Tianqi Emperor

Last updated
Tianqi Emperor
Ming Xi Zong Zuo Xiang .tiff
Palace portrait on a hanging scroll, kept in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan
16th Emperor of the Ming dynasty
Reign1 October 1620 
30 September 1627 [1]
Enthronement1 October 1620
Predecessor Taichang Emperor
Successor Chongzhen Emperor
Born(1605-12-23)23 December 1605
Wanli 33, 14th day of the 11th month
Died30 September 1627(1627-09-30) (aged 21)
Tianqi 7, 22nd day of the 8th month
Palace of Heavenly Purity, Forbidden City, Shuntian Prefecture, North Zhili, Ming dynasty
Deling Mausoleum, Ming tombs, Beijing
(m. 16211627)
  • Zhu Ciran, Crown Prince Huaichong
  • Zhu Ciyu, Crown Prince Daohuai
  • Zhu Cijiong, Crown Prince Xianhuai
  • Princess Yongning
  • Princess Huaining
  • Third daughter
Zhu Youjiao
Era name and dates
Tianqi (天啓): 22 January 1621 – 4 February 1628
Posthumous name
Emperor Datian Chandao Dunxiao Duyou Zhangwen Xiangwu Jingmu Zhuangqin Zhe
Temple name
Xizong (熹宗)
House House of Zhu
Dynasty Ming dynasty
Father Taichang Emperor
MotherEmpress Dowager Xiaohe
Tianqi Emperor
Traditional Chinese 天啓帝
Simplified Chinese 天启帝
Jiajing Emperor (1507–1567)
Longqing Emperor (1537–1572)
Empress Xiaoke (d. 1554)
Wanli Emperor (1563–1620)
Li Wei (1527–1583)
Empress Dowager Xiaoding (1545–1614)
Lady Wang
Taichang Emperor (1582–1620)
Wang Chaocai
Empress Dowager Xiaojing (1565–1611)
Lady Ge
Tianqi Emperor (1605–1627)
Wang Yue
Empress Dowager Xiaohe (1582–1619)

Portrayals in the media

In August and September 2009, a 42-hour television series dramatising the events during the reign of the Tianqi Emperor was shown on Chinese television – two hours per night for 21 days. It vividly showed how a hereditary monarchy can lead to the rampant abuse of power. The series ended on 17 September, just two weeks before the 60th anniversary (five 12-year cycles) of the establishment of the People's Republic of China.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chenghua Emperor</span> 9th Emperor of the Ming dynasty

The Chenghua Emperor, personal name Zhu Jianshen, was the ninth Emperor of the Ming dynasty, who reigned from 1464 to 1487. His era name "Chenghua" means "accomplished change".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jiajing Emperor</span> 12th Emperor of the Ming dynasty

The Jiajing Emperor was the 12th Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigning from 1521 to 1567. Born Zhu Houcong, he was the former Zhengde Emperor's cousin. His father, Zhu Youyuan (1476–1519), Prince of Xing, was the fourth son of the Chenghua Emperor and the eldest son of three sons born to the emperor's concubine, Lady Shao. The Jiajing Emperor's era name, "Jiajing", means "admirable tranquility".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Longqing Emperor</span> 13th Emperor of the Ming dynasty

The Longqing Emperor, personal name Zhu Zaiji (朱載坖), was the 13th Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1567 to 1572. He was initially known as the Prince of Yu (裕王) from 1539 to 1567 before he became the emperor. His era name, Longqing, means "great celebration".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wanli Emperor</span> 14th Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1572 to 1620

The Wanli Emperor, personal name Zhu Yijun, was the 14th Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1572 to 1620. "Wanli", the era name of his reign, literally means "ten thousand calendars". He was the third son of the Longqing Emperor. His reign of 48 years (1572–1620) was the longest among all the Ming dynasty emperors and it witnessed several successes in his early and middle reign, followed by the decline of the dynasty as the emperor withdrew from his active role in government around 1600.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taichang Emperor</span> 15th Emperor of the Ming dynasty

The Taichang Emperor, personal name Zhu Changluo, was the 15th Emperor of the Ming dynasty. He was the eldest son of the Wanli Emperor and succeeded his father as emperor in 1620. However, his reign came to an abrupt end less than one month after his coronation when he was found dead one morning in the palace following a bout of diarrhea. He was succeeded by his son, Zhu Youjiao, who was enthroned as the Tianqi Emperor. His era name, Taichang, means "grand prosperity." His reign was the shortest in Ming history.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chongzhen Emperor</span> Ming dynastys last emperor, reigned from 1627 to 1644

The Chongzhen Emperor, personal name Zhu Youjian, courtesy name Deyue (德約), was the 17th and last Emperor of the Ming dynasty. He reigned from 1627 to 1644. "Chongzhen," the era name of his reign, means "honorable and auspicious."

