|Tianqi Emperor |
天 啓 帝
|16th Emperor of the Ming dynasty|
|Reign||1 October 1620 –|
30 September 1627
|Coronation||1 October 1620|
|Born||23 December 1605|
|Died||30 September 1627 21)(aged|
|House||House of Zhu|
|Mother||Empress Dowager Xiaohe|
The Tianqi Emperor (23 December 1605 – 30 September 1627), personal name Zhu Youjiao, was the 16th Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1620 to 1627.He was the eldest son of the Taichang Emperor and a elder brother of the Chongzhen Emperor, who succeeded him. "Tianqi", the era name of his reign, means "heavenly opening".
Zhu Youjiao became emperor at the age of 15, following the death of his father, the Taichang Emperor, who ruled less than a month.He did not pay much attention to state affairs, and was accused of failing in his filial duties to his late father by not continuing the latter's wishes. It is possible that Zhu Youjiao suffered from a learning disability or something more. He was illiterate and showed no interest in his studies. However, he was an outstanding carpenter and craftsman, often spending vast amounts of time on woodworking and instructing his servants to sell his creations undercover on the market just to see how much they were worth.
Because the Tianqi Emperor was unable to read court memorials and uninterested in state affairs, the court eunuch Wei Zhongxianand the emperor's wet nurse Madam Ke seized power and controlled the Ming imperial court, with the Tianqi Emperor as merely a puppet ruler. The Tianqi Emperor apparently devoted his time to carpentry. Wei Zhongxian took advantage of the situation and began appointing the people he trusted to important positions in the imperial court. Meanwhile, Madam Ke sought to retain power by removing all other women from the emperor's harem by locking away the emperor's concubines and starving them to death. It is believed that he had two private palaces; one for his female lovers and one for his male lovers.
One Confucian moralist group, the Donglin Movement, expressed distress at the conditions of the government.In response, the imperial court, under Wei Zhongxian's control, covertly ordered the execution of a number of officials associated with the Donglin Movement. Living conditions worsened during the Tianqi Emperor's reign. The Ming dynasty also faced several popular uprisings.
The Tianqi Emperor died heirless on 30 September 1627 and was succeeded by his fifth and sole surviving brother, Zhu Youjian, because he had no sons to succeed him. Zhu Youjian was enthroned as the Chongzhen Emperor. As both the Tianqi Emperor's daughters died early too, it seems that there are no natural heirs from the emperor left alive.
In August and September 2009, a 42-hour television series dramatising the events during the reign of the Tianqi Emperor was shown on Chinese television – two hours per night for 21 days. It vividly showed how a hereditary monarchy can lead to the rampant abuse of power. The series ended on 17 September, just two weeks before the 60th anniversary (five 12-year cycles) of the establishment of the People's Republic of China.
The Hongxi Emperor, personal name Zhu Gaochi (朱高熾), was the fourth Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1424 to 1425. He succeeded his father, the Yongle Emperor, in 1424. His era name "Hongxi" means "vastly bright".
The Xuande Emperor, personal name Zhu Zhanji (朱瞻基), was the fifth Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1425 to 1435. His era name "Xuande" means "Proclamation of Virtue".
The Chenghua Emperor, born Zhu Jianshen, was the ninth Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1464 to 1487. His era name "Chenghua" means "accomplished change".
The Jiajing Emperor was the 12th Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1521 to 1567. Born Zhu Houcong, he was the former Zhengde Emperor's cousin. His father, Zhu Youyuan (1476–1519), the Prince of Xing, was the fourth son of the Chenghua Emperor and the eldest son of three sons born to the emperor's concubine, Lady Shao. The Jiajing Emperor's regnal name, "Jiajing", means "admirable tranquility".
The Longqing Emperor, personal name Zhu Zaiji (朱載坖), was the 13th Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1567 to 1572. He was initially known as the Prince of Yu (裕王) from 1539 to 1567 before he became the emperor. His era name, Longqing, means "great celebration".
The Wanli Emperor, personal name Zhu Yijun, was the 14th Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1572 to 1620. "Wanli", the era name of his reign, literally means "ten thousand calendars". He was the third son of the Longqing Emperor. His reign of 48 years (1572–1620) was the longest among all the Ming dynasty emperors and it witnessed several successes in his early and middle reign, followed by the decline of the dynasty as the Emperor withdrew from his active role in government around 1600.
The Taichang Emperor, personal name Zhu Changluo, was the 15th Emperor of the Ming dynasty. He was the eldest son of the Wanli Emperor and succeeded his father as emperor in 1620. However, his reign came to an abrupt end less than one month after his coronation when he was found dead one morning in the palace following a bout of diarrhea. He was succeeded by his son, Zhu Youjiao, who was enthroned as the Tianqi Emperor. His era name, Taichang, means "grand prosperity." His reign was the shortest in Ming history.
The Chongzhen Emperor, personal name Zhu Youjian, was the 17th and last Emperor of the Ming dynasty as well as the last Han Chinese to reign as Emperor of China. He reigned from 1627 to 1644. "Chongzhen," the era name of his reign, means "honorable and auspicious".
Zhu Qizhen was the sixth and eighth Emperor of the Ming dynasty. He ascended the throne as the Zhengtong Emperor in 1435, but was forced to abdicate in 1449, in favour of his younger brother the Jingtai Emperor, after being captured by the Mongols during the Tumu Crisis. In 1457, he deposed Jingtai and ruled again as the Tianshun Emperor until his death in 1464. His temple name is Yingzong (英宗).
The Jingtai Emperor, born Zhu Qiyu, was the seventh Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1449 to 1457. The second son of the Xuande Emperor, he was selected in 1449 to succeed his elder brother Emperor Yingzong of Ming, when the latter was captured by Mongols following the Tumu Crisis. He reigned for 8 years before being removed from the throne by his elder brother Emperor Yingzong of Ming. The Jingtai Emperor's era name, "Jingtai", means "Exalted View".
Zhu Biao was the Hongwu Emperor's first son and crown prince of the Ming dynasty. His early death created a crisis in the dynasty's first succession that was resolved by the successful usurpation of his brother Zhu Di as the Yongle Emperor, an act with far-reaching consequences for the future of China.
Wei Zhongxian was a Chinese court eunuch who lived in the late Ming dynasty. He is considered by most historians as the most powerful and notorious eunuch in Chinese history. He is best known for his service in the court of the Tianqi Emperor, when his power eventually appeared to rival that of the emperor.
Madame Ke, was the nanny of the Tianqi Emperor (1605–1627), and known for her great influence during his reign as Emperor of China from 1620 to 1627.
The Hongguang Emperor, personal name Zhu Yousong, was the first emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty. He reigned briefly in Southern China from 1644-1645. His era name, Hongguang, means "Great light".
The Donglin movement was an ideological and philosophical movement of the late Ming and early Qing dynasties of China.
Consort Li may refer to:
Zhu Youyuan, a prince of the Ming dynasty of China. He was the fourth son of the Chenghua Emperor.
Empress Dowager Xiaochun, surnamed Liu, was a Ming Dynasty concubine of the Taichang Emperor and biological mother of the Chongzhen Emperor.
Empress Xiaoyuanzhen (1580-1613) was the first wife of the Taichang Emperor when he was crown prince. She died before he ascended the throne, but is more commonly known by her posthumous name.
Tianqi EmperorBorn: 23 December 1605 Died: 30 September 1627
| Emperor of the Ming dynasty |
Emperor of China