The Tianjin Provisional Government (also spelled Tientsin Provisional Government, Provisional Government of Tianjin, Provisional Government of Tientsin) (French : Gouvernement provisoire du district de Tientsin, Chinese T’ienchin Tutung Yamen) was a government formed by the Eight-Nation Alliance during the Boxer Rebellion in China, which controlled the major city Tianjin and its surrounding areas from 1900 to 1902.
After the Boxers seized much of Tianjin in June 1900, the city was recaptured by the Eight-Nation Alliance in July 1900. Seven of the members of the Eight-Nation Alliance (Russia, the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, France, the United States, and Italy) established the Tianjin Provisional Government on 30 July 1900. The government was first known as the Viceroy's Government and was renamed the Tianjin Provisional Government on 14 August.
The Tianjin Provisional Government had military control over Tianjin, Chinghai, Ningho and some other regions, with 8 subordinate executive organizations. It had a patrolling team of 900 allied forces gunmen directly under its control. The Norwegian railway engineer and former officer Benjamin Wegner Nørregaard, who had worked in China for the last few years, was employed as a sort of minister of labour, and also designed the monumental government headquarters.
Most of the United States 15th Infantry Regiment arrived in Tianjin on 16 August 1900, as part of the China Relief Expedition. The Tianjin Provisional Government existed until 15 August 1902, when it returned control of its territory to the Chinese Qing government. The Eight-Nation Alliance however maintained a military presence in the area to ensure open access to Beijing.
The Tianjin Provisional Government Medal was presented to members of the Provisional Government. It was designed by J. Chevet and manufactured by the Japanese firm of Tenshodo. 12 gold, 60 silver, and 153 bronze medals were issued. The obverse shows the flags of the seven alliance members who formed the government, and the reverse inscription in Chinese means "Tianjin– Government of Several Nations."
Known recipients of this very rare medal include:
A bronze medal was donated by Paul Bauer (Austrian consul general, Tianjin) bronze) to the British Museum in 1932
Tianjin, alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China, with a total population estimated at 15,621,200 in 2016. Its built-up area, made up of 12 central districts, was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is also the world's 29th-largest agglomeration and 11th-most populous city proper.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising, or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was an anti-imperialist, anti-foreign, and anti-Christian uprising in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
The China Relief Expedition was an expedition in China undertaken by the United States Armed Forces to rescue United States citizens, European nationals, and other foreign nationals during the latter years of the Boxer Rebellion, which lasted from 1898 to 1901. The China Relief Expedition was part of a multi-national military effort known as the Eight-Nation Alliance to which the United States contributed troops between 1900 and 1901. Towards the close of the expedition, the focus shifted from rescuing non-combatants to suppressing the rebellion. By 1902, at least in the city of Peking, the Boxer Rebellion had been effectively controlled.
The Eight-Nation Alliance was a multi-national military coalition set up in 1900. The forces consisted of approximately 45,000 troops from eight nations of the German Empire, Japan, Russia, Britain, France, the United States, Italy and Austria-Hungary. When the international legations in Beijing were besieged by Boxer rebels supported by the Qing government, the coalition dispatched their armed forces, in the name of humanitarian intervention, to defend their respective nations' citizens, as well as a number of Chinese Christians who had taken shelter in the legations. The incident ended with a coalition victory and the signing of the Boxer Protocol. Members of the alliance remained in China and proceeded to loot and pillage Beijing and other cities for over a year.
Nie Shicheng was a Chinese general who served the Imperial government during the Boxer Rebellion. Rising from obscure origins from Hefei, Anhui Province, in the early 1850s, Nie Shicheng managed to pass the county examinations for bureaucratic positions, but due to the Taiping rebellion he was forced to abandon a bureaucratic career and become a soldier.
The concessions in Tianjin were concession territories ceded by the Chinese Qing dynasty to a number of European countries, the U.S. and Japan within the city of Tianjin. There were nine concessions in old Tianjin altogether. These concessions also contributed to the rapid development of Tianjin from the early to mid-20th century. The first concessions in Tianjin were granted in 1860. The last concession was returned to China in 1947.