The Yongli Emperor, personal name Zhu Youlang, was a royal member to the imperial family of Ming dynasty, and the fourth and last commonly recognised emperor of the Southern Ming, reigning in turbulent times when the former Ming dynasty was overthrown and the Manchu-led Qing dynasty progressively conquered the entire China proper. He led the remnants of the Ming loyalists with the assistance of peasant armies to resist the Qing forces in southwestern China, but he was then forced to exile to Toungoo Burma and eventually captured and executed by Wu Sangui in 1662. His era title "Yongli" means "perpetual calendar".

Wei Zhongxian, born Wei Si (魏四), was a Chinese court eunuch who lived in the late Ming dynasty. As a eunuch he used the name Li Jinzhong (李进忠). He is considered by most historians as the most notorious eunuch in Chinese history. He is best known for his service in the court of the Tianqi Emperor Zhu Youjiao, when his power eventually appeared to rival that of the emperor. Mao Wenlong was one of the generals promoted by Wei Zhongxian. During Zhu Youjiao's reign, Wei would send the emperor's edicts to the Embroidered Uniform Guard led by prison director Xu Xianchun to purge corrupt officials and political enemies. Xu then arrested and demoted hundreds of officials and scholars from the Donglin movement, including Zhou Zongjian, Zhou Shunchang, and Yang Lian.

The Hongguang Emperor, personal name Zhu Yousong, childhood nickname Fuba (福八), was the first emperor of the Chinese Southern Ming dynasty. He reigned briefly in southern China from 1644 to 1645. His era name, Hongguang, means "great light".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Emperor Zhenzong</span> Chinese emperor from 997 to 1022

Emperor Zhenzong of Song, personal name Zhao Heng, was the third emperor of the Song dynasty of China. He reigned from 997 to his death in 1022. His personal name was originally Zhao Dechang, but was changed to Zhao Yuanxiu in 983, Zhao Yuankan in 986, and finally Zhao Heng in 995. He was the third son of his predecessor, Emperor Taizong, and was succeeded by his sixth son, Emperor Renzong at the end of his reign. From 1020 he was seriously ill, but retained power despite this. Because of his illness, day-to-day rule of China was often placed in the hands of his third wife, Empress Liu.

Empress Xiaominrang, of the Ma clan, was the empress consort to the Jianwen Emperor and the second empress consort of China's Ming dynasty.

Empress Xiaojielie, of the Zhou clan, was a Chinese empress consort of the Ming dynasty, married to the Chongzhen Emperor. She is commonly referred to as Empress Zhou.

Empress Yi'an (1606–1644), of the Zhang clan, was the empress consort of the Tianqi Emperor of the Chinese Ming dynasty.

Consort Li may refer to:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Empress Dowager Wang (Taichang)</span>

Empress Dowager Xiaojing, of the Wang clan, was a Ming dynasty concubine of the Wanli Emperor and the biological mother of the Taichang Emperor. She was primarily known during her lifetime as Consort Gong, but is most commonly referred to by her posthumous name.

Noble Consort Zheng (1565–1630), was a Ming dynasty concubine of the Wanli Emperor. She is known for having been his most beloved consort and, in an attempt to please her, he tried to make her son his heir apparent. This act caused over a decade of conflict and factionalism in the imperial court.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Empress Dowager Xiaochun</span>

Empress Dowager Xiaochun (1588–1615), of the Liu clan, was a Ming dynasty concubine of the Taichang Emperor and biological mother of the Chongzhen Emperor.

Zhu Changxun (1586–1641) was the third son of the Ming dynasty Wanli Emperor. His mother, Noble Consort Zheng, was a favoured concubine and, in efforts to please her, the emperor attempted to have Zhu made heir apparent, but failed to overturn the rule of primogeniture. After the fall of the Ming, however, Zhu's son, Zhu Yousong, became emperor of the Southern Ming.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Empress Xiaoyuanzhen</span>

Empress Xiaoyuanzhen (1580–1613), of the Guo clan, was the first wife of the Taichang Emperor when he was crown prince. She died before he ascended the throne, but is more commonly known by her posthumous name.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Empress Dowager Xiaohe</span>

Empress Dowager Xiaohe, of the Wang clan, was a Ming dynasty consort of the Taichang Emperor and the biological mother of Tianqi Emperor.


  1. Dates given here are in the Gregorian calendar.
  2. 1 2 3 "Tianqi". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-03-22.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "Zhu Yujiao – The Tianqi Emperor" . Retrieved 2014-03-22.
  4. "History of Homosexuality". china.org.cn. Shanghai Star. Archived from the original on November 19, 2003. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  5. "Donglin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-03-22.

Further reading

Tianqi Emperor
Born: 23 December 1605 Died: 30 September 1627
Regnal titles
Preceded by Emperor of the Ming dynasty
Emperor of China

Succeeded by