A view of Tiantai Mountain and the Guoqing Temple Pagoda, constructed during the Sui Dynasty.
|Elevation||1,138 m (3,734 ft)|
|Hanyu Pinyin|| PRC Standard Mandarin:|
ROC Standard Mandarin:
Tiantai Mountain, Mount Tiantai, or Tiantai Shan is a mountain in Tiantai County near the city of Taizhou, Zhejiang, China. 1,138 meters (3,734 ft). The mountain was made a national park on 1 August 1988. One of nine remaining wild populations of Seven-Son Flower Heptacodium miconioides is located on Mount Tiantai.Its highest peak, Huading, reaches a height of
Tiantai County is located in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.
Taizhou, previously known as Taichow, is a city located at the middle of the East China Sea coast of Zhejiang province. It is located 300 km (190 mi) south of Shanghai and 230 km (140 mi) southeast of Hangzhou, the provincial capital. It is bordered by Ningbo to the north, Wenzhou to the south, and Shaoxing, Jinhua, and Lishui to west. In addition to the municipality itself, the prefecture-level city of Taizhou includes 3 districts, 2 county-level cities, and 4 counties. At the 2010 census, its population was 5,968,838 inhabitants whom 3,269,304 lived in the built-up area made of 3 urban Districts and Wenling City now being largely conurbated.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
In Chinese mythology, the creator goddess Nüwa cut the legs off a giant sea turtle (Chinese :鳌; pinyin :áo) and used them to prop up the sky after Gong Gong damaged Mount Buzhou, which had previously supported the heavens. A local myth holds that Mount Tiantai was on the turtle's back before and Nüwa relocated it to its current position when she had to remove the turtle's legs.[ citation needed ]
Nüwa or Nügua is the mother goddess of Chinese mythology, the sister and wife of Fuxi, the emperor-god. She is credited with creating mankind and repairing the Pillar of Heaven. Her reverential name is Wahuang.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
Guoqing Temple on the mountain is the headquarters of Tiantai Buddhism and also a tourist destination. Tiantai, named for the mountain, focuses on the Lotus Sutra . The most prominent teacher of that school, Zhiyi, was based at Guoqing Temple. Over many years it has been an important destination for pilgrims, especially from Japan. The mountain was visited by Saichō in 805 who went on to found the related Japanese Buddhist school, Tendai.
The Guoqing Temple is a Buddhist temple on Mount Tiantai, in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Originally built in 598 during the Sui Dynasty, and renovated during the reign of the Qing Yongzheng Emperor, the temple is located roughly 220 kilometres (140 mi) from the city of Hangzhou. It was the initial site for the creation of the Tiantai school of Mahayana Buddhism, founded by Zhiyi. The temple covers an area of some 23,000 m2 (250,000 sq ft) and features 600 rooms in a total of 14 different halls, including the Grand Hall of Sakyamuni, the Hall of Five Hundred Arhats and the Hall of Monk Jigong. The exterior of the building features Chinese pagodas such as the Sui Pagoda, the Seven Buddha Pagoda, and the Memorial Pagoda of Monk Yi Xing.
The Lotus Sūtra is one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established. According to Paul Williams, "For many East Asian Buddhists since early times the Lotus Sutra contains the final teaching of the Buddha, complete and sufficient for salvation."
Zhiyi is traditionally listed as the fourth patriarch, but is generally considered the founder of the Tiantai tradition of Buddhism in China. His standard title was Śramaṇa Zhiyi, linking him to the broad tradition of Indian asceticism. Zhiyi is famous for being the first in the history of Chinese Buddhism to elaborate a complete, critical and systematic classification of the Buddhist teachings. He is also regarded as the first major figure to make a significant break from the Indian tradition, to form an indigenous Chinese system.
The mountain has a famous temple to the Song-era monk Ji Gong at the Cave of Auspicious Mists that was associated with early modern fuji or "spirit writing" movements.
The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporary Liao and Western Xia dynasties in the north. It was eventually conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass.
Ji Gong, born Li Xiuyuan and also known as "Chan Master Daoji" was a Chan Buddhist monk who lived in the Southern Song. He purportedly possessed supernatural powers, which he used to help the poor and stand up to injustice. However, he was also known for his wild and eccentric behaviour, and for violating Buddhist monastic rules by consuming alcohol and meat. By the time of his death, Ji Gong had become a folk hero in Chinese culture and minor deity in Chinese folk religion. He is mentioned by Buddhists in folktales and kōans, and sometimes invoked by oracles to assist in worldly affairs.
Fuji is a method of "planchette writing", or "spirit writing", that uses a suspended sieve or tray to guide a stick which writes Chinese characters in sand or incense ashes.
Fuxi, also known as Paoxi, is a culture hero in Chinese legend and mythology, credited along with his sister Nüwa with creating humanity and the invention of hunting, fishing, domestication, and cooking as well as the Cangjie system of writing Chinese characters around 2,000 BCE. Fuxi was counted as the first of the Three Sovereigns at the beginning of the Chinese dynastic period.
Huli jing or jiuweihu are Chinese mythological creatures who can be either good or bad spirits.
