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|Literal meaning||Heavenly Capital|
Tianjing (天京 ),romanized at the time as Tienking,was the name given to Nanjing when it served as the capital of Hong Xiuquan's Heavenly Kingdom from 1853 to 1864,amid the Qing Empire's Taiping Rebellion.
Nanjing,was taken by the Taiping rebels on March 19,1853.
The Taiping government had set up an egalitarian organization,with a strict separation between men and women;in such major towns as Wuchang and Nanjing (a.k.a. Tianjing),this rule was strictly enforced :men were living in their own quarters,and women and children were in others.
Men and women were regrouped in these quarters by groups of 25 (called guan),depending on their trades. There were guans regrouping bricklayers,carpenters,tailors,and even sauce cooks. There also were "public services" guans for such trades as physicians,firemen,or undertakers.
Small shops selling meat,fish,or tea,were kept separate depending on their customers:there was one shop for male customers,another shop for female customers,and the Taiping police was making sure this was indeed enforced. In Tianjing,people reacted in different ways:while a number of people did accept the new way,others went into hiding,or fled,leading to a shortage of doctors,as many fled the town.
Tianjing finally fell to the imperial Qing army (the Xiang Army) on July 19,1864,leading to bloody street fighting,during which some 150,000 rebels were killed.
The Taiping Rebellion,also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution,was a massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China between the Manchu Qing dynasty and the Han,Hakka-led Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. It lasted from 1850 to 1864,although following the fall of Nanjing the last rebel army was not wiped out until 1871. After fighting the bloodiest civil war in world history,with 20 to 30 million dead,the established Qing government won decisively,although at a great price to its fiscal and political structure.
Hong Xiuquan,born Hong Huoxiu and with the courtesy name Renkun,was a Hakka Chinese revolutionary who was the leader of the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing dynasty. He established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom over varying portions of southern China,with himself as the "Heavenly King" and self-proclaimed younger brother of Jesus Christ.
Hong Tianguifu was the second and last king of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. He is popularly referred to as the Junior Lord (幼主). Officially,like his father Hong Xiuquan,he was the King of Heaven (天王). To differentiate,he is also called the Junior King of Heaven (幼天王).
The Third Battle of Nanking in 1864 was the last major engagement of the Taiping Rebellion in the Qing Empire. With the fall of Nanking,the capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom,the rebellion came to an end. The Hunan Army,an unpaid and barely fed militia commissioned by the Qing Empire,lost all their discipline and committed mass-scale random murder,wartime rape,looting and arson against the civilians of Nanjing,seen as "rebels". 100,000 "rebels" were reported dead by Zeng Guofan,the commander-in-chief of the Hunan Army.
Hong Rengan was an important leader of the Taiping Rebellion. He was a distant cousin of the movement's founder and spiritual leader Hong Xiuquan. His position as the Prince Gan resembled the role of a prime minister. He is a noted figure in history because of the sweeping reforms attempted under his rule,and because of his popularity in the West.
Yang Xiuqing,was an organizer and commander-in-chief of the Taiping Rebellion.
The Jintian Uprising was an armed revolt formally declared by Hong Xiuquan,founder and leader of the God Worshipping Society,on 11 January 1851 during the late Qing Dynasty of China. The uprising was named after the rebel base in Jintian,a town in Guangxi within present-day Guiping. It marked the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion.
The Taiping Kingdom History Museum is a museum dedicated to artifacts from the Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864). It is located on the grounds of the Zhan Yuan Garden,a historical garden in Nanjing,China.
Shi Dakai,born in Guigang,Guangxi,also known as Wing King or phonetically translated as Yi-Wang,was one of the most highly acclaimed leaders in the Taiping Rebellion and a poet.
Feng Yunshan was the South King of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom,a distant cousin and early accomplice of Hong Xiuquan,and an important leader during the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing government. He was one of the first Taipings to be baptized and established the first group of God Worshippers during the 1840s. He was killed during the initial stages of the rebellion,prior to the establishment of the Taiping's capital of Tianjing at Nanjing.
Wei Changhui was the North King of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the Taiping Rebellion.
Qin Rigang,néQin Richang (秦日昌),was a Hakka military leader of the Taiping Rebellion,known during his military tenure as the King of Yen (燕王). He served under Hong Xiuquan's Taiping Administration and led Taiping forces to many military victories. He was executed by Hong Xiuquan in 1856 because he had killed the family and followers of Shi Dakai during the Tianjing Incident. Chen Yucheng and Li Xiucheng were trained and taught by Qin.
The Tianjing Incident occurred during the late Qing Dynasty from September 2 to October 1856. This was a major political internal conflict within the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom which took place in its capital city Tianjing. A few key leaders of the Taiping Rebellion were killed:the East King Yang Xiuqing,the North King Wei Changhui and the Yan King Qin Rigang. More than 27,000 other opposition rivals including soldiers perished in the conflict as well. The Tianjing Incident was said to be one of the factors which led to the eventual failure of the Taiping Rebellion,as well as the turning point in its fate.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom,later shortened to Heavenly Kingdom or Heavenly Dynasty,was an unrecognized rebel state in China and Chinese Christian theocratic absolute monarchy from 1851 to 1864,supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers. The unsuccessful war it waged against the Qing is known as the Taiping Rebellion. Its capital was at Tianjing.
Fu Shanxiang was a Chinese scholar from Nanjing who became Chancellor under the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom,which was nearly successful in its attempts to overthrow the Qing dynasty in the 1850s. Fu is known as the first female Zhuangyuan in Chinese history.
Hong Xuanjiao,was a Chinese female general and rebel leader during the Taiping Rebellion. She was the sister of the leader of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom,Hong Xiuquan. She acted as co-commander of the Taiping forces during the civil war against the Imperial forces of the Qing dynasty. Xuanjiao and her brother,Xiuquan,established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom over varying portions of southern China with himself as the "Heavenly King" and self-proclaimed younger brother of Jesus Christ
Hu Jiumei (1830–1856) was a Chinese rebel during the Taiping Rebellion. A leading follower of Hong Xiuquan,she was known as one of the "Three Hu's".
The Eastern Expedition encompassed the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom's efforts to capture the Yangtze River Delta,the provinces of Jiangsu,Anhui,and Zhejiang. Most of the areas would eventually be occupied by the Taipings,but they were notably repulsed at several locations,especially the city of Shanghai. Following the Jintian uprising in the southern province Guangxi and the beginning of open hostilities,Taiping forces attacked and captured Nanjing in central China by 1853. The Western Expedition captures cities along the Yangtze River like Zhenjiang,Anqing were captured later the same year.
The currency of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom consisted of Chinese cash coins and paper money,although the rarity of surviving Taiping paper money suggests that not much was produced. The first cash coins of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom were issued in the year 1853 in the capital of Tianjing. The cash coins of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom should not be confused with the Taiping Tongbao (太平通寳) which was issued during the Northern Song dynasty between the years 976 and 997,or with any other contemporary rebel coinage that also bear this inscription.
Hong Daquan or Tian De was a possibly mythical leader of the early Taiping Rebellion connected to the triads. His identity and even his existence have been a matter of dispute,and the title "Tian De" may refer to multiple people. Modern research suggests that Hong was a triad leader from Hunan Province named Jiao Liang who collaborated with the Taiping rebels but held the title "Tian De" independently of the movement.