WikiMili The Free Encyclopedia

* Tian yuan shu* (simplified Chinese :天元术; traditional Chinese :天元術; pinyin :

**Simplified Chinese characters** are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the *Table of General Standard Chinese Characters* for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.

**Traditional Chinese characters** are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.

**Hanyu Pinyin**, often abbreviated to **pinyin**, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

The mathematical culture in which it was created was lost due to war and general suspiciousness during the Ming dynasty of knowledge from the (Mongolian) Yuan dynasty. The writings of Li Zhi (* Ceyuan haijing *), Zhu Shijie (* Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns *) and others could no longer be fully understood, until the arrival of western mathematics in China.

The **Ming dynasty** was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the **Great Ming Empire** – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1683.

The **Yuan dynasty**, officially the **Great Yuan**, was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. It followed the Song dynasty and preceded the Ming dynasty. Although the Mongols had ruled territories including modern-day North China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style, and the conquest was not complete until 1279. His realm was, by this point, isolated from the other khanates and controlled most of modern-day China and its surrounding areas, including modern Mongolia. It was the first foreign dynasty to rule all of China and lasted until 1368, after which the rebuked Genghisid rulers retreated to their Mongolian homeland and continued to rule the Northern Yuan dynasty. Some of the Mongolian Emperors of the Yuan mastered the Chinese language, while others only used their native language and the 'Phags-pa script.

* Ceyuan haijing* is a treatise on solving geometry problems with the algebra of Tian yuan shu written by the mathematician Li Zhi in 1248 in the time of the Mongol Empire. It is a collection of 692 formula and 170 problems, all derived from the same master diagram of a round town inscribed in a right triangle and a square. They often involve two people who walk on straight lines until they can see each other, meet or reach a tree or pagoda in a certain spot. It is an algebraic geometry book, the purpose of book is to study intricated geometrical relations by algebra.

Meanwhile, *tian yuan shu* arrived in Japan, where it is called * tengen-jutsu*. Zhu's text

**Japanese mathematics** denotes a distinct kind of mathematics which was developed in Japan during the Edo period (1603–1867). The term *wasan*, from *wa* ("Japanese") and *san* ("calculation"), was coined in the 1870s and employed to distinguish native Japanese mathematical theory from Western mathematics.

*Tian yuan shu* means "method of the heavenly element" or "technique of the celestial unknown". The "heavenly element" is the unknown variable, usually written *x* in modern notation.

In elementary mathematics, a **variable** is a symbol, commonly a single letter, that represents a number, called the *value* of the variable, which is either arbitrary, not fully specified, or unknown. Making algebraic computations with variables as if they were explicit numbers allows one to solve a range of problems in a single computation. A typical example is the quadratic formula, which allows one to solve every quadratic equation by simply substituting the numeric values of the coefficients of the given equation to the variables that represent them.

It is a positional system of rod numerals to represent polynomial equations. For example, 2*x*^{2} + 18*x* − 316 = 0 is represented as

The 元 (*yuan*) denotes the unknown *x*, so the numerals on that line mean 18*x*. The line below is the constant term (-316) and the line above is the coefficient of the quadratic (*x*^{2}) term. The system accommodates arbitrarily high exponents of the unknown by adding more lines on top and negative exponents by adding lines below the constant term. Decimals can also be represented.

In mathematics, a **coefficient** is a multiplicative factor in some term of a polynomial, a series, or any expression; it is usually a number, but may be any expression. In the latter case, the variables appearing in the coefficients are often called parameters, and must be clearly distinguished from the other variables.

In algebra, a **quadratic function**, a **quadratic polynomial**, a **polynomial of degree 2**, or simply a **quadratic**, is a polynomial function with one or more variables in which the highest-degree term is of the second degree. For example, a quadratic function in three variables *x*, *y,* and *z* contains exclusively terms *x*^{2}, *y*^{2}, *z*^{2}, *xy*, *xz*, *yz*, *x*, *y*, *z*, and a constant:

In later writings of Li Zhi and Zhu Shijie, the line order was reversed so that the first line is the lowest exponent.

**Zhu Shijie**, courtesy name **Hanqing** (漢卿), pseudonym **Songting** (松庭), was one of the greatest Chinese mathematicians living during the Yuan Dynasty.

**Tengen** may refer to:

**Seki Takakazu**, also known as **Seki Kōwa**, was a Japanese mathematician and author of the Edo period.

**Mathematics in China** emerged independently by the 11th century BC. The Chinese independently developed number sets including very large and negative numbers, decimals, a place value decimal system, a binary system, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.

