|Palace Counsellor (太中大夫)|
|Minister of the Guards (衛尉)|
|Inspector of Bing Province (并州刺史)|
|General Who Inspires Might (振威將軍)|
|General of the Household Who Protects the Xiongnu (護匈奴中郎將)|
|General Who Eliminates the Yi (殄夷將軍)|
|Monarch||Cao Pi / Cao Rui|
|Administrator of Runan (汝南太守)|
|Monarch||Cao Pi / Cao Rui|
|Colonel Who Protects the Wuhuan |
Wuqing District, Tianjin
|Died||252 (aged 81)[ citation needed ]|
|Courtesy name||Guorang (國讓)|
|Peerage||Marquis of Changle Village|
Tian Yu (171? – 252?), courtesy name Guorang, was a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Tian Yu was from Yongnu County (雍奴縣), Yuyang Commandery (漁陽郡), which is present-day Wuqing District, Tianjin. During Liu Bei's stay with Gongsun Zan, the young Tian Yu placed himself under Liu Bei's foster care, and Liu Bei was greatly impressed by Tian Yu. When Tian Yu left to care for his aging mother, Liu Bei tearfully expressed his regret at not being able to work with Tian Yu.
Later Tian Yu served under Gongsun Zan as the Prefect of Dongzhou County (東州縣). One of Gongsun Zan's generals, Wang Men (王門), betrayed Gongsun Zan and joined Yuan Shao, and lead an attack on his former master with more than 10,000 troops. Tian Yu personally visited Wang Men and managed to shame the latter into retreating. Although Gongsun Zan knew of Tian Yu's intellect, he could not appoint important roles for Tian Yu. After Gongsun Zan's defeat, Tian Yu's friend Xianyu Fu hired him as an adjutant. He recommended that Xianyu Fu join Cao Cao, who subsequently hired Tian Yu as well in various official positions.
Zhao Yun, courtesy name Zilong (子龍), was a military general who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period of China. Originally a subordinate of the northern warlord Gongsun Zan, Zhao Yun later came to serve another warlord, Liu Bei, and had since accompanied him on most of his military exploits, from the Battle of Changban (208) to the Hanzhong Campaign (217–219). He continued serving in the state of Shu Han – founded by Liu Bei in 221 – in the Three Kingdoms period and participated in the first of the Northern Expeditions until his death in 229. While many facts about Zhao Yun's life remain unclear due to limited information in historical sources, some aspects and activities in his life have been dramatised or exaggerated in folklore and fiction. In the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, he was lauded as a member of the Five Tiger Generals under Liu Bei.
Lü Meng, courtesy name Ziming, was a military general who served under the warlord Sun Quan during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. Early in his career, he fought in several battles under the banner of Sun Ce, Sun Quan's elder brother and predecessor. Although he had been noted for his bravery, he was still deemed as nothing more than a "mere warrior" for his lack of literacy skills. Later, with encouragement from Sun Quan, Lü Meng took up scholarly pursuits to improve himself, gradually becoming a learned and competent military leader. In 217, he succeeded Lu Su as the frontline commander of Sun Quan's forces in Jing Province. Two years later, in a carefully calculated military operation, Lü Meng led an invasion of Liu Bei's territories in southern Jing Province, swiftly and stealthily capturing all the lands from Liu Bei's general Guan Yu, who was captured and executed after his defeat. Lü Meng enjoyed his finest hour after the victory but died a few months later because he was already seriously ill before the campaign.
Zhou Yu, courtesy name Gongjin, was a Chinese military general and strategist serving under the warlord Sun Ce in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. After Sun Ce died in the year 200, he continued serving under Sun Quan, Sun Ce's younger brother and successor. Zhou Yu is primarily known for his leading role in defeating the numerically superior forces of the northern warlord Cao Cao at the Battle of Red Cliffs in late 208, and again at the Battle of Jiangling in 209. Zhou Yu's victories served as the bedrock of Sun Quan's regime, which in 222 became Eastern Wu, one of the Three Kingdoms. Zhou Yu did not live to see Sun Quan's enthronement, however, as he died at the age of 35 in 210 while preparing to invade Yi Province. According to the Records of the Three Kingdoms, Zhou Yu was described as tall, physically strong and having a beautiful appearance. He was also referred to as "Zhou the Youth". However, his popular moniker "Zhou the Beautiful Youth" does not appear in either the Records or the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Some Japanese literary scholars such as Yoshikawa Eiji and Koide Fumihiko believe that this was a later invention by Japanese storytellers.
