Tiang Sirikhanth (December 5, 1909 - December 12, 1952) was a Thai politician and a Seri Thai resistance leader during World War II.
Until 22 May 2014 the politics of Thailand were conducted within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, whereby the prime minister is the head of government and a hereditary monarch is head of state. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislative branches.
The Free Thai Movement was a Thai underground resistance movement against Imperial Japan during World War II. Seri Thai were an important source of military intelligence for the Allies in the region.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
Tiang was born to a merchant family in Sakon Nakhon province in the northeast of Thailand. He graduated in science from Chulalongkorn University in 1930 and became a secondary school teacher in Bangkok. He then accepted the position of headmaster at a school in his home province. Tiang was elected to the National Assembly in 1940 and would represent his province until his death.
Sakon Nakhon is a city in Thailand within the Isan region, and capital city of Sakon Nakhon Province as well as Mueang Sakon Nakhon District, with a population of approximately 76,000. Sakon Nakhon covers the whole tambon of That Choeng Chum and parts of tambons Ngio Don, Huai Yang, Dong Mafai, That Na Weng and Hang Hong. Sakon Nakhon is 651 km north-east of Bangkok by road.
Chulalongkorn University (CU), nicknamed Chula, is a public and autonomous research university in Bangkok, Thailand. The university was originally founded during King Chulalongkorn's reign as a school for training royal pages and civil servants in 1899 at the Grand Palace of Thailand. It was later established as a national university in 1917, making it the oldest institute of higher education in Thailand.
On the morning of December 8, 1941 Japanese forces invaded Thailand at numerous points along the seacoast and from French Indo-China. The Thai army and air force resisted, but were taking heavy casualties against the veteran Japanese units. Prime Minister Phibun panicked and ordered a cease fire the same day. He allowed the Japanese to occupy Bangkok unopposed and to invade British Malaya from southern Thailand. After Singapore fell to the invaders, Phibun went so far as to make a formal alliance with Japan.
Tiang and others opposed to the Japanese met with the Regent, Pridi Phanomyong, on the night of December 8 to discuss forming a resistance movement. This would eventually develop into the "Seri Thai", the Free Thai Movement.
Tiang organised the largest Seri Thai guerrilla training operation near his hometown in Sakorn Nakorn, with military support from British Force 136. His British code name was Pluto.
Force 136 was the general cover name for a branch of the Special Operations Executive (SOE), a British World War II organisation. SOE was established to encourage and supply resistance movements in enemy-occupied territory, and occasionally mount clandestine sabotage operations. Force 136 operated in the regions of the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II which were occupied by Japan from 1941 to 1945.
Following the war, Tiang served as a cabinet minister in several democratic governments. Along with his friend and political ally Khrong Chandawong, Sirikhanth was one of the most prominent left-wing Thai political leaders in the post-war era, earning the nickname of "General of Phu Phan."
Khrong Chandawong was a Thai politician and activist who was executed on the orders of Sarit Thanarat.
Phu Phan is a district (amphoe) of Sakon Nakhon Province, northeast Thailand.
A staunch opponent of the Pibulsongkram dictatorship, which had staged a coup against the elected government, Tiang and four associates were arrested and murdered by the police under orders of Phibun's ruthless ally, Phao Sriyanond. Their buried remains were discovered in Kanchanaburi province many years later.
The Thai people, who originally lived in southwestern China, migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of many centuries. The word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည, probably the same root as Shan and Ahom. Chinese: 暹羅; pinyin: Xiānluó was the name for the northern kingdom centred on Sukhothai and Sawankhalok, but to the Thai themselves, the name of the country has always been Mueang Thai.
Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat was a Thai general who staged a coup in 1957, replacing Plaek Phibunsongkhram as Thailand's prime minister until Sarit died in 1963. He was born in Bangkok, but grew up in his mother's home town in Lao-speaking northeastern Thailand and considered himself from Isan. His father, Major Luang Ruangdetanan, was a career army officer best known for his translations into Thai of Cambodian literature.
Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram, locally known as Chomphon Por, contemporarily known as Phibun (Pibul) in the West, was the third and longest serving Prime Minister of Thailand and dictatorial leader of Thailand from 1938 to 1944 and 1948 to 1957.