Sergeant Alexander Joseph Foley was a member of the United States Marine Corps who was awarded the United States' highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor, for having distinguished himself during the Boxer Rebellion.
The Battle of Taku or Dagu Forts was a battle during the Boxer Rebellion between the Chinese military and allied Western and Japanese naval forces. The Allies captured the forts after a brief but bloody battle.
The Battle of Tientsin, or the Relief of Tientsin, occurred on July 13–14, 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion in Northern China. A multinational military force, representing the Eight-Nation Alliance, rescued a besieged population of foreign nationals in the city of Tientsin by defeating the Chinese Imperial army and Boxers. The capture of Tientsin gave the Eight-Nation Alliance a base to launch a rescue mission for the foreign nationals besieged in the Legation Quarter of Peking and to capture Beijing in the Battle of Peking (1900).
Clarence Edwin Sutton was a United States Marine Corps sergeant who received the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Boxer Rebellion.
The Battle of Yangcun was a battle during the march of Eight-Nation Alliance forces from Tianjin to Beijing during the Boxer Rebellion. The Alliance forces defeated the Qing and were able to continue their march towards Peking.
The 1901 China expedition commemorative medal was a French military campaign medal established by the law of 15 April 1902 to recognize service in China in 1900 and 1901 during the Boxer Rebellion.
The Battle of Beicang known also as the Battle of Peitsang, was fought August 5, 1900 during the Boxer Rebellion, between the Eight Nation Alliance and the Chinese army. The Chinese army was forced out of its prepared entrenchments and retreated to Yangcun. The Japanese contingent led the Alliance attack; with contingents also being present from Russia, Britain, America and France.
The Battle of Langfang was a battle in the Seymour Expedition during the Boxer Rebellion, in June 1900, involving Chinese imperial troops, the Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves and Boxers ambushing and defeating the Eight-Nation Alliance expeditionary army on its way to Beijing, pushing the Alliance forces to retreat back to Tientsin (Tianjin). The Alliance force at Langfang consisted of Germans.
The Gaselee Expedition was a successful relief by a multi-national military force to march to Beijing and protect the diplomatic legations and foreign nationals in the city from attacks in 1900. The expedition was part of the war of the Boxer Rebellion.
Benjamin Wegner Nørregaard was a Norwegian military officer, railway engineer, adventurer, journalist, diplomat and internationally renowned war correspondent. He spent several years in China and served as Minister of Labour in the Tianjin Provisional Government during the Boxer Rebellion. He later worked as a war correspondent for the Daily Mail and for Scandinavian newspapers, and covered several conflicts in East Asia and Europe. He is especially known for his books The Great Siege, on the siege of Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War, and War, on the Boxer Rebellion.
The Italian concession of Tientsin was a small territory (concession) in central Tianjin, China, controlled by the Kingdom of Italy between 1901 and 1947.
Wegner is a Norwegian family whose members have been noted as industrialists and as lawyers.
The Liscum Bowl is a sterling silver punch bowl set made in 1902 from bullion retrieved during the Boxer Rebellion by the U.S. Army. The silver was presented to the 9th Infantry Regiment by order of Chinese statesman Li Hung Chang in gratitude for the Americans' assistance to the Qing dynasty. The bowl was dedicated to Colonel Emerson H. Liscum, the regiment's commander killed at the Battle of Tientsin on 13 July 1900.
Tianjin Museum of Modern History (TMM) is located at No. 314 Hebei Road, in Heping District, Tianjin, the so-called “Five Great Avenues” area. TMM is mainly engaged in the study of the history of interactions between Tianjin and the West from the mid-16th century to the mid-20th century. It has made great efforts to preserve the cultural heritages of the former nine concessions in Tianjin. In the museum, a great number of old historical photos and objects collected from all over the world are exhibited, many of which are not available elsewhere in China and have great research value.