Taishi Ci (166–206), courtesy name Ziyi, was a military general who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He had served as a minor Han official, before eventually coming to serve warlords Liu Yao, Sun Ce, and Sun Ce's successor Sun Quan.
Lu Su (172–217), courtesy name Zijing, was a Chinese military general and politician serving under the warlord Sun Quan during the late Eastern Han dynasty. In the year 200, when Sun Quan had just taken over the reins of power, his adviser Zhou Yu recommended Lu Su as a talent to Sun Quan. As one of Sun Quan's most important advisers in the warlord's early career, Lu Su is best known for making some significant contributions. Firstly, in 200 he drafted a long-term strategy for Sun Quan's power bloc to emerge as one of three major contending powers in China – a plan similar to Zhuge Liang's Longzhong Plan, which was proposed about seven years later. Secondly, before the Battle of Red Cliffs in late 208, he was the first person to persuade Sun Quan to ally with Liu Bei against Cao Cao. Thirdly, he succeeded Zhou Yu as the frontline commander of Sun Quan's forces in 210 after Zhou's death and maintained the Sun–Liu alliance. Fourthly, in 215, he represented Sun Quan at the negotiations with Liu Bei's general Guan Yu during the Sun–Liu territorial dispute over Jing Province.
Guo Jia (170–207), courtesy name Fengxiao, was an adviser to the warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. Throughout his 11 years of service, Guo Jia aided Cao Cao greatly with his brilliance and foresight, and his strategies were instrumental to Cao Cao's triumphs over rival warlords such as Lü Bu and Yuan Shao. For example, four years before Cao Cao's decisive victory over Yuan Shao at the Battle of Guandu, Guo Jia already foresaw that Cao Cao would win when he pointed out ten advantages Cao Cao had over Yuan Shao.
Pang Tong (179–214), courtesy name Shiyuan, was an adviser to the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. Originally a minor official in Nan Commandery in Jing Province, Pang Tong came to serve Liu Bei in 209 after the latter became the provincial governor. In the early 210s, he accompanied Liu Bei on a military campaign to seize control of Yi Province from the warlord Liu Zhang, but was killed by a stray arrow during a battle at Luo County in 214.
Fa Zheng (176–220), courtesy name Xiaozhi, was a key adviser to the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty. Born in a family of high social status and of noble descent, Fa Zheng travelled to Yi Province in the late 190s and became a subordinate of Liu Zhang, the provincial governor. However, his feelings of alienation and perception of Liu Zhang as an incompetent governor eventually led him to betray Liu Zhang and defect to Liu Bei in 211. Between 211 and 214, Fa Zheng assisted Liu Bei in overcoming Liu Zhang and seizing control of Yi Province, and became one of Liu Bei's most trusted advisers. In 217, he urged Liu Bei to launch the Hanzhong Campaign to capture the strategic Hanzhong Commandery from a rival warlord, Cao Cao, but died a year after Liu emerged victorious in the campaign.
Tian Feng, courtesy name Yuanhao, was an official and adviser serving under the warlord Yuan Shao during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.
Cheng Yu, originally named Cheng Li, courtesy name Zhongde, was an official who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He was an adviser to Cao Cao, the warlord who became the de facto head of the Han central government during that period. He died in December 220 – a few months after Cao Cao's son, Cao Pi, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian and established the state of Cao Wei, an event marking the start of the Three Kingdoms period in China. Cheng Yu was described as a tall man with a beautiful long beard. He was from Dong'e County in present-day Shandong. He was best known in his time for his abnormal approach to cope with a shortage of grain: instead of sending hostages to Cao Cao's rival, Yuan Shao, in exchange for food supplies, he advised Cao Cao to feed his army with human flesh. He was also noted for his expertise in military tactics, which helped Cao Cao defeat Yuan Shao at the Battle of Guandu in 200 and consolidate control over northern China. It is widely agreed that his numerous contributions laid the foundation of the Cao Wei state; the reason he was not promoted to the rank of a duke was only because of his aforementioned strategy to cope with the food shortage in Yan Province. After Cheng Yu's death, Cao Pi honoured him with the posthumous title "Marquis Su", meaning "solemn marquis".
