Tiba from the kindred Tomaj (Hungarian : Tomaj nembeli Tiba; died after 1209) was a Hungarian noble at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, who assassinated Palatine Csépán Győr in 1209.
Hungarian is a Uralic language of the Ugric branch spoken in Hungary and parts of several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia and northern Slovenia.
The Palatine of Hungary was the highest-ranking office in the Kingdom of Hungary from the beginning of the 11th century to 1848. Initially, Palatines were representatives of the monarchs, later the vice-regent (viceroy). In the early centuries of the kingdom, they were appointed by the king, and later were elected by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary. Palatine's jurisdiction included only Hungary proper, in the Kingdom of Croatia until 1918 the ban held similar function as the highest office in the Kingdom, monarch's representative, commander of the royal army and viceroy.
Csépán (I) from the kindred Győr was a Hungarian influential lord at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, who served as Palatine of Hungary from 1206 until his murder.
Tiba was born into the gens (clan) Tomaj of Pecheneg origin, but his kinship relations to the other members of the large kindred is uncertain. He owned Lesencetomaj in Zala County just before the murder.
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of the Turkic language family.
Lesencetomaj is a village in Veszprém county, Hungary.
Zala was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now in southwestern Hungary, northern Croatia and eastern Slovenia. The territory of the county comprised what is now the Hungarian county Zala and part of Veszprém county, the Croatian region of Međimurje to the south-west of it, bordered by the river Drave, and a small region around Lendava in Slovenia. The capital of the county was Zalaegerszeg.
A document from 1216 narrates that Tiba murdered incumbent palatine Csépán Győr in 1209. The victim's brother Pat Győr, who succeeded him in the dignity, summoned the suspected perpetrator "before the king's presence", but, instead, Tiba fled the Kingdom of Hungary. After his conduct, the court considered the allegations justified, and Tiba was convicted and sentenced to death in absentia by Andrew II and his fellow appointed judges. Pat was granted the confiscated lands of Tiba, including Lesencetomaj as a compensation shortly thereafter.Pat sold the estate to Atyusz III Atyusz, who himself sold it to Tiba's relative Peter in 1216.
Pat (I) from the kindred Győr was a Hungarian influential lord at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, who served as Palatine of Hungary from 1209 until 1212.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century. The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of the first king Stephen I at Esztergom around the year 1000; his family led the monarchy for 300 years. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European middle power within the Western world.
Trial in absentia is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings. in absentia is Latin for "in the absence". Its meaning varies by jurisdiction and legal system.
The motivation of the murder is unclear; historian Erik Fügedi considered it as the "first documented political assassination" in Hungary. Bálint Hóman assumed a connection between Tiba's crime and a failed conspiracy against Andrew in the same year, when a group of discontented Hungarian lords offered the crown to Andrew's cousins, the sons of Andrew's uncle, Géza. Accordingly, Tiba would have been a participant of that conspiracy, and had to flee from the realm after the failure of the coup.Historian Pál Szabó analyzed the verdict's narrative and political circumstances (only a single private law document mentions the felony), and considered Csépán was killed by Tiba for personal reasons.
Bálint Hóman was a Hungarian scholar and politician who served as Minister of Religion and Education twice: between 1932–1938 and between 1939–1942. His political rise to prominence came as part of a pro-Nazi party, and he is "considered the architect of laws that promoted the persecution of the country's Jewish population in the 1930s and '40s." He died in prison in 1951 for his support of the fascistic invasion of the Soviet Union as part of the Axis alliance in World War II.
Géza (1150s–1210) was a Hungarian royal prince and the youngest son of the King Géza II of Hungary. Prince Géza was brother to the Kings Stephen III and Béla III of Hungary. He traveled to the Holy Land during the Third Crusade with an army of 2,000 Hungarian warriors.
Győr was the name of a gens in the Kingdom of Hungary. The ancestor of the kindred was a German knight, who arrived to Hungary in the first half of the 11th century. His descendants settled down in Transdanubia. The last scion of the family died in the 17th century.
Záh was the name of a gens in the Kingdom of Hungary. The clan was one of the 108 gentes during the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin and located in Nógrád County along with the Kacsics, Kartal, Kökényesradnót and Tomaj clans.
Simon from the kindred Kacsics was a Hungarian distinguished nobleman from the gens Kacsics (Kačić). He was one of the leading instigators of Queen Gertrude's assassination in September 1213.
Peter, son of Töre was a Hungarian lord, who served as judge royal in 1198, during the reign of King Emeric.
Atyusz was the name of a gens in the Kingdom of Hungary, several prominent secular dignitaries came from this kindred.
Atyusz III from the kindred Atyusz was a Hungarian influential baron, the most outstanding member of his family, who served as Judge royal from 1215 to 1217, during the reign of Andrew II of Hungary.
Pousa from the kindred Bár-Kalán was a Hungarian noble, who served as Judge royal for a short time in 1222, during the reign of Andrew II of Hungary.
Thomas (I) from the kindred Monoszló was a Hungarian noble, who served as Ban of Slavonia from 1228 to 1229.
Hahót or Hahót–Buzád was the name of a gens in the Kingdom of Hungary, several prominent secular dignitaries came from this kindred. The last noble family, which originated from the kindred, became extinct in 1849.
Atyusz from the kindred Hahót was a Hungarian noble, who served as ispán of several counties in the second half of the 13th century. He was also the ancestor of the Szabari noble family.
Michael (I) from the kindred Hahót was a Hungarian noble, who served as ispán of Varaždin County in 1244.
Stephen (I) from the kindred Hahót was a Hungarian noble, who served as ispán of Varaždin County in 1297.
Lack from the kindred Hermán, also known as Lack of Kerekegyháza was an influential Hungarian nobleman, who served as Count of the Székelys from 1328 to 1343. He was the eponymous ancestor of the powerful and rich Lackfi family.
Peter from the kindred Bő, also known as Peter the Toothed, was a Hungarian nobleman at the end of the 13th century, who served as Count of the Székelys from 1294 to 1299.
Maurus (I) from the kindred Győr was a Hungarian noble at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, who served as the first known banus maritimus, a predecessor office to the dignity of Ban of Croatia in the Kingdom of Hungary.
Alexander from the kindred Győr was a Hungarian noble at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, who served as ispán of Moson County for a short time.
James from the kindred Győr was a Hungarian nobleman at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries, who served as Master of the cupbearers in 1291. Also known as James of Óvár then James of Kéménd in contemporary documents, he was the progenitor of the Gyulai, Geszti and Kéméndi noble families.
Joachim from the kindred Türje was a Hungarian nobleman and soldier in the first half of the 13th century, who served as the first known Count of Hermannstadt around 1210. He was the forefather of the Szentgróti noble family.
The Hungarian Academy of Sciences is the most important and prestigious learned society of Hungary. Its seat is at the bank of the Danube in Budapest, between Széchenyi rakpart and Akadémia utca. Its main responsibilities are the cultivation of science, dissemination of scientific findings, supporting research and development and representing Hungarian science domestically and around the world.