Tiaret

Last updated

Tiaret
Tiaret in night.jpg
Algeria location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tiaret
Location of Tiaret within Algeria
Coordinates: 35°22′N1°19′E / 35.367°N 1.317°E / 35.367; 1.317 Coordinates: 35°22′N1°19′E / 35.367°N 1.317°E / 35.367; 1.317
CountryFlag of Algeria.svg  Algeria
Province Tiaret Province
District Tieret District
Founded778
Area
  Total111.45 km2 (43.03 sq mi)
Elevation
978 m (3,209 ft)
Population
 (2008 census)
  Total178,915
  Density1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
Postal code
14000
Climate Csa

Tiaret (Arabic : تاهرت / تيارت; Berber: Tahert or Tihert, i.e. "Lioness") is a major city in central Algeria that gives its name to the wider farming region of Tiaret Province. Both the town and region lie south-west of the capital of Algiers in the western region of the Hautes Plaines, in the Tell Atlas, and about 150 km (93 mi) from the Mediterranean coast. It is served by Abdelhafid Boussouf Bou Chekif Airport.

Contents

Etymology

The name means "Lioness" in the Berber language, a reference to the Barbary lions that lived in this region. Maghrebian place names like Oran (Uhran) which means "lion", and Souk Ahras which means "Market of Lions" have the same etymological source.

Population

The town had a population of 178,915 in 2008. [1] The town covered around 20.086.62 km²

Infrastructure & industry

A 1992 study by the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis reported significant areas contaminated by industrial pollution, and growing squatter settlements on the periphery.

The region is predominantly one of agriculture. There is a large airfield with a tower and terminal at Abdelhafid Boussouf.

The Institute of National Studies of Tiaret holds 25,000 volumes in its library. [2]

Politics

The province suffered massacres (the largest being the Sid El-Antri massacre in 1997), killings, and bombings during the Algerian Civil War, though less so than areas closer to Algiers. The Africa Institute reported in a May 2004 monograph [3] that Tiaret's more "arid and mountainous landscape has facilitated terrorist activities". The MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base reports that Tiaret "is a frequent site of attacks by the Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC)" (now known as Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb). The GSPC is "believed to have close ties to Osama bin Laden" (Paris AFX News Agency, Jul 13, 2005) and Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (Asharq Alaswat Jul 3 2005), and is reported to be active in Italy (Deutsche Welle, Jul 15 2005).

History

The province has been inhabited since antiquity, and there are numerous megalithic monuments. It served as a Roman station and fort, Tingartia. [4] Near Tiaret are the jedars, which are ancient mausoleums. The edifices demonstrate that the area was inhabited during the Late Antiquity by a Berber tribe(s) that could build in stone.

Tiaret grew up as a site under the domination of small Berber tribal kingdoms; the first of these being the Rustamid dynasty between 761 and 909 when Tiaret served as the capital of the area. However, this capital may have been 10 km (6 or 7 miles) west of the present-day Tiaret. It was first founded by Abd al-Rahman Rustamid, an Ibadi theologian from Greater Iran. Tiaret was said to be relatively free-thinking and democratic, being a centre for scholarship that permitted a wide range of sects and movements, notably the Mu'tazila. There were many Jews living in the area until at least the 10th century, including the scholar and doctor Judah ibn Kuraish who became the doctor to the Emir of Fes.

Tiaret occupies a strategic mountain pass at 3,552 feet (1,083 m), and was thus a key to dominating the central Maghreb. Later, from the start of the 8th century, it was the key northern terminus of the West African branch of the slave trade. As such, it offered a lucrative income from taxes on the trade, and was a desirable prize.

The Rustamid empire, which during the reign of Abdurrahman (766–784) and his son Abdul Wahab (784–823) extended over the greater part of the modern Algeria, was known as the Ibadite Empire from Abdallah ibn Ibad, the founder of the sect to which Abdurrahman belonged. Seven princes of the Rustamite house succeeded Abdul Wahab until they were overthrown by the Fatimite general Abu Abdallah al-Shi'i in 909. [4]

From the year 911 Tiaret was fought over by a number of tribes, being first captured by Massala ibn Habbus of the Miknasas in the year 911, in alliance with the Fatimid Caliphate. Finally, in 933, it was in the hands of the Fatimids. After 933 Tiaret ceased to be the capital of a separate state. Most of the population was banished to Ouargla and then escaped to the inhospitable M'zab. [4] [5] From 933 Tiaret attracted many Khawarij Muslim settlers from Iraq.

