Tianmu Mountain

Last updated
Tianmu Mountain
20090711 1140 Mount Tianmu Park 1031.jpg
View from the old meteorological station on Tianmu
Highest point
Elevation 1,506 m (4,941 ft)
Coordinates 30°20′0″N119°25′0″E / 30.33333°N 119.41667°E / 30.33333; 119.41667 Coordinates: 30°20′0″N119°25′0″E / 30.33333°N 119.41667°E / 30.33333; 119.41667
Geography
China Zhejiang location map.png
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Tianmu Mountain
CountryChina

Tianmu Mountain, Mount Tianmu, or Tianmushan (Chinese : 天目山 ; pinyin :Tiānmù Shān; lit. 'Heavenly Eyes Mountain') is a mountain in Lin'an County 83.2 kilometers (51.7 mi) west of Hangzhou, Zhejiang, in eastern China. It is made up of two peaks: West Tianmu (1,506 meters or 4,941 feet) and East Tianmu (1,480 meters or 4,860 feet). [1] Twin ponds near the top of the peaks led to the name of the mountain. China's Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserve lies on the northwest portion of the mountain. It is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve as part of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Program. [2]

Contents

Tianmu is known for giant Japanese cedars, waterfalls, Tianmu tea, peaks surrounded by clouds, bamboo shoots, temples and nunneries, and odd-shaped rocks. [3] More than 2,000 species of plants grow on the mountain, [4] including (on West Tianmu) the last surviving truly wild population of Ginkgo trees. [5] Prominent among the Japanese cedars is the "Giant Tree King", named by the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing. In 2009, it measured 26.5 meters (86 ft 11 in) in height, 2.33 meters (7 ft 8 in) in diameter, and 42.9 cubic meters (1,510 cu ft) in volume. [6] The mountain is also home to hundreds of species of birds and animals, including 39 endangered or protected species. [7] These include the clouded leopard and the black muntjac. [4]

In Chinese, the name Tianmushan can also refer to the adjacent range of mountains, including Mount Mogan.

See also

Related Research Articles

Mount Cameroon Active volcano in Cameroon near the Gulf of Guinea

Mount Cameroon is an active volcano in the South West region of Cameroon next to the city of Buea near the Gulf of Guinea. Mount Cameroon is also known as Cameroon Mountain or Fako or by its indigenous name Mongo ma Ndemi. It is the highest point in sub-Saharan western and central Africa, the fourth-most prominent peak in Africa, and the 31st-most prominent in the world.

Mount Emei

Mount Emei, alternately Mount Omei, is a 3,099-meter-tall (10,167 ft) mountain in Sichuan Province, China, and is the highest of the Four Sacred Buddhist Mountains of China. Mt. Emei sits at the western rim of the Sichuan Basin. The mountains west of it are known as Daxiangling. A large surrounding area of countryside is geologically known as the Permian Emeishan Large Igneous Province, a large igneous province generated by the Emeishan Traps volcanic eruptions during the Permian Period.

Huangshan

Huangshan, literally meaning the Yellow Mountain(s), is a mountain range in southern Anhui Province in eastern China. It was originally called “Yishan”, and it was renamed because of a legend that Emperor Xuanyuan once made alchemy here. Vegetation on the range is thickest below 1,100 meters (3,600 ft), with trees growing up to the treeline at 1,800 meters (5,900 ft).

Qinling Mountain range in Shaanxi, China

The Qinling or Qin Mountains, formerly known as the Nanshan and sometimes called the "Szechuan Alps", are a major east-west mountain range in southern Shaanxi Province, China. The mountains mark the divide between the drainage basins of the Yangtze and Yellow River systems, providing a natural boundary between North and South China and support a huge variety of plant and wildlife, some of which is found nowhere else on earth.

Wuyi Mountains Mountain range in China

The Wuyi Mountains or Wuyishan are a mountain range located in the prefecture of Nanping, in northern Fujian province near the border with Jiangxi province, China. The highest peak in the area is Mount Huanggang at 2,158 metres (7,080 ft) on the border of Fujian and Jiangxi, making it the highest point of both provinces; the lowest altitudes are around 200 metres (660 ft). Many oolong and black teas are produced in the Wuyi Mountains, including da hong pao and lapsang souchong, and are sold as Wuyi tea.

Simlipal National Park

Similipal National Park is a national park and a tiger reserve in the Mayurbhanj district in the Indian state of Odisha covering 2,750 km2 (1,060 sq mi). It is part of the Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve, which includes three protected areas — Similipal Tiger Reserve, Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary with 191.06 km2 (73.77 sq mi) and Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary with 272.75 km2 (105.31 sq mi). Simlipal National Park derives its name from the abundance of red silk cotton trees growing in the area. It is the 7th largest national park in India.

Wuling Mountains

The Wuling Mountains are a mountain range located in Central China, running from Chongqing Municipality and East Guizhou to West Hunan. They are home to many ethnic groups, including as the Tujia, Han, Miao, Dong, and Bai.

California Coast Ranges Mountain range

The Coast Ranges of California span 400 miles (644 km) from Del Norte or Humboldt County, California, south to Santa Barbara County. The other three coastal California mountain ranges are the Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges and the Klamath Mountains.

Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve

Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve is a protected area and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in both Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, extending over a total of area of 17,540 hectares, with 12,540 hectares in Guinea, and 5,000 hectares in Côte d'Ivoire. The reserve covers significant portions of the Nimba Range, a geographically unique area with unusually rich flora and fauna, including exceptional numbers of single-site endemic species, such as viviparous toads, and horseshoe bats. Its highest peak is Mount Richard-Molard at 1,752 m (5,750 ft), which is the highest peak of both countries.

