|Tianhe-1 Operational 29 October 2009, Tianhe-1A Operational 28 October 2010
|National University of Defense Technology
|National Supercomputing Center
|National Supercomputing Center, Tianjin, People's Republic of China
|96 TB (98304 GB) for Tianhe-1,
262TB for Tianhe-1A
|Tianhe-1: 563 teraFLOPS (Rmax) 1,206.2 teraFLOPS (Rpeak),
Tianhe-1A: 2,566.0 teraFLOPS (Rmax) 4,701.0 teraFLOPS (Rpeak)
|TOP500: 2nd, June 2011 (Tianhe-1A)
|Petroleum exploration, aircraft simulation
|"Milky Way No.1"
Tianhe-I,Tianhe-1,or TH-1 (Chinese :天河一号, [tʰjɛ́nxɤ̌ íxâʊ] ; Sky River Number One) is a supercomputer capable of an Rmax (maximum range) of 2.5 peta FLOPS. Located at the National Supercomputing Center of Tianjin,China,it was the fastest computer in the world from October 2010 to June 2011 and was one of the few petascale supercomputers in the world.
In October 2010,an upgraded version of the machine (Tianhe-1A) overtook ORNL's Jaguar to become the world's fastest supercomputer,with a peak computing rate of 2.57 petaFLOPS.In June 2011 the Tianhe-1A was overtaken by the K computer as the world's fastest supercomputer,which was also subsequently superseded.
Both the original Tianhe-1 and Tianhe-1A use a Linux-based operating system.
On 12 August 2015,Tianhe-1 felt the impact of the powerful Tianjin explosions and went offline for some time. Xinhua reports that "the office building of Chinese supercomputer Tianhe-1,one of the world's fastest supercomputers,suffered damage". Sources at Tianhe-1 told Xinhua that the computer was not damaged,but that they had shut down some of its operations as a precaution.Operation resumed on 17 August 2015.
Tianhe-1 was developed by the Chinese National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) in Changsha,Hunan. It was first revealed to the public on 29 October 2009,and was immediately ranked as the world's fifth fastest supercomputer in the TOP500 list released at the 2009 Supercomputing Conference (SC09) held in Portland,Oregon,on 16 November 2009. Tianhe achieved a speed of 563 teraflops in its first Top 500 test and had a peak performance of 1.2 petaflops. Thus at startup,the system had an efficiency of 46%. Originally,Tianhe-1 was powered by 4,096 Intel Xeon E5540 processors and 1,024 Intel Xeon E5450 processors,with 5,120 AMD graphics processing units (GPUs),which were made up of 2,560 dual-GPU ATI Radeon HD 4870 X2 graphics cards. [ better source needed ]
In October 2010,Tianhe-1A,an upgraded supercomputer,was unveiled at HPC 2010 China. [ better source needed ]It is now equipped with 14,336 Xeon X5670 processors and 7,168 Nvidia Tesla M2050 general purpose GPUs. 2,048 FeiTeng 1000 SPARC-based processors are also installed in the system,but their computing power was not counted into the machine's official LINPACK statistics as of October 2010. Tianhe-1A has a theoretical peak performance of 4.701 petaflops. NVIDIA suggests that it would have taken "50,000 CPUs and twice as much floor space to deliver the same performance using CPUs alone." The current heterogeneous system consumes 4.04 megawatts compared to over 12 megawatts had it been built only with CPUs.
The Tianhe-1A system is composed of 112 computer cabinets,12 storage cabinets,6 communications cabinets,and 8 I/O cabinets. Each computer cabinet is composed of four frames,with each frame containing eight blades,plus a 16-port switching board. Each blade is composed of two computer nodes,with each computer node containing two Xeon X5670 6-core processors and one Nvidia M2050 GPU processor.The system has 3584 total blades containing 7168 GPUs,and 14,336 CPUs,managed by the SLURM job scheduler. The total disk storage of the systems is 2 Petabytes implemented as a Lustre clustered file system, and the total memory size of the system is 262 terabytes.
Another significant reason for the increased performance of the upgraded Tianhe-1A system is the Chinese-designed NUDT custom designed proprietary high-speed interconnect called Arch that runs at 160 Gbit/s,twice the bandwidth of InfiniBand.