* Song of Pig* is the first solo album from Chinese pop star Xiang Xiang. It is available on the iTunes Store and is composed of the following tracks:

**Yang Lihua** was an empress of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou, and later a princess of Sui Dynasty. Her husband was Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou, and her father was Emperor Wen of Sui.

**Ancient Chinese coinage** includes some of the earliest known coins. These coins, used as early as the Spring and Autumn period, took the form of imitations of the cowrie shells that were used in ceremonial exchanges. The Spring and Autumn period also saw the introduction of the first metal coins; however, they were not initially round, instead being either knife shaped or spade shaped. Round metal coins with a round, and then later square hole in the center were first introduced around 350 BCE. The beginning of the Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty to unify China, saw the introduction of a standardised coinage for the whole Empire. Subsequent dynasties produced variations on these round coins throughout the imperial period. At first the distribution of the coinage was limited to use around the capital city district, but by the beginning of the Han Dynasty, coins were widely used for such things as paying taxes, salaries and fines.

**Rod calculus** or rod calculation is the mechanical method of algorithmic computation with counting rods in China from the Warring States to Ming dynasty before the counting rods were replaced by the more convenient and faster abacus. Rod calculus played a key role in the development of Chinese mathematics to its height in Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty, culminating in the invention of polynomial equations of up to four unknowns in the work of Zhu Shijie.

**Yoshio Mikami** was a Japanese mathematician and *wasan* historian. He was born February 16, 1875 in Kotachi, Hiroshima prefecture. He attended the High School of Tohoku University, and in 1911 was admitted to Imperial University of Tokyo. He studied history of Japanese and Chinese mathematics. In 1913, he published "The Development of Mathematics in China and Japan" in Leipzig. This book consisted of two parts with 47 chapters. Part one has 21 chapters that describe in depth several important Chinese mathematicians and mathematical classics including Liu Hui, Shen Kuo, Qin Jiushao, Sun Tzu, The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections, Li Ye, Zhu Shijie and study on π. Part II deals with important *wasan* mathematicians and their works, including Kambei Mori, Yoshida Koyu, Kowa Seki, Imamura Chisho, Takahara Kisshu, Kurushima, Ajima Chokuyen, Aida Ammei, Shiraishi Chochu, Skabe Kohan, and Hagiwara Teisuke.

* Three Kingdoms* is a 2010 Chinese television series based on the events in the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period. The plot is adapted from the 14th century historical novel

**Tianyuan** may refer to:

**Li Ye**, born **Li Zhi**, courtesy name **Li Jingzhai**, was a Chinese mathematician and scholar who published and improved the tian yuan shu method for solving polynomial equations of one variable. Along with the 4th-century scholar Yu Xi, Li Ye is one of the few Chinese scholars to propose the idea of a spherical Earth instead of a flat one before the arrival of European science in China during the 17th century.

* Yigu yanduan* is a 13th-century mathematical work by Yuan dynasty mathematician Li Zhi. Yigu yanduan was based on North Song mathematician Jiang Zhou (蒋周) Yigu Ji which was extinct. However, from fragments quoted in Yang Hui's work

**Tengenjutsu** can refer to:

The * Ten Computational Canons* was a collection of ten Chinese mathematical works, compiled by early Tang dynasty mathematician Li Chunfeng (602–670), as the official mathematical texts for imperial examinations in mathematics.

* Outlaws of the Marsh* is a Chinese television series adapted from Shi Nai'an's classical novel

* Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns*,

* Youth Power* is a 2015 Taiwanese political drama, comedy, romance television series created and produced by TVBS. Starring Tammy Chen, Yao Yuan Hao, Jason Tsou, and Nana Lee as the main cast. Filming began on January 8, 2015 and wrapped up in July 21, 2015. First original broadcast began on May 1, 2015 on TTV airing every Friday night at 10:10-11:40 pm.

During the Mongol-ruled Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), many scientific and technological advancements were made in areas such as mathematics, medicine, printing technology, and gunpowder warfare.

- Martzloff, Jean-Claude (2006).
*A History of Chinese Mathematics*. trans. Stephen S. Wilson. Springer. pp. 258–272. ISBN 3-540-33782-2 . Retrieved 2009-12-28. - Murata, Tamotsu (2003). "Indigenous Japanese mathematics, Wasan". In Ivor Grattan-Guinness.
*Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences*.**1**. JHU Press. pp. 105–106. ISBN 0-8018-7396-7 . Retrieved 2009-12-28.

This page is based on this Wikipedia article

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.