Huang Quan, courtesy name Gongheng, was a military general of the state of Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He previously served under the warlords Liu Zhang and Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han dynasty and in the state of Shu during the early Three Kingdoms period before defecting to Wei. Liu Bei relied heavily on Huang Quan for counsel in both domestic and foreign policy. Under the Wei government, however, Huang Quan was restricted to only internal affairs because even though the Wei emperor Cao Pi appreciated him for his talent, he doubted Huang Quan's allegiance and believed he was still secretly loyal to Liu Bei.
Yu Fan (164–233), courtesy name Zhongxiang, was an official and scholar of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Initially a minor officer under Wang Lang, the Administrator of Kuaiji Commandery, Yu Fan later served under the warlord Sun Ce, who conquered the territories in the Jiangdong region in a series of campaigns from 194–199. Sun Ce regarded him highly and once enlisted his help in persuading Hua Xin, another commandery administrator, to surrender. After Sun Ce's death, Yu Fan continued serving under Sun Quan, Sun Ce's younger brother and successor, as a Cavalry Commandant. Sun Quan confined him for some time due to his rude and disrespectful behaviour, but released him in 219 and allowed him to accompany the general Lü Meng to attack Jing Province. During the Jing Province campaign, Yu Fan warned Lü Meng about a possible ambush when Lü Meng was celebrating a minor victory, and was proven right later.
Xun Chen, courtesy name Youruo, was an official who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. Born in the influential Xun family of Yingchuan Commandery, he was the fourth brother of Xun Yu and a second cousins once removed of Xun You. He initially served as an adviser to the warlord Han Fu and later to another warlord, Yuan Shao.
Guan Jing, courtesy name Shiqi, was an official serving under the warlord Gongsun Zan during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. In 198, during Yuan Shao's invasion in the Battle of Yijing, Gongsun Zan wished to ride out and cut off Yuan Shao's rear, but Guan Jing recommended against this action, and for Gongsun Zan to stay within the city of Yijing. In 199, Yuan Shao tricked and ambushed Gongsun Zan as the latter rode out, expecting to meet reinforcements from Gongsun Zan's son Gongsun Xu and Zhang Yan. After this defeat, Gongsun Zan committed suicide by self-immolation. Guan Jing expressed regret that he could not convince Gongsun Zan to stay in the end, and rode into the army of Yuan Shao and died.
The following is the order of battle for the Battle of Red Cliffs.
Jiang Ji, courtesy name Zitong, was an official and military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Born in the late Eastern Han dynasty, Jiang Ji started his career as a low-level official in his native Yang Province before becoming a subordinate of Cao Cao, the warlord who controlled the central government towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty. After the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, he served in the state of Cao Wei through the reigns of the first three emperors – Cao Pi, Cao Rui and Cao Fang – and held various appointments in the military before rising to Grand Commandant, one of the top positions in the central government. During his service in Wei, he was known for being candid in giving advice to the emperor on various issues, including consolidating power, halting labour-intensive construction projects, and officials' abuses of power. In February 249, he joined the regent Sima Yi in staging a successful coup d'état against his co-regent Cao Shuang, but died from illness a few months later.
Cheng Ji, courtesy name Jiran, was a military officer of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He previously served under the warlord Liu Zhang during the late Eastern Han dynasty.
Du Qiong, courtesy name Boyu, was an official, astronomer and diviner of the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period of China.
The Sun–Liu territorial dispute was a military conflict between the warlords Sun Quan and Liu Bei in 215 during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. While Sun Quan and Liu Bei had initially formed an alliance in 208 against their common rival Cao Cao, both sides got into a territorial dispute over the territories in southern Jing Province in the early 210s. The dispute ended when both sides agreed to divide the territories along the Xiang River between their respective domains: Sun Quan took the lands east of the river while Liu Bei kept those west of the river. Despite a peaceful settlement to the territorial dispute, Sun Quan ultimately sent his forces to attack Liu Bei's territories in an invasion in 219 and succeeded in capturing all of them.
Yang Xi, courtesy name Wenran, was an official of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He is best known for writing the Ji Han Fuchen Zan, a collection of praises of notable persons who served in the Shu Han state. Chen Shou, the third-century historian who wrote the Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi), extensively quoted and annotated Yang Xi's collection.