Tian Xu (fl. 220–264) was a military officer of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). With its capital initially located at Xuchang, and thereafter Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations laid by his father, Cao Cao, towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty. The name "Wei" first became associated with Cao Cao when he was named the Duke of Wei by the Eastern Han government in 213, and became the name of the state when Cao Pi proclaimed himself emperor in 220. Historians often add the prefix "Cao" to distinguish it from other Chinese states known as "Wei", such as Wei of the Warring States period and Northern Wei of the Northern and Southern dynasties. The authority of the ruling Cao family dramatically weakened in the aftermath of the deposal and execution of Cao Shuang and his siblings, the former being one of the regents for the third Wei emperor, Cao Fang, with state authority gradually falling into the hands of Sima Yi, another Wei regent, and his family, from 249 onwards. The last Wei emperors would remain largely as puppet rulers under the control of the Simas until Sima Yi's grandson, Sima Yan, forced the last Wei ruler, Cao Huan, to abdicate the throne and established the Jin dynasty.
The Three Kingdoms was the tripartite division of China among the states of Wei, Shu, and Wu. It started with the end of the Han dynasty and was followed by the Jin dynasty. The term "Three Kingdoms" is something of a misnomer, since each state was eventually headed not by a king, but by an emperor who claimed suzerainty over all China. Nevertheless, the term "Three Kingdoms" has become standard among English-speaking sinologists. To distinguish the three states from other historical Chinese states of the same names, historians have added a relevant character to the state's original name: the state that called itself Wei (魏) is also known as Cao Wei (曹魏), the state that called itself Han (漢) is also known as Shu Han (蜀漢) or just Shu (蜀), and the state that called itself Wu (吳) is also known as Eastern Wu or Sun Wu (孫吳).
Tian Xu was from Wuzhong County (無終縣), Youbeiping Commandery (右北平郡), which is in present-day Jizhou District, Tianjin. He was a grand-nephew of Tian Chou, an official who served under the warlord Cao Cao in the late Eastern Han dynasty.
Youbeiping Commandery, or Beiping Commandery was a commandery in imperial China from the Warring States period to Tang dynasty. It was located in present-day Hebei and Tianjin.
Jizhou District is a district in the far north of the municipality of Tianjin, People's Republic of China, holding cultural and historical significance formerly a county known as Jixian.
Cao Cao, courtesy name Mengde, was a Chinese warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the final years of the dynasty. As one of the central figures of the Three Kingdoms period, he laid the foundations for what was to become the state of Cao Wei and ultimately the Jin dynasty, and was posthumously honoured as "Emperor Wu of Wei". He is often portrayed as a cruel and merciless tyrant in subsequent literature; however, he has also been praised as a brilliant ruler and military genius who treated his subordinates like his family.
In 220, after Cao Pi (Cao Cao's son and successor) ended the Eastern Han dynasty and established the state of Cao Wei with himself as its first emperor, he wanted to honour Tian Chou for his good moral character. However, as both Tian Chou and his son were already deceased, Cao Pi decided to make Tian Xu the successor to Tian Chou, and he awarded Tian Xu the title of a Secondary Marquis (關內侯).
Cao Pi, courtesy name Zihuan, was the first emperor of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was the second son of Cao Cao, a warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty, but the eldest son among all the children born to Cao Cao by his concubine, Lady Bian. According to some historical records, he was often in the presence of court officials in order to gain their support. He was mostly in charge of defence at the start of his career. After the defeat of Cao Cao's rival Yuan Shao at the Battle of Guandu, he took Yuan Xi's widow, Lady Zhen, as a concubine, but in 221 Lady Zhen died and Guo Nüwang became empress.
In 263, Tian Xu participated in the campaign against Wei's rival state, Shu Han, as an officer under the Wei general Deng Ai. When Deng Ai and the Shu general Jiang Wei were locked in a stalemate at Jiange (劍閣), Deng Ai decided to take a shortcut from Yinping (陰平) to Jiangyou (江油) to bypass Jiang Wei's defences. Tian Xu disobeyed Deng Ai's orders when he refused to advance, so Deng Ai wanted to execute him. Later, after Deng Ai defeated the Shu general Zhuge Zhan at Mianzhu (緜竹), Jiang Wei retreated from Jiange to Ba Commandery (巴郡). Another Wei army led by Zhong Hui advanced towards Fu County (涪縣), where Zhong Hui ordered Tian Xu, Hu Lie, Pang Hui and others to lead troops to pursue Jiang Wei's retreating army.
The Conquest of Shu by Wei was a military campaign launched by the state of Cao Wei ("Wei") against its rival Shu Han ("Shu") in late 263 during the Three Kingdoms period of China. The campaign culminated in the fall of Shu and the tripartite equilibrium maintained in China for over 40 years since the end of the Eastern Han dynasty in 220. The conquest signified the beginning of a reunified China under the Jin dynasty (265–420).