The system also used the Chinese-made FeiTeng-1000 central processing unit.The FeiTeng-1000 processor is used both on service nodes and to enhance the system interconnect.
The supercomputer is installed at the National Supercomputing Center,Tianjin,and is used to carry out computations for petroleum exploration and aircraft design.It is an "open access" computer,meaning it provides services for other countries. The supercomputer will be available to international clients.
The computer cost $88 million to build. Approximately $20 million is spent annually for electricity and operating expenses. Approximately 200 workers are employed in its operation.
Tianhe-IA was ranked as the world's fastest supercomputer in the TOP500 listuntil July 2011 when the K computer overtook it.
In June 2011,scientists at the Institute of Process Engineering (IPE) at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) announced a record-breaking scientific simulation on the Tianhe-1A supercomputer that furthers their research in solar energy. CAS-IPE scientists ran a complex molecular dynamics simulation on all 7,168 NVIDIA Tesla GPUs to achieve a performance of 1.87 petaflops (about the same performance as 130,000 laptops).
The Tianhe-1A supercomputer was shut down after the National Supercomputing Center of Tianjin was damaged by an explosion nearby. The computer was not damaged and still remains operational.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance as compared to a general-purpose computer. The performance of a supercomputer is commonly measured in floating-point operations per second (FLOPS) instead of million instructions per second (MIPS). Since 2017, supercomputers have existed which can perform over 1017 FLOPS (a hundred quadrillion FLOPS, 100 petaFLOPS or 100 PFLOPS). For comparison, a desktop computer has performance in the range of hundreds of gigaFLOPS (1011) to tens of teraFLOPS (1013). Since November 2017, all of the world's fastest 500 supercomputers run on Linux-based operating systems. Additional research is being conducted in the United States, the European Union, Taiwan, Japan, and China to build faster, more powerful and technologically superior exascale supercomputers.
In computing, floating point operations per second is a measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations. For such cases, it is a more accurate measure than measuring instructions per second.
Cray Inc., a subsidiary of Hewlett Packard Enterprise, is an American supercomputer manufacturer headquartered in Seattle, Washington. It also manufactures systems for data storage and analytics. Several Cray supercomputer systems are listed in the TOP500, which ranks the most powerful supercomputers in the world.
The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world. The project was started in 1993 and publishes an updated list of the supercomputers twice a year. The first of these updates always coincides with the International Supercomputing Conference in June, and the second is presented at the ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference in November. The project aims to provide a reliable basis for tracking and detecting trends in high-performance computing and bases rankings on HPL benchmarks, a portable implementation of the high-performance LINPACK benchmark written in Fortran for distributed-memory computers.
Pleiades is a petascale supercomputer housed at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) facility at NASA's Ames Research Center located at Moffett Field near Mountain View, California. It is maintained by NASA and partners Hewlett Packard Enterprise and Intel.
The National University of Defense Technology is a national public research university headquartered in Changsha, Hunan, China. With the predecessor founded in 1953 as the People's Liberation Army Military Academy of Engineering (中国人民解放军军事工程学院) in Harbin, the institution was officially established in 1978 in Changsha by Deng Xiaoping and is now directly affiliated with the Central Military Commission.
Jaguar or OLCF-2 was a petascale supercomputer built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The massively parallel Jaguar had a peak performance of just over 1,750 teraFLOPS. It had 224,256 x86-based AMD Opteron processor cores, and operated with a version of Linux called the Cray Linux Environment. Jaguar was a Cray XT5 system, a development from the Cray XT4 supercomputer.
Exascale computing refers to computing systems capable of calculating at least "1018 IEEE 754 Double Precision (64-bit) operations (multiplications and/or additions) per second (exaFLOPS)"; it is a measure of supercomputer performance.
Nebulae is a petascale supercomputer located at the National Supercomputing Center in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. Built from a Dawning TC3600 Blade system with Intel Xeon X5650 processors and Nvidia Tesla C2050 GPUs, it has a peak performance of 1.271 petaflops using the LINPACK benchmark suite. Nebulae was ranked the second most powerful computer in the world in the June 2010 list of the fastest supercomputers according to TOP500. Nebulae has a theoretical peak performance of 2.9843 petaflops. This computer is used for multiple applications requiring advanced processing capabilities. It is ranked 10th among the June 2012 list of top500.org.
