coupled by an optical fiber. Since no electronic boards need to be provided at the potential of the thyristor in order to trigger it, light-triggered thyristors can be an advantage in high-voltage applications such as HVDC. Light-triggered thyristors are available with in-built over-voltage (VBO) protection, which triggers the thyristor when the forward voltage across it becomes too high; they have also been made with in-built forward recovery protection, but not commercially. Despite the simplification they can bring to the electronics of an HVDC valve, light-triggered thyristors may still require some simple monitoring electronics and are only available from a few manufacturers.

Two common photothyristors include the light-activated SCR (LASCR) and the light-activated TRIAC. A LASCR acts as a switch that turns on when exposed to light. Following light exposure, when light is absent, if the power is not removed and the polarities of the cathode and anode have not yet reversed, the LASCR is still in the "on" state. A light-activated TRIAC resembles a LASCR, except that it is designed for alternating currents.

See also

Related Research Articles

Diode abstract electronic component with two terminals that allows current to flow in one direction

A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction ; it has low resistance in one direction, and high resistance in the other. A diode vacuum tube or thermionic diode is a vacuum tube with two electrodes, a heated cathode and a plate, in which electrons can flow in only one direction, from cathode to plate. A semiconductor diode, the most commonly used type today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p–n junction connected to two electrical terminals. Semiconductor diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices. The discovery of asymmetric electrical conduction across the contact between a crystalline mineral and a metal was made by German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1874. Today, most diodes are made of silicon, but other materials such as gallium arsenide and germanium are used.

A unijunction transistor (UJT) is a three-lead electronic semiconductor device with only one junction that acts exclusively as an electrically controlled switch.

Insulated-gate bipolar transistor three-terminal power semiconductor device

An insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a three-terminal power semiconductor device primarily used as an electronic switch which, as it was developed, came to combine high efficiency and fast switching. It consists of four alternating layers (P-N-P-N) that are controlled by a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate structure without regenerative action. Although the structure of the IGBT is topologically the same as a thyristor with a 'MOS' gate, the thyristor action is completely suppressed and only the transistor action is permitted in the entire device operation range. It is used in switching power supplies in high power applications: variable-frequency drives (VFDs), electric cars, trains, variable speed refrigerators, lamp ballasts, and air-conditioners.

Schottky diode semiconductor diode formed by the junction of a semiconductor with a metal, semiconductor diode with a low forward voltage drop

The Schottky diode, also known as Schottky barrier diode or hot-carrier diode, is a semiconductor diode formed by the junction of a semiconductor with a metal. It has a low forward voltage drop and a very fast switching action. The cat's-whisker detectors used in the early days of wireless and metal rectifiers used in early power applications can be considered primitive Schottky diodes.

Silicon controlled rectifier semiconductor electronic device with three p-n junctions, mainly used in devices where the control of high power is demanded

A silicon controlled rectifier or semiconductor controlled rectifier is a four-layer solid-state current-controlling device. The principle of four-layer p–n–p–n switching was developed by Moll, Tanenbaum, Goldey and Holonyak of Bell Laboratories in 1956. The practical demonstration of silicon controlled switching and detailed theoretical behavior of a device in agreement with the experimental results was presented by Dr Ian M. Mackintosh of Bell Laboratories in January 1958. The name "silicon controlled rectifier" is General Electric's trade name for a type of thyristor. The SCR was developed by a team of power engineers led by Gordon Hall and commercialized by Frank W. "Bill" Gutzwiller in 1957.

TRIAC generic trademark for a three-terminal thyristor that conducts current in either direction when triggered

TRIAC, from triode for alternating current, is a generic trademark for a three terminal electronic component that conducts current in either direction when triggered. Its formal name is bidirectional triode thyristor or bilateral triode thyristor. A thyristor is analogous to a relay in that a small voltage induced current can control a much larger voltage and current. The illustration on the right shows the circuit symbol for a TRIAC where A1 is Anode 1, A2 is Anode 2, and G is Gate. Anode 1 and Anode 2 are normally termed Main Terminal 1 (MT1) and Main Terminal 2 (MT2) respectively.

Thyratron Gas filled tube, electrical switch, rectifier

A thyratron is a type of gas-filled tube used as a high-power electrical switch and controlled rectifier. Thyratrons can handle much greater currents than similar hard-vacuum tubes. Electron multiplication occurs when the gas becomes ionized, producing a phenomenon known as Townsend discharge. Gases used include mercury vapor, xenon, neon, and hydrogen. Unlike a vacuum tube (valve), a thyratron cannot be used to amplify signals linearly.

DIAC diode that conducts current only after its breakover voltage has been reached momentarily

The DIAC is a diode that conducts electrical current only after its breakover voltage, VBO, has been reached momentarily. The term is an acronym of "diode for alternating current".