From 933 it was administered as part of the Kingdom of Tlemcen, and in the 16th century fell to the Ottoman Empire. [4] In 1843 it fell to the French after they defeated Emir Abdelkader El Djezairi.

The modern town of Tiaret is built around a French redoubt of 1845. The new town attracted many settlers from France and the area flourished. A 200 km (120 mi) narrow gauge railway arrived in 1889, connecting the town to Mostaganem - today, this rail line is defunct.

Archeological attractions

Thirty kilometres (18 miles) S.S.W. of Tiaret are the sepulchral monuments known as the Jedars. [4] The name is given to a number of sepulchral monuments placed on hill-tops. A rectangular or square podium is in each case surmounted by a pyramid. The tombs date from the 5th to the 7th century, and lie in two distinct groups between Tiaret and Frenda. [6]

At Mechra-Sfa ("ford of the flat stones"), a peninsula in the valley of the river Mina not far from Tiaret, are said to be "vast numbers" of megalithic monuments. [6]

Climate

In Tiaret, there is a Mediterranean climate. In winter there is more rainfall than in summer. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Csa. The average annual temperature in Tiaret is 14.7 °C (58.5 °F). About 529 mm (20.83 in) of precipitation falls annually.

Climate data for Tiaret
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)9.9
(49.8)
11.0
(51.8)
13.4
(56.1)
16.5
(61.7)
21.0
(69.8)
26.2
(79.2)
31.6
(88.9)
31.6
(88.9)
26.9
(80.4)
20.4
(68.7)
14.3
(57.7)
10.0
(50.0)
19.4
(66.9)
Average low °C (°F)2.2
(36.0)
2.7
(36.9)
4.7
(40.5)
7.6
(45.7)
11.1
(52.0)
15.6
(60.1)
19.9
(67.8)
20.3
(68.5)
16.4
(61.5)
11.2
(52.2)
6.1
(43.0)
3.2
(37.8)
10.1
(50.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)73
(2.9)
64
(2.5)
66
(2.6)
48
(1.9)
45
(1.8)
23
(0.9)
4
(0.2)
7
(0.3)
21
(0.8)
38
(1.5)
67
(2.6)
73
(2.9)
529
(20.8)
Source: Climate-Data.org,Climate data

Notes

  1. "Algeria: Provinces & Major Cities - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
  2. Gall, Timothy L.; Hobby, Jeneen M. (November 2006). Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations. Thomson Gale. ISBN   978-1-4144-1089-0.
  3. "The Africa Institute monograph" . Retrieved 2006-06-10.[ permanent dead link ]
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Tiaret". Encyclopædia Britannica . 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 912.
  5. Pietro Laureand. "Desert Cities". Archived from the original on 2005-05-19. Retrieved 2005-05-19.
  6. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Algeria § Archaeology". Encyclopædia Britannica . 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 646.

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Algeria Country in North Africa

Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is the largest country by total area in Africa, and by extension, the Arab world, and is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia; to the east by Libya; to the southeast by Niger; to the southwest by Mali, Mauritania, and Western Sahara; to the west by Morocco; and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. The country has a semi-arid geography, with most of the population living in the fertile north and the Sahara dominating the geography of the south. Algeria covers an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi), with a population of 44 million, and is the ninth-most populous country in Africa. The capital and largest city is Algiers, located in the far north on the Mediterranean coast.

Archaeology in Algeria

The archeology in Algeria is rich in prehistoric memorials of human occupation. Algeria contains many Roman remains and is rich in monuments of Saracenic art.

Berbers Ethnic group indigenous to North Africa

Berbers or Imazighen are an ethnic group who are indigenous to North Africa, specifically Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, the Canary Islands, and to a lesser extent in Mauritania, northern Mali, and northern Niger. Smaller Berber populations are also found in Burkina Faso and Egypt's Siwa Oasis. Historically, Berber nations spoke the Berber languages, which are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

Medieval Muslim Algeria

Medieval Muslim Algeria was a period of Muslim dominance in Algeria during the Middle Ages, roughly spanning the millennium from the 7th century to the 17th century. Unlike the invasions of previous religions and cultures, the coming of Islam, which was spread by Arabs, was to have pervasive and long-lasting effects on North Africa. The new faith, in its various forms, would penetrate nearly all segments of society, bringing with it armies, learned men, and fervent mystics; in large part, it would replace tribal practices and loyalties with new social norms and political idioms.

