Tian Xu (fl. 220–264) was a military officer of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Tian Xu was from Wuzhong County (無終縣), Youbeiping Commandery (右北平郡), which is in present-day Jizhou District, Tianjin. He was a grand-nephew of Tian Chou, an official who served under the warlord Cao Cao in the late Eastern Han dynasty.
In 220, after Cao Pi (Cao Cao's son and successor) ended the Eastern Han dynasty and established the state of Cao Wei with himself as its first emperor, he wanted to honour Tian Chou for his good moral character. However, as both Tian Chou and his son were already deceased, Cao Pi decided to make Tian Xu the successor to Tian Chou, and he awarded Tian Xu the title of a Secondary Marquis (關內侯).
In 263, Tian Xu participated in the campaign against Wei's rival state, Shu Han, as an officer under the Wei general Deng Ai. When Deng Ai and the Shu general Jiang Wei were locked in a stalemate at Jiange (劍閣), Deng Ai decided to take a shortcut from Yinping (陰平) to Jiangyou (江油) to bypass Jiang Wei's defences. Tian Xu disobeyed Deng Ai's orders when he refused to advance, so Deng Ai wanted to execute him. Later, after Deng Ai defeated the Shu general Zhuge Zhan at Mianzhu (緜竹), Jiang Wei retreated from Jiange to Ba Commandery (巴郡). Another Wei army led by Zhong Hui advanced towards Fu County (涪縣), where Zhong Hui ordered Tian Xu, Hu Lie, Pang Hui and others to lead troops to pursue Jiang Wei's retreating army.
Later that year, after the Shu emperor Liu Shan had surrendered and Shu had been vanquished by Wei, Zhong Hui planned to rebel against the Cao Wei state. He accused Deng Ai of plotting a rebellion and had Deng Ai arrested and sent back to the Wei capital, Luoyang. Zhong Hui staged a revolt in 264 but it was crushed and he lost his life. Deng Ai's subordinates wanted to bring their superior back from Luoyang. Wei Guan, another Wei officer who plotted with Zhong Hui against Deng Ai, feared that Deng Ai would take revenge on him if he returned, so he instigated Tian Xu to kill Deng Ai by reminding him of how Deng Ai wanted to execute him at Yinping in the previous year. Tian Xu led his men to intercept Deng Ai at Sanzao Village (三造亭), Mianzhu, where he killed Deng Ai and his son Deng Zhong (鄧忠).
Jiang Wei, courtesy name Boyue, was a military general of the state of Shu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Born in Ji County, Jiang Wei started his career as a military officer in his native Tianshui Commandery, which was a territory of Wei. In 228, when Wei's rival state Shu launched an invasion led by Zhuge Liang, Jiang Wei was distrusted by Ma Zun, then administrator of Tianshui Commandery. As such, Jiang Wei had to defect to Shu. Zhuge Liang, the Imperial Chancellor and regent of Shu, highly regarded Jiang Wei and appointed him as a general in Shu. After Zhuge Liang's death in 234, Jiang Wei continued serving as a military commander during the regencies Jiang Wan and Fei Yi, eventually rising to the highest military rank of General-In-Chief (大將軍) after Fei Yi’s death in 253. Between 240 and 262, he continued Zhuge Liang's legacy of waging war against Wei by leading another 11 military campaigns. However, Jiang Wei’s campaigns were relatively constrained in terms of both scale and duration due to Shu’s limited resources and inadequate food supplies, as well as internal political faultlines. In 263, when Wei launched a massive invasion of Shu, Jiang Wei led Shu forces to resist the invaders at Tazhong, Yinping and Jiange, himself defending Jiange which was under Zhong Hui’s attack. While Jiang Wei managed to temporarily stall Wei’s main force led by Zhong Hui, Deng Ai, another military commander of Wei, took a shortcut via Yinping and showed up at Chengdu unexpectedly. Liu Shan surrendered to Deng Ai without putting up resistance and ordered Jiang Wei to surrender to the Wei general Zhong Hui; this event marked the end of Shu's existence. In the following year, Jiang Wei instigated Zhong Hui to launch a rebellion in Chengdu against the Wei regent Sima Zhao and hoped to use the opportunity to gain military power and restore Shu. However, some of Zhong Hui's officers were unwilling to participate in the rebellion and started a mutiny, killing Jiang Wei and Zhong Hui.