The Massif de la Hotte is a mountain range in southwestern Haiti, on the far-western end of the Tiburon Peninsula. The region is relatively remote and is one of the most biologically diverse and significant areas of all of Hispaniola. It also supports some of the last stands of Haiti's dense cloud forest on its peaks. About 2.5 million years ago, the Massif de la Hotte was separated from the rest of the country by a deep, wide sea channel, which resulted in a hotbed of endemism in its bird, plant, and reptile communities.

Fanjingshan

The Fanjingshan or Mount Fanjing, located in Tongren, Guizhou province, is the highest peak of the Wuling Mountains in southwestern China, at an elevation of 2,570 m (8,430 ft). The Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve was established in 1978 and designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1986. Fanjingshan is a sacred mountain in Chinese Buddhism, considered to be the bodhimaṇḍa of the Maitreya Buddha. It became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2018.

Linan District District in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Lin'an District is one of ten urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province, East China. It is located in northwest Zhejiang covering the far western suburbs of Hangzhou, and borders Anhui province to the west and northwest. Lin'an held a population of 573,100 in 2014, over an area of 3,124 km2 (1,206 sq mi). The postal code is 311300, and the phone area code 0571.

Cu Lao Cham Marine Park

Cu Lao Cham Marine Park also known as Cham Islands Biosphere Reserve is part of the eight islets of the Chàm Islands, located in the South China Sea under the administration of Tân Hiệp Commune and Hội An town, in Quảng Nam Province, Vietnam. The terrestrial and coastal ecosystems of the islands have been recognized as a global Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO on 26 May 2009 under its 'Man and the Biosphere Programme' for its rich biodiversity value. The eco system also includes the ancient Hội An, which is 20 kilometres (12 mi) away from the islands, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The members of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserves system in China.

Jabal Moussa Biosphere Reserve

Jabal Moussa Biosphere Reserve is a nature reserve located in the Keserwan District of Lebanon, on the shoulders of the western slopes of Mount Lebanon overlooking the Mediterranean Sea to the West. It covers an area of 6500 hectares, at an altitude ranging between 350 meters in the North-West and 1,700 meters to the South-East. Its main villages are: Yahchouch, Qehmez, Jouret el-Termos, Nahr ed Dahab, Ghbaleh, Ebreh, and Chouwan. Jabal Moussa and surrounding villages became part of the UNESCO Network of Biosphere Reserves under the Man and Biosphere (MAB) program in 2009. As part of the MAB program, JMBR addresses human livelihood improvement and nature conservation through combining natural sciences with social sciences, economics and education.

Nimba Range

The Nimba Range forms part of the southern extent of the Guinea Highlands. The highest peak is Mount Richard-Molard on the border of Côte d'Ivoire and Guinea, at 1,752 m (5,750 ft). "Mount Nimba" may refer either to Mount Richard-Molard or to the entire range. Other peaks include Grand Rochers at 1694 m (5558 ft), Mont Sempéré at 1682 m (5518 ft), Mont Piérré Richaud at 1670 m (5479 ft), Mont Tô at 1675 m (5495 ft), and Mont LeClerc 1577 m (5174 ft), all of them are located in Guinea. Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve of Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire covers significant portions of the Nimba Range.

Sokhondo Nature Reserve

Sokhondo Nature Reserve is a Russian 'zapovednik' in the south of Eastern Siberia, 25 km north of the border with Mongolia. It is the farthest source of the Amur River, and is centered on the Sokhondo mountain massif, in the highest sector of the Khentei-Chikoy Highlands in the Sokhondo mountain range. Sokhondo has two peaks, and is an ancient volcano. Also within the borders are many lakes of glacial origin. In 1985, Sokhondo was named a UNESCO MAB Biosphere Reserve. The reserve is situated in the Chita district of Chita Oblast.

The Atlas Cedar Biosphere Reserve is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve located in the central Atlas Mountains of Morocco. The biosphere reserve is home to 75% of the world's majestic Atlas cedar tree population. This part of the Atlas Mountains is rich in ecosystems and its peaks, reaching up to 3,700 meters (12,100 ft), provide the region with critically important water resources. Fruit plantations, modern agriculture and tourist activities, which have replaced semi-nomadic pastoral traditions, are taking their toll on scarce water resources. The rich local Berber culture is particularly strong in this area.

Katon-Karagay National Park

Katon-Karagay National Park is the largest national park in Kazakhstan, located on the eastern edge of the country, in the Southern Altai Mountains. The park fills the west side of the "X" where the borders of Kazakhstan, Russia, China, and Mongolia meet. The highest peak in Siberia, is on the Russian border in the Katun Range. The park is in Katonkaragay District of East Kazakhstan Region, 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) southeast of the capital city of Astana.

Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve

Clayoquot Sound Biosphere Reserve is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve situated in Clayoquot Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. A diverse range of ecosystems exist within the biosphere reserve boundaries, including temperate coastal rainforest, ocean and rocky coastal shores.

References

  1. "Tianmushan National Reserve (Hangzhou)". luopan.com. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
  2. "UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB)". Archived from the original on 2011-08-22. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
  3. "Hangzhou". China Custom Tours. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
  4. 1 2 Lu, Rong (2007-07-31). "Climbing high to blessed coolness". China Daily. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
  5. André van Beek, Teris (2000). Ginkgo biloba. Harwood Academic. p. 548. ISBN   90-5702-488-8. p. 9.
  6. "Tianmu Mountain" . Retrieved 2009-06-10.
  7. "Tianmushan - The Eyes of Heaven Mountain" . Retrieved 2009-06-10.