Tibareni

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Tibareni occupied the country between the Chalybes and the Mosynoeci, on the east of the river Isis. Earlycaucasus655.jpg
Tibareni occupied the country between the Chalybes and the Mosynoeci, on the east of the river Isis.

The Tibareni (Georgian :ტიბარენები, Tibarenebi; Greek: Τιβαρηνοί [1] and Τιβαρανοί; [1] Tubal , Thobeles in Josephus [2] [3] ) were a people residing on the coast of ancient Pontus referred to in Herodotus, Xenophon, Strabo and other classical authors. The Tibareni were believed to be of proto-Kartvelian [4] [5] or Scythian origin. [6] [7] [8] [9]

Contents

History

Tibarenia in a map of the voyage of the Argonauts by Abraham Ortelius, 1624 MapoftheVoyageoftheArgonauts Caucasus.jpg
Tibarenia in a map of the voyage of the Argonauts by Abraham Ortelius, 1624

Tibareni occupied the country between the Chalybes and the Mosynoeci, on the east of the river Isis, and the country was called Tibarenia (Ancient Greek : Τιβαρηνία). [1] They are mentioned as early as the time of Herodotus, [10] According to the ancient Greeks, the Tibareni were Scythians. [11] Strabo describes them as inhabiting the mountains branching off from the Montes Moschici and Colchici, and mentions Cotyura as their principal town. [12] [13] They appear to have been a harmless and happy people, who performed all their duties in a joyous manner. [6] [9] [14] Their arms consisted of wooden helmets, small shields, and short spears with long points. [15] Xenophon and his Greeks spent three days in travelling through their country. [16] [17] [18] [19]

All three tribes — Tibareni, Chalybes and Mosynoeci — still neighbored each other, along the Black Sea coast of Anatolia (ancient Pontus), as late as in Roman times. Tibareni, along with the other Proto-Georgian tribes were subjugated by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th-5th centuries BC and were incorporated into the XIX Satrapy.[ citation needed ]

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References

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  2. Nott, Josiah C, and George R Gliddon. Types of mankind. J. B. Lippincott, (1857) p.473
  3. Israel Smith Clare (1897) Library of Universal History Volume I: Ancient Oriental Nations p.159
  4. Rapp, S. H., & Crego, P. (2011). Languages and cultures of Eastern Christianity. Ashgate.
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  6. 1 2 Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. 2.378, 1010
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  8. Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax
  9. 1 2 Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v. Τιβαρηνία.
  10. Herodotus. Histories . 3.94.
  11. Lorenzo D'alfonso. "Tabal, an 'out-group' definition in the first Millennium BCE." 2012. p. 185. https://www.academia.edu/2951102/Tabal_an_out_group_definition_in_the_first_Millennium_BCE
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  13. Pliny. Naturalis Historia . 6.4.
  14. Anon. Peripl. P. E. p. 12; Pomponius Mela. De situ orbis. 1.19.
  15. Herodotus. Histories . 7.78.
  16. Xenophon. Anabasis . 7.8.25.
  17. Diodorus Siculus. Bibliotheca historica (Historical Library). 14.30.
  18. Dionys. Per. 767; Pomponius Mela. De situ orbis. 1.2.
  19. Strabo. Geographica . ii. p.129, vii. p. 309, xi. p. 549, xii. p. 555. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon 's edition.

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain :  Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Tibareni". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography . London: John Murray.

See also