Han, known in historiography as Shu Han or Ji Han (季漢), was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). The state was based in the area around present-day Hanzhong, Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Guizhou, and north Guangxi, an area historically referred to as "Shu" based on the name of the past ancient state of Shu, which also occupied this approximate geographical area. Its core territory also coincided with Liu Bang's Kingdom of Han, the precursor of the Han dynasty.
Xu Huang, courtesy name Gongming, was a military general serving under the warlord Cao Cao in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He later served in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period under the first two rulers, Cao Pi and Cao Rui, before his death at the start of Cao Rui's reign. Xu Huang is best noted for breaking the siege at the Battle of Fancheng in 219 by routing the enemy commander Guan Yu on the field.
Xiahou Yuan, courtesy name Miaocai, was a military general serving under the warlord Cao Cao in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He is known for his exploits in western China in the 210s, during which he defeated Cao Cao's rivals Ma Chao and Han Sui in Liang Province and the surrounding areas, and forced several Di and Qiang tribal peoples into submission. He was killed in action at the Battle of Mount Dingjun while defending Hanzhong Commandery from attacks by a rival warlord Liu Bei. Xiahou Yuan's death was highly dramatised in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, in which he was slain by Liu Bei's general Huang Zhong during a surprise raid.
Deng Ai, courtesy name Shizai, was a Chinese military general and politician of the state of Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He is best known for his pivotal role in the Wei conquest of its rival state, Shu, in 263. He was described as a very loyal subject who made great contributions to Wei, but was also noted for his arrogance and audacity, which led to his downfall and death.
Sima Zhao, courtesy name Zishang, was a Chinese military general, politician, and regent of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Zhong Hui, courtesy name Shiji, was a Chinese calligrapher, essayist, military general, and politician of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was the younger son of Zhang Changpu with Zhong Yao, who served as the Grand Tutor in the Wei imperial court. He was already known for being insightful, intelligent and knowledgeable since he was young. Zhong Hui rose to prominence in the 250s when he became a close aide to Sima Zhao, the regent and de facto ruler of Wei. He advised Sima Zhao on how to deal with the Third Rebellion in Shouchun from 257–258 and was highly regarded by the latter. With Sima Zhao's help, Zhong Hui steadily moved up the ranks and became one of the key figures in the Wei government.
Zhuge Zhan (227–263), courtesy name Siyuan, was a military general and official of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was a son of Zhuge Liang, the first Imperial Chancellor of Shu.
Guo Huai, courtesy name Boji, was a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He started his career towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty under the warlord Cao Cao as a subordinate of Cao Cao's generals Xiahou Yuan and Zhang He. During the Three Kingdoms period, he served in Wei, the state established by Cao Cao's son Cao Pi, and lived through the reigns of four Wei emperors. From the 220s until his death in 255, he governed and defended Wei's western borders in Yong and Liang provinces. During this time, he resisted multiple invasions by Wei's rival state, Shu Han, and quelled some rebellions by local Qiang, Di and other non-Han Chinese tribes.
Huang Quan, courtesy name Gongheng, was a military general of the state of Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He previously served under the warlords Liu Zhang and Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han dynasty and in the state of Shu during the early Three Kingdoms period before defecting to Wei. Liu Bei relied heavily on Huang Quan for counsel in both domestic and foreign policy. Under the Wei government, however, Huang Quan was restricted to only internal affairs because even though the Wei emperor Cao Pi appreciated him for his talent, he doubted Huang Quan's allegiance and believed he was still secretly loyal to Liu Bei.