Shu or Shu Han was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). The state was based in the area around present-day Sichuan and Chongqing, which was historically known as "Shu" after an earlier state in Sichuan named Shu. Shu Han's founder Liu Bei had named his state "Han" as he considered it the legitimate successor to the Han dynasty, while "Shu" is added to the name as a geographical prefix to differentiate it from the many "Han" states throughout Chinese history.
Deng Ai, courtesy name Shizai, was a military general of the state of Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He is best known for his pivotal role in the Wei conquest of its rival state, Shu, in 263. He was described as a very loyal subject who made great contributions to Wei, but was also noted for his arrogance and audacity, which led to his downfall and death.
Later that year, after the Shu emperor Liu Shan had surrendered and Shu had been vanquished by Wei, Zhong Hui planned to rebel against the Cao Wei state. He accused Deng Ai of plotting a rebellion and had Deng Ai arrested and sent back to the Wei capital, Luoyang. Zhong Hui staged a revolt in 264 but it was crushed and he lost his life. Deng Ai's subordinates wanted to bring their superior back from Luoyang. Wei Guan, another Wei officer who plotted with Zhong Hui against Deng Ai, feared that Deng Ai would take revenge on him if he returned, so he instigated Tian Xu to kill Deng Ai by reminding him of how Deng Ai wanted to execute him at Yinping in the previous year. Tian Xu led his men to intercept Deng Ai at Sanzao Village (三造亭), Mianzhu, where he killed Deng Ai and his son Deng Zhong (鄧忠).
Liu Shan (207–271), courtesy name Gongsi, was the second and last emperor of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period. As he ascended the throne at the age of 16, Liu Shan was entrusted to the care of the Chancellor Zhuge Liang and Imperial Secretariat Li Yan. His reign of 40 years was the longest of all in the Three Kingdoms era. During Liu Shan's reign, many campaigns were led against the rival state of Cao Wei, primarily by Zhuge Liang and his successor Jiang Wei, but to little avail. Liu Shan eventually surrendered to Wei in 263 after Deng Ai led a surprise attack on the Shu capital Chengdu. He was quickly relocated to Luoyang, capital of Wei, and enfeoffed as "Duke Anle". There he enjoyed his last years peacefully before dying, most probably of natural causes, in 271.
Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province. Governed as a prefecture-level city, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north, and Jiaozuo to the northeast. As of the final 2010 census, Luoyang had a population of 6,549,941 inhabitants with 1,857,003 people living in the built-up area made of the city's five urban districts, all of which except the Jili District are not urbanized yet.
Zhong Hui's Rebellion was a rebellion in March 264 led by Zhong Hui, a general of the state of Cao Wei, against the Wei regent, Sima Zhao. Zhong Hui had support from Jiang Wei, a general from the former state of Shu Han, which was conquered by Wei forces just before the rebellion started. Zhong Hui, as one of the Wei commanders in the Conquest of Shu by Wei, had considered himself capable enough to overcome the Wei regime and establish his own kingdom in the newly conquered Shu territory. The rebellion ended when some Wei officers and soldiers, who were unwilling to join Zhong Hui, started a mutiny against him and killed him and Jiang Wei.
Jiang Wei, courtesy name Boyue, was a military general of the state of Shu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Born in Ji County, Jiang Wei started his career as a military officer in his native Tianshui Commandery, which was a territory of the state of Wei. In 228, when Wei's rival state Shu launched an invasion, Jiang Wei had no choice but to defect to Shu due to the circumstances. Zhuge Liang, the Imperial Chancellor and regent of Shu, highly regarded Jiang Wei and allowed him to serve as a general in Shu. After Zhuge Liang's death in 234, Jiang Wei continued serving as a general during the regencies of Zhuge Liang's successors, Jiang Wan and Fei Yi. Between 240 and 262, he continued Zhuge Liang's legacy of waging war against Wei by leading another 11 military campaigns. However, Jiang Wei failed to make any significant gains from the campaigns as each was ultimately aborted due to inadequate food supplies, heavy losses on the battlefield, or other reasons. The campaigns also severely depleted Shu's already limited resources and took a toll on the Shu population; Jiang Wei also incurred much resentment from the people for his warmongering behaviour. While Jiang Wei was away at the frontline, the palace eunuch Huang Hao, whom the Shu emperor Liu Shan favoured, gradually became more influential in Shu's internal politics. After the 11th campaign in 262, Jiang Wei suspected that Huang Hao was plotting to remove from power so he did not return to the capital Chengdu and instead remained in Tazhong. In 263, when Wei launched a massive invasion of Shu, Jiang Wei led Shu forces to resist the invaders at Tazhong, Yinping and Jiange, but he was caught off guard when the Wei forces under Deng Ai took a shortcut and showed up at Chengdu unexpectedly. Liu Shan surrendered to Deng Ai without putting up resistance and ordered Jiang Wei to surrender to the Wei general Zhong Hui; this event marked the end of Shu's existence. In the following year, Jiang Wei instigated Zhong Hui to launch a rebellion in Chengdu against the Wei regent Sima Zhao and hoped to use the opportunity to gain military power and restore Shu. However, some of Zhong Hui's officers, who were unwilling to participate in the rebellion, started a mutiny against Zhong Hui and killed him and Jiang Wei.