Kabylia Region of northern Algeria inhabited by Kabyle people

Kabylia is a cultural, natural and historical region in northern Algeria and the homeland of the Kabyle people. It is part of the Tell Atlas mountain range and is located at the edge of the Mediterranean Sea.

Articles related to Algeria include:

Rustamid dynasty Ruling house of Ibāḍī imāms of Persian descent centered in Algeria.

The Rustamid dynasty was a ruling house of Ibāḍī imāms of Persian descent centered in Algeria. The dynasty governed as a Muslim theocracy for a century and a half from its capital Tiaret until the Ismaili Fatimid Caliphate defeated it. Their realm extended mostly to current central Algeria, but also Libya.

Zirid dynasty Sanhaja Berber dynasty

The Zirid dynasty was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty from modern-day Algeria which ruled the central Maghreb from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya from 972 to 1148.

The Maghrawa or Meghrawa were a large Zenata Berber tribal confederation whose cradle and seat of power was the territory located on the Chelif in the north-western part of today's Algeria, bounded by the Wansharis to the south, the Mediterranean to the north and Tlemcen to the west. They ruled these areas on behalf of the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba in the end of the 10th century and the first half of the 11th century.

Kabyle people Ethnic group

The Kabyle people are a Berber ethnic group indigenous to Kabylia in the north of Algeria, spread across the Atlas Mountains, one hundred miles east of Algiers. They represent the largest Berber-speaking population of Algeria and the second largest in North Africa.

Miliana Commune and town in Aïn Defla, Algeria

Miliana is a commune in Aïn Defla Province in northwestern Algeria. It is the administrative center of the daïra, or district, of the same name. It is approximately 114 kilometres (71 mi) southwest of the Algerian capital, Algiers. The population was estimated at 44,201 in 2008. The town is located south of the Dahra Range, on the wooded southern flank of Mount Zaccar Rherbi, five kilometers north of the Chelif River, and overlooking the Zaccar plateau to the west.

Ténès Place in Chlef Province, Algeria

Ténès is a town in Algeria located around 200 kilometers west of the capital Algiers. As of 2000, it has a population of 35,000 people.

The Berbers are an indigenous ethnic group of the Maghreb region of North Africa. Following the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, most Berber tribes eventually became Muslims. Presently, about one-sixth of the population of Maghreb speaks one of the Berber languages, but most of them also speak some form of Arabic. Berbers are the first non-Arab people to have established an Islamic state.

The History of early Islamic Tunisia opens with the arrival of the Arabs who brought their language and the religion of Islam, and its calendar. The Arab conquest followed strategy designed by the Umayyad Caliphate regarding its long-term conflict with the Byzantine Empire. The native Berbers eventually converted to Islam. They might have seen some similarities between themselves and the Arabs, in similar cognate culture, such as familiarity with a pastoral way of life. The first local Islamic ruling house, the Aghlabids, consisted primarily of rule by leading members of this Arab tribe. Fundamental elements of Islamic civilization were established. Although accepting Islam, many Berbers nonetheless resisted rule by the Arabs, establishing the Rustamid kingdom following the Kharijite revolt. Next in Ifriqiya (Tunisia) arose the Shia Fatimids, inspired by a few immigrants from the east yet consisting for the most part of Ifriqiya Berbers. The Fatimids later expanded their rule east, through conquest by Berber armies of Egypt, and established their caliphate there which came to include Syria and the Hejaz.

Aïn Oulmene Commune and town in Sétif Province, Algeria

Aïn Oulmene, the classical Zaraï, is a town and commune in Sétif Province in north-eastern Algeria.

Jedars

Jedars are thirteen Berber mausoleums located south of Tiaret city in Algeria. The name is derived from the Arabic: جدار‎ jidār (wall), which is used locally to refer to ancient monumental ruins. These pre-Islamic tombs date from Late Antiquity.

Igilgili

Igilgili was a Berber town and a Phoenician, Carthaginian, and Roman colony in located in present-day Jijel, Algeria.

The Ifranid Emirate of Tlemcen or Ifranid Kingdom of Tlemcen, was a Kharijite state, founded by Berbers of the Banu Ifran in the eighth century, with its capital at Tlemcen in modern Algeria.

Achir

Achir or Ashir is an ancient city in Algeria, first capital of the Muslim dynasty of the Zirids, under Fatimid suzerainty, located at an altitude of 4,593 feet in the Titteri Mountains, in the current Algerian commune of Kef Lakhdar.

Maghrawid Dynasty

The Maghrawa Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty founded by Zanata Berbers who originated in Algeria.