The Tibareni (Georgian :ტიბარენები, Tibarenebi; Greek: Τιβαρηνοί and Τιβαρανοί; Tubal , Thobeles in Josephus ) were a people residing on the coast of ancient Pontus referred to in Herodotus, Xenophon, Strabo and other classical authors. The Tibareni were believed to be of proto-Kartvelian or Scythian origin.
Tibareni occupied the country between the Chalybes and the Mosynoeci, on the east of the river Isis, and the country was called Tibarenia (Ancient Greek : Τιβαρηνία). They are mentioned as early as the time of Herodotus, According to the ancient Greeks, the Tibareni were Scythians. Strabo describes them as inhabiting the mountains branching off from the Montes Moschici and Colchici, and mentions Cotyura as their principal town. They appear to have been a harmless and happy people, who performed all their duties in a joyous manner. Their arms consisted of wooden helmets, small shields, and short spears with long points. Xenophon and his Greeks spent three days in travelling through their country.
All three tribes — Tibareni, Chalybes and Mosynoeci — still neighbored each other, along the Black Sea coast of Anatolia (ancient Pontus), as late as in Roman times. Tibareni, along with the other Proto-Georgian tribes were subjugated by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th-5th centuries BC and were incorporated into the XIX Satrapy.[ citation needed ]
Makronisos, or Makronisi, is an island in the Aegean sea, in Greece, notorious as the site of a political prison from the 1920s to the 1970s. It is located close to the coast of Attica, facing the port of Lavrio. The island has an elongated shape, 13 km (8 mi) north to south and 2.5 km (1.6 mi) east to west at its widest point, and its terrain is arid and rocky. It is the largest uninhabited Greek island.
Cius, later renamed Prusias on the Sea after king Prusias I of Bithynia, was an ancient Greek city bordering the Propontis, in Bithynia and in Mysia, and had a long history, being mentioned by Herodotus, Xenophon, Aristotle, Strabo and Apollonius Rhodius.
Selymbria, or Selybria (Σηλυβρία), or Selybrie (Σηλυβρίη), was a town of ancient Thrace on the Propontis, 22 Roman miles east from Perinthus, and 44 Roman miles west from Constantinople, near the southern end of the wall built by Anastasius I Dicorus for the protection of his capital.
Simoeis or Simois was a river of the Trojan plain, now called the Dümruk Su, and the name of its god in Greek mythology.
Pagae or Pagai, or Pegae or Pegai was a town of ancient Megaris, on the Alcyonian or Corinthian Gulf. According to some sources of greek mythology Pagae had been the home town of Tereus. It was the harbour of Megaris on the western coast, and was the most important place in the country next to the capital. According to Strabo it was situated on the narrowest part of the Megaric isthmus, the distance from Pagae to Nisaea being 120 stadia. When the Megarians joined Athens in 455 BCE, the Athenians garrisoned Pagae, and its harbour was of service to them in sending out an expedition against the northern coast of Peloponnesus. The Athenians retained possession of Pagae a short time after Megara revolted from them in 454 BCE; but, by the thirty years' truce made in the same year, they surrendered the place to the Megarians. At one period of the Peloponnesian War (424 BCE) we find Pagae held by the aristocratical exiles from Megara. Pagae continued to exist till a late period, and under the Roman emperors was a place of sufficient importance to coin its own money. Strabo calls it τὸ τῶν Μεγαρέων φρούριον. Pausanias visited in the 2nd century and saw there a chapel of the hero Aegialeus, who fell at Glisas in the second expedition of the Argives against Thebes, but who was buried at this place. He also saw near the road to Pagae, a rock covered with marks of arrows, which were supposed to have been made by a body of the Persian cavalry of Mardonius, who in the night had discharged their arrows at the rock under the impulse of Artemis, mistaking it for the enemy. In commemoration of this event, there was a brazen statue of Artemis Soteira at Pagae. From 193 BCE Pagae was a member of the Achaean League. Pagae is also mentioned in other ancient sources, including Ptolemy, Stephanus of Byzantium, Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, Hierocles, and the Tabula Peutingeriana, where it is called Pache.