Sima Zhao, courtesy name Zishang, was a military general, politician, and regent of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Zhuge Zhan (227–263), courtesy name Siyuan, was a military general and official of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was a son of Zhuge Liang, the first Imperial Chancellor of Shu.
Huang Quan, courtesy name Gongheng, was a military general of the state of Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He previously served under the warlords Liu Zhang and Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han dynasty and in the state of Shu during the early Three Kingdoms period before defecting to Wei. Liu Bei relied heavily on Huang Quan for counsel in both domestic and foreign policy. Under the Wei government, however, Huang Quan was restricted to only internal affairs because even though the Wei emperor Cao Pi appreciated him for his talent, he doubted Huang Quan's allegiance and believed he was still secretly loyal to Liu Bei.
Li Hui, courtesy name De'ang, was an official of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Fei Shi, courtesy name Gongju, was an official of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Hu Ji, courtesy name Weidu, was a military general of the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Xi Zheng, courtesy name Lingxian, was an official and scholar of the state of Shu Han during the late Three Kingdoms period of China. He also served as an official in the early years of the Jin dynasty.
Zhang Yi, courtesy name Bogong, was a military general of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Born in the late Eastern Han dynasty, Zhang Yi was a 10th-generation descendant of Zhang Liang. He started his career as a scribe under the warlord Liu Bei, who founded Shu later, and gradually rose to the positions of a county prefect and commandery administrator. In the early 230s, he served as an area commander tasked with maintaining the peace in Shu's southern commanderies. In 234, he led the Shu vanguard during the Battle of Wuzhang Plains against Shu's rival state Wei. From 238 to 259, Zhang Yi steadily rose through the ranks to become one of Shu's top generals. During this time, although he strongly opposed the Shu general Jiang Wei's aggressive stance towards Wei, he still accompanied Jiang Wei on his military campaigns against Wei. In 263, he surrendered to Wei forces along with the Shu emperor Liu Shan when Wei launched a large-scale invasion of Shu. In the following year, Zhang Yi was killed by mutineers during a rebellion by the Wei general Zhong Hui.
The Tianshui revolts refer to the rebellions that broke out in the southern part of Liang Province in the spring of 228 during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Military forces from the state of Shu Han, led by their chancellor-regent Zhuge Liang, planned to seize control of Chang'an, a strategic city in Shu's rival state, Cao Wei. The three commanderies of Nan'an, Tianshui and Anding were captured by Shu forces, but these territorial gains were later lost after the Battle of Jieting. As mentioned in the biography of the Wei general Zhang He: "The commanderies of Nan'an, Tianshui and Anding rebelled and defected to (Zhuge) Liang, (Zhang) He pacified all of them."
Zhuge Xu was an official of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Wang Jing, courtesy name Yanwei, was an official of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Deng Yang, courtesy name Xuanmao, was an official of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Yang Xi, courtesy name Wenran, was an official of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He is best known for writing the Ji Han Fuchen Zan, a collection of praises of notable persons who served in the Shu Han state. Chen Shou, the third-century historian who wrote the Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi), extensively quoted and annotated Yang Xi's collection.
Chen Shou (233–297), courtesy name Chengzuo, was a Chinese historian, politician, and writer who lived during the Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China. He started his career as an official in the state of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era but was demoted and sent out of the capital for his refusal to fawn on Huang Hao, an influential court eunuch in Shu in its twilight years. After the fall of Shu in 263, Chen Shou's career entered a period of stagnation before Zhang Hua recommended him to serve in the Jin government. He held mainly scribal and secretarial positions under the Jin government before dying from illness in 297. He had over 200 writings – about 30 of which he co-wrote with his relatives – attributed to him.
The Records of the Three Kingdoms is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period. The primary body of the text was written by Chen Shou in the third century and combines the smaller histories of Cao Wei, Shu Han and Eastern Wu into a single text.
Fang Qiao (579–648), courtesy name Xuanling, better known as Fang Xuanling, posthumously known as Duke Wenzhao of Liang, was a Chinese statesman and writer who served as a chancellor under Emperor Taizong in the early Tang dynasty. He was the lead editor of the historical record Book of Jin and one of the most celebrated Tang dynasty chancellors. He and his colleague, Du Ruhui, were often described as role models for chancellors in imperial China.