Patani is a historical region in the northern part of the Malay peninsula. It includes the southern Thai provinces of Pattani, Yala (Jala), Narathiwat (Menara), and parts of Songkhla (Singgora).
Pridi Banomyong was a Thai politician and professor. He was a prime minister and senior statesman of Thailand, and the centenary of his birth was celebrated by UNESCO in 2000.
The history of Thailand from 1932 to 1973 was dominated by military dictatorships which were in power for much of the period. The main personalities of the period were the dictator Luang Phibunsongkhram, who allied the country with Japan during the Second World War, and the civilian politician Pridi Phanomyong, who founded Thammasat University and was briefly prime minister after the war.
Khuang Aphaiwong, also known by his noble title Luang Kowit-aphaiwong, was three times the prime minister of Thailand: from August 1944 to 1945, from January to May 1946, and from November 1947 to April 1948.
Mom Rajawongse Seni Pramoj was three times the prime minister of Thailand, a politician in the Democrat Party, lawyer, diplomat and professor. A descendant of the Thai royal family, he was the great-grandson of King Rama II. His final two terms as PM sandwiched the only term of his brother, Kukrit Pramoj.
Dawee Chullasapya or Chullasap was a Royal Thai Air Force officer, and a member of the Seri Thai.
The Franco-Thai War (1940–1941) was fought between Thailand and Vichy France over certain areas of French Indochina.
Police General Phao Sriyanonda was a director general of Thailand's national police who was notorious for his excesses against political opponents. He eventually fled the country and died in exile.
Sang Phathanothai was a Thai politician, union leader, and journalist. He was one of the closest advisors to Field Marshal Phibunsongkhram.
The Japanese invasion of Thailand occurred on 8 December 1941. It was briefly fought between the Kingdom of Thailand and the Empire of Japan. Despite fierce fighting in Southern Thailand, the fighting lasted only five hours before ending in a ceasefire. Thailand and Japan then formed an alliance, making Thailand part of the Axis' alliance until the end of World War II.
Thailand in World War II officially adopted a position of neutrality until it was invaded by Japan in December 1941 which led to an armistice and, later, the military alliance treaty between Thailand and the Japanese Empire. At the start of the Pacific War, the Japanese Empire pressured the Thai government to allow the passage of Japanese troops to invade British-held Malaya and Burma. The Thai government under Plaek Phibunsongkhram considered it preferable to co-operate with the Japanese rather than to resist them, since Siam saw Japan – who promised to help Thailand regain some of the Indochinese territories which had been lost to France – as an ally against Western imperialism. Axis-aligned Thailand declared war on the United States and Britain and annexed territories in neighbouring countries, expanding to the north, south, and east, gaining a border with China near Kengtung.
Japan–Thailand relations refer to bilateral relations between Japan and Thailand. Contacts had an early start with Japanese trade on Red seal ships and the installation of Japanese communities on Siamese soil, only to be broken off with Japan's period of seclusion. Contacts resumed in the 19th century and developed to the point where Japan is today one of Thailand's foremost economic partners. Thailand and Japan share the distinction of never having lost sovereignty to the European powers during the colonial period.
The Boworadet rebellion was a Thai rebellion led by royalist Prince Boworadet (1877-1947) in 1933, in consequence of the conflicts between the previous royalist regime and the succeeding constitutional regime led by Khana Ratsadon, following the Revolution in 1932. The Boworadet revolt was eventually defeated by the Siamese Government.
The Siamese coup d'état of 1947 was a Thai coup d'état that happened on the evening of 7 November 1947, ending in the early hours of the morning on 8 November. The coup ousted the government of Rear Admiral Thawan Thamrongnawasawat, who was replaced by Khuang Aphaiwong as Prime Minister of Thailand. The coup was led by Lieutenant-General Phin Chunhawan and Colonel Kat Katsongkhram.
Saharat Thai Doem was an administrative division of Thailand. It encompassed the parts of Shan State of British Burma annexed by the Thai government after the Japanese invasion of Burma.
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