Li Hui, courtesy name De'ang, was an official of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. After refusing Liu Zhang's service, Li joined Liu Bei early in his campaign to pacify Yi province. After Liu Bei's death, Li Hui proved his talent's during Zhuge Liang's Southern Campaign and was appointed the area commander in the south. Setting the standard for his successor's like Ma Zhong for sound governance. After Shu-Han's co-regent Li Yan was removed from office, Li Hui was promoted again and sent up to Hanzhong to assist in the Northern Expeditions but died a year later.
Hu Ji, courtesy name Weidu, was a military general of the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Ma Zhong, courtesy name Dexin, originally named Hu Du, was a military general of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Liu Bei was quite impressed by Ma Zhong and praised him highly, comparing him to the recently defected Huang Quan, Zhong was trusted and respected by the following head of the gouvernement Zhuge Liang, Jiang Wan and Fei Yi. After Liu Bei's death, he served under Zhuge Liang during the Southern Campaign and helped to quell the rebellion. He was appointed as the area commander in the south after Li Hui's death. He spends most of his life pacify the region and protecting the people of the south often with the help of Zhang Ni. Ma Zhong was known as a generous and whimsical man but he was also decisive in handling affairs. Hence the southern tribes both feared him and respected him. His duty in the south could be comparable to Wang Ping in the north and Deng Zhi in the east. After his death, the foreigners sorely missed him and later established a temple in his honor.
Zhang Yi, courtesy name Bogong, was a military general of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Born in the late Eastern Han dynasty, Zhang Yi was a 10th-generation descendant of Zhang Liang. He started his career as a scribe under the warlord Liu Bei, who founded Shu later, and gradually rose to the positions of a county prefect and commandery administrator. In the early 230s, he served as an area commander tasked with maintaining the peace in Shu's southern commanderies. In 234, he led the Shu vanguard during the Battle of Wuzhang Plains against Shu's rival state Wei. From 238 to 259, Zhang Yi steadily rose through the ranks to become one of Shu's top generals. During this time, although he strongly opposed the Shu general Jiang Wei's aggressive stance towards Wei, he still accompanied Jiang Wei on his military campaigns against Wei. In 263, he surrendered to Wei forces along with the Shu emperor Liu Shan when Wei launched a large-scale invasion of Shu. In the following year, Zhang Yi was killed by mutineers during a rebellion by the Wei general Zhong Hui. Like Liao Hua and Zong Yu, Zhang was one of few officials who served the Shu-Han state throughout its entire existence.
The Tianshui revolts refer to the rebellions that broke out in the southern part of Liang Province in the spring of 228 during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Military forces from the state of Shu Han, led by their chancellor-regent Zhuge Liang, planned to seize control of Chang'an, a strategic city in Shu's rival state, Cao Wei. The three commanderies of Nan'an, Tianshui, and Anding were captured by Shu forces, but these territorial gains were later lost after the Battle of Jieting. As mentioned in the biography of the Wei general Zhang He: "The commanderies of Nan'an, Tianshui and Anding rebelled and defected to (Zhuge) Liang, (Zhang) He pacified all of them."
The Conquest of Shu by Wei was a military campaign launched by the state of Cao Wei ("Wei") against its rival Shu Han ("Shu") in late 263 during the Three Kingdoms period of China. The campaign culminated in the fall of Shu and the tripartite equilibrium maintained in China for over 40 years since the end of the Eastern Han dynasty in 220. The conquest signified the beginning of a reunified China under the Jin dynasty (266–420).
Zhuge Xu was a Chinese general and politician of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Zhong Hui's Rebellion was a rebellion in March 264 led by Zhong Hui, a general of the state of Cao Wei, against the Wei regent, Sima Zhao. Zhong Hui had support from Jiang Wei, a general from the former state of Shu Han, which was conquered by Wei forces just before the rebellion started. Zhong Hui, as one of the Wei commanders in the Conquest of Shu by Wei, had considered himself capable enough to overcome the Wei regime and establish his own kingdom in the newly conquered Shu territory. The rebellion ended when some Wei officers and soldiers, who were unwilling to join Zhong Hui, started a mutiny against him and killed him and Jiang Wei.
Wang Jing, courtesy name Yanwei, was an official of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Deng Yang, courtesy name Xuanmao, was an official of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China.