Ignitron type of gas-filled tube used as a controlled rectifier

An ignitron is a type of gas-filled tube used as a controlled rectifier and dating from the 1930s. Invented by Joseph Slepian while employed by Westinghouse, Westinghouse was the original manufacturer and owned trademark rights to the name "Ignitron". Ignitrons are closely related to mercury-arc valves but differ in the way the arc is ignited. They function similarly to thyratrons; a triggering pulse to the igniter electrode turns the device "on", allowing a high current to flow between the cathode and anode electrodes. After it is turned on, the current through the anode must be reduced to zero to restore the device to its nonconducting state. They are used to switch high currents in heavy industrial applications.

Integrated gate-commutated thyristor

The integrated gate-commutated thyristor (IGCT) is a power semiconductor electronic device, used for switching electric current in industrial equipment. It is related to the gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor.

A power semiconductor device is a semiconductor device used as a switch or rectifier in power electronics. Such a device is also called a power device or, when used in an integrated circuit, a power IC.

Electronic component basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields

An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields. Electronic components are mostly industrial products, available in a singular form and are not to be confused with electrical elements, which are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electronic components.

Crowbar (circuit) Type of electrical circuit

A crowbar circuit is an electrical circuit used for preventing an overvoltage condition of a power supply unit from damaging the circuits attached to the power supply. It operates by putting a short circuit or low resistance path across the voltage output (Vo), quite like were one to drop a crowbar across the output terminals of the power supply. Crowbar circuits are frequently implemented using a thyristor, TRIAC, trisil or thyratron as the shorting device. Once triggered, they depend on the current-limiting circuitry of the power supply or, if that fails, the blowing of the line fuse or tripping the circuit breaker.

Diode logic constructs Boolean logic gates from diodes acting

Diode logic (DL), or diode-resistor logic (DRL), is the construction of Boolean logic gates from diodes. Diode logic was used extensively in the construction of early computers, where semiconductor diodes could replace bulky and costly active vacuum tube elements. The most common use for diode logic is in diode–transistor logic (DTL) integrated circuits that, in addition to diodes, include inverter logic for power gain and signal restoration.

Solid-state relay

A solid-state relay (SSR) is an electronic switching device that switches on or off when a small external voltage is applied across its control terminals. SSRs consist of a sensor which responds to an appropriate input, a solid-state electronic switching device which switches power to the load circuitry, and a coupling mechanism to enable the control signal to activate this switch without mechanical parts. The relay may be designed to switch either AC or DC to the load. It serves the same function as an electromechanical relay, but has no moving parts.

In electronics, cut-off is a state of negligible conduction that is a property of several types of electronic components when a control parameter, is lowered or increased past a value. The transition from normal conduction to cut-off can be more or less sharp, depending on the type of device considered, and also the speed of this transition varies considerably.

The current injection technique is a technique developed to reduce the turn-OFF switching transient of power bipolar semiconductor devices. It was developed and published by Dr S. Eio of Staffordshire University in 2007.

Quadracs are a special type of thyristor which combines a "diac" and a "triac" in a single package. The diac is the triggering device for the triac. Thyristors are four-layer (PNPN) semiconductor devices that act as switches, rectifiers or voltage regulators in a variety of applications. When triggered, thyristors turn on and become low-resistance current paths. They remain so even after the trigger is removed, and until the current is reduced to a certain level. Diacs are bi-directional diodes that switch AC voltages and trigger triacs or silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs). Except for a small leakage current, diacs do not conduct until the breakover voltage is reached. Triacs are three-terminal, silicon devices that function as two SCRs configured in an inverse, parallel arrangement. They provide load current during both halves of the AC supply voltage. By combining the functions of diacs and triacs, quadracs eliminate the need to buy and assemble discrete parts.

A Triggering device is an electronic circuit, such as a Schmitt trigger, which is used to control another electronic circuit.

References

  1. Christiansen, Donald; Alexander, Charles K. (2005); Standard Handbook of Electrical Engineering (5th edition.). McGraw-Hill, ISBN   0-07-138421-9
  2. Archived September 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  3. "Chapter 5.1". High Voltage Direct Current Transmission – Proven Technology for Power Exchange (PDF). Siemens . Retrieved 2013-08-04.
  4. "ETT vs. LTT for HVDC" (PDF). ABB Asea Brown Boveri . Retrieved 2014-01-24.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. "HVDC Thyristor Valves". ABB Asea Brown Boveri. Archived from the original on January 22, 2009. Retrieved 2008-12-20.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. "High Power". IET. Archived from the original on September 10, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-12.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. "Safe Firing of Thyristors" on powerguru.org
  8. Example: Silicon Carbide Inverter Demonstrates Higher Power Output in Power Electronics Technology (2006-02-01)
  9. Rashid, Muhammad H.(2011); Power Electronics (3rd ed.). Pearson, ISBN   978-81-317-0246-8

Sources