The National Supercomputing Center of Tianjin is a supercomputing facility located at the National Defense Science and Technology University in Tianjin, China. One of the fastest supercomputers in the world, Tianhe-1A, is located at the facility.
China operates a number of supercomputer centers which, altogether, hold 29.3% performance share of the world's fastest 500 supercomputers. China's Sunway TaihuLight ranks third in the TOP500 list.
The K computer – named for the Japanese word/numeral "kei" (京), meaning 10 quadrillion (1016) – was a supercomputer manufactured by Fujitsu, installed at the Riken Advanced Institute for Computational Science campus in Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan. The K computer was based on a distributed memory architecture with over 80,000 compute nodes. It was used for a variety of applications, including climate research, disaster prevention and medical research. The K computer's operating system was based on the Linux kernel, with additional drivers designed to make use of the computer's hardware.
Several centers for supercomputing exist across Europe, and distributed access to them is coordinated by European initiatives to facilitate high-performance computing. One such initiative, the HPC Europa project, fits within the Distributed European Infrastructure for Supercomputing Applications (DEISA), which was formed in 2002 as a consortium of eleven supercomputing centers from seven European countries. Operating within the CORDIS framework, HPC Europa aims to provide access to supercomputers across Europe.
FeiTeng is the name of several computer central processing units designed and produced in China for supercomputing applications. The microprocessors have been developed by Tianjin Phytium Technology. The processors have also been described as the YinHeFeiTeng family. This CPU family has been developed by a team directed by NUDT's Professor Xing Zuocheng.
Approaches to supercomputer architecture have taken dramatic turns since the earliest systems were introduced in the 1960s. Early supercomputer architectures pioneered by Seymour Cray relied on compact innovative designs and local parallelism to achieve superior computational peak performance. However, in time the demand for increased computational power ushered in the age of massively parallel systems.
Tianhe-2 or TH-2 is a 33.86-petaflops supercomputer located in the National Supercomputer Center in Guangzhou, China. It was developed by a team of 1,300 scientists and engineers.
The Cray XC40 is a massively parallel multiprocessor supercomputer manufactured by Cray. It consists of Intel Haswell Xeon processors, with optional Nvidia Tesla or Intel Xeon Phi accelerators, connected together by Cray's proprietary "Aries" interconnect, stored in air-cooled or liquid-cooled cabinets. The XC series supercomputers are available with the Cray DataWarp applications I/O accelerator technology.
The Sunway TaihuLight is a Chinese supercomputer which, as of November 2021, is ranked fourth in the TOP500 list, with a LINPACK benchmark rating of 93 petaflops. The name is translated as divine power, the light of Taihu Lake. This is nearly three times as fast as the previous Tianhe-2, which ran at 34 petaflops. As of June 2017, it is ranked as the 16th most energy-efficient supercomputer in the Green500, with an efficiency of 6.1 GFlops/watt. It was designed by the National Research Center of Parallel Computer Engineering & Technology (NRCPC) and is located at the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi in the city of Wuxi, in Jiangsu province, China.
The Cray XC50 is a massively parallel multiprocessor supercomputer manufactured by Cray. The machine can support Intel Xeon processors, as well as Cavium ThunderX2 processors, Xeon Phi processors and NVIDIA Tesla P100 GPUs. The processors are connected by Cray's proprietary "Aries" interconnect, in a dragonfly network topology. The XC50 is an evolution of the XC40, with the main difference being the support of Tesla P100 processors and the use of Cray software release CLE 6 or 7.
JUWELS is a supercomputer developed by Atos Forschungszentrum Jülich, capable of 70.980 petaflops. It replaced the now disused JUQUEEN supercomputer. JUWELS Booster Module is ranked as the eight fastest supercomputer in the world. The JUWELS Booster Module is part of a modular system architecture and a second Xeon based JUWELS Module ranks separately as the 52nd fastest supercomputer in the world.