Tendai is a Mahayana Buddhist school established in Japan in the year 806 by a monk named Saicho also known as Dengyō Daishi. The Tendai school rose to prominence during the Heian Period of Japan, gradually eclipsing the powerful Hosso school and competing with the upcoming Shingon school to become the most influential at the Imperial court. However, political entanglements during the Genpei War led many disaffected monks to leave and in some cases to establish their own schools of Buddhism such as Jodo Shu, Nichiren Shu and Soto Zen. Destruction of the head temple Mount Hiei by warlord Oda Nobunaga further weakened Tendai's influence as well as the geographic shift of Japan's capital to Edo away from Kyoto.
Buddhism in Japan has been practiced since its official introduction in 552 CE according to the Nihon Shoki from Baekje, Korea, by Buddhist monks. Buddhism has had a major influence on the development of Japanese society and remains an influential aspect of the culture to this day.
Gonggong, also known as Kanghui, is a Chinese water god or monster who is often depicted in Chinese mythology, folktales, and religious stories as having red hair and the tail of a serpent or dragon. He is often seen as destructive and is blamed for various cosmic catastrophes. In all accounts, Gonggong ends up being killed or sent into exile, usually after losing a struggle with another major deity.
Yi Xing, born Zhang Sui, was a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, mechanical engineer and Buddhist monk of the Tang dynasty (618–907). His astronomical celestial globe featured a clockwork escapement mechanism, the first in a long tradition of Chinese astronomical clockworks.
Hanshan is a figure associated with a collection of poems from the Chinese Tang Dynasty in the Taoist and Chan tradition. No one knows who he was, when he lived and died, or whether he actually existed. In the Chinese Buddhist tradition, Hanshan and his sidekick Shide are honored as emanations of the bodhisattvas Mañjuśrī and Samantabhadra, respectively. In Japanese and Chinese paintings, Hanshan is often depicted together with Shide or with Fenggan, another monk with legendary attributes.
Shide was a Tang Dynasty Chinese Buddhist poet at the Guoqing Temple on Mount Tiantai on the East China Sea coast; roughly contemporary with Hanshan and Fenggan, but younger than both of them. As close friends the three of them formed the "Tiantai Trio". Shide lived as a lay monk, and worked most of his life in the kitchen of Guoqing Temple.
Mount Jiuhua is one of the four sacred mountains of Chinese Buddhism. It is located in Qingyang County in Anhui province and is famous for its rich landscape and ancient temples.
Heptacodium miconioides has the common name 七子花 qi zi hua in Standard Chinese - of which the English common name Seven Son Flower is a translation. It is a member of the family Caprifoliaceae, a cousin of the honeysuckle, and the sole species of the monotypic genus Heptacodium. Endemic to China, this species was discovered in 1907 growing on mountain cliffs at 'Hsing-Shan Hsien' in Xingshan County in the west of Hubei province, central China by Ernest Wilson whilst collecting on behalf of the Arnold Arboretum. Considered rare even at that time, only nine populations are known to remain in the wild, all of them in Anhui and Zhejiang provinces and threatened by habitat loss. The species is now under second-class national protection in China. However, the Sino-American Botanical Expedition of 1980 collected viable seeds and sent them to the Arnold Arboretum where it was found to be readily cultivated. The plant is now widely grown as an ornamental around the world.
The World Turtle is a mytheme of a giant turtle supporting or containing the world. The mytheme, which is similar to that of the World Elephant and World Serpent, occurs in Hindu mythology, Chinese mythology, Scientology and the mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The "World-Tortoise" mytheme was discussed comparatively by Edward Burnett Tylor (1878:341).
The Great Flood of Gun-Yu, also known as the Gun-Yu myth, was a major flood event in ancient China that allegedly continued for at least two generations, which resulted in great population displacements among other disasters, such as storms and famine. People left their homes to live on the high hills and mounts, or nest on the trees. According to mythological and historical sources, it is traditionally dated to the third millennium BCE, during the reign of Emperor Yao. Archaeological evidence of an outburst flood on the Yellow River has been dated to about 1920 BCE, and is suggested to have been the basis for the myth.
Nüwa Mends the Heavens is a well-known theme in Chinese culture. The courage and wisdom of Nüwa inspired the ancient Chinese to control nature's elements and has become a favorite subject of Chinese poets, painters, and sculptors, along with so many poetry and arts like novels, films, paintings, and sculptures; e.g. the sculpture that decorate Nanshan and Ya'an.
The Nüwa Palace, also known as Wahuang Palace and by its Chinese name Wahuanggong, is a compound of palaces and temples beside Phoenix Mountain (Fenghuangshan) in She County, Handan Prefecture, Hebei Province, China. It principally honors the Chinese goddess Nüwa, whom the ancient Chinese believed created mankind and repaired the sky in prehistoric times. As such, the location is treated as a kind of ancestral shrine of all mankind and sees increased pilgrimage on Tomb Sweeping Day. The scenic area now covers 2600 mu and was made a AAAAA tourist attraction by China's National Tourism Administration in 2015.
Tiantai Temple, also known as the Temple of Ksitigarbha (地藏寺), is the highest Buddhist temple located on Mount Jiuhua, in Qingyang County, Anhui, China. It was first built in the Tang dynasty (618–907), and went through many changes and repairs through the following dynasties. Most of the present structures in the temple were repaired or built in the late Qing dynasty (1644–1911).
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