The Chalybes or Chaldoi were a people mentioned by classical authors as living in Pontus and Cappadocia in northern Anatolia during Classical Antiquity. Their territory was known as Chaldia, extending from the Halys River to Pharnakeia and Trabzon in the east and as far south as eastern Anatolia. According to Apollonius of Rhodes, the Chalybes were Scythians.
Ialysus or Ialysos, also Ialyssus or Ialyssos (Ἰάλυσσος), or Ielyssus or Ielyssos (Ἰήλυσσος), was a city of ancient Rhodes. It was one of the three ancient Doric cities in the island, and one of the six towns constituting the Doric hexapolis. It was situated only six stadia to the south-west of the city of Rhodes, and it would seem that the rise of the latter city was the cause of the decay of Ialysus; for in the time of Strabo it existed only as a village. Pliny the Elder did not consider it as an independent place at all, but imagined that Ialysus was the ancient name of Rhodes. Orychoma, the citadel, was situated above Ialysus, and still existed in the time of Strabo. It is supposed by some that Orychoma was the same as the fort Achaea or Achaia, which is said to have been the first settlement of the Heliadae in the island; at any rate, Achaia was situated in the territory of Ialysus, which bore the name Ialysia. The city is mentioned by numerous ancient authors, including Pindar, Herodotus, Thucydides, Ptolemy, Stephanus of Byzantium, Ovid, and Pomponius Mela, Dionysius Periegetes, and appears in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax.
Cynus was the principal sea-port of the Opuntian Locrians, situated on a cape at the northern extremity of the Opuntian Gulf, opposite Aedepsus in Euboea, and at the distance of 60 stadia from Opus. Livy gives an incorrect idea of the position of Cynus, when he describes it as situated on the coast, at the distance of a mile from Opus. Cynus was an ancient town, being mentioned in the Homeric Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad. It was reported to have been the residence of Deucalion and Pyrrha; the tomb of the latter was shown there. Beside Livy and Homer, Cynus is mentioned by other ancient authors, including Strabo, Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, and Ptolemy.
Karabiga (Karabuga) is a town in Biga District, Çanakkale Province, in the Marmara region of Turkey. It is located at the mouth of the Biga River, on a small east-facing bay, known as Karabiga Bay. Its ancient name was Priapus or Priapos.
Cypsela or Kypsela, was an ancient Greek town on the river Hebrus in ancient Thrace, which was once an important place on the Via Egnatia. Antiochus besieged Cypsela and its citizens surrendered and became allies with Antiochus.
Thynias was a town of ancient Thrace on the coast of the Pontus Euxinus on a promontory of the same name, mentioned by numerous ancient authors. It was located north of Salmydessus, which was probably at one time in the territories of the Thyni, although Strabo speaks of the district as belonging to the people of Apollonia. According to Pliny the Elder, the town was placed a little to the south of the promontory.
Caryanda or Karyanda was a city on the coast of ancient Caria in southwestern Anatolia. Stephanus of Byzantium describes it as a city and harbour (λίμην) near Myndus and Cos. But λιμήν, in the text of Stephanus, is an emendation or alteration: the manuscripts have λίμνη ('lake'). Strabo places Caryanda between Myndus and Bargylia, and he describes it, according to the common text, as "a lake, and island of the same name with it;" and thus the texts of Stephanus, who has got his information from Strabo, agree with the texts of Strabo. Pliny simply mentions the island Caryanda with a town; but he is in that passage only enumerating islands. In another passage he mentions Caryanda as a place on the mainland, and Pomponius Mela does also. Scylax of Caryanda, one of the most famous mariners and explorers of ancient times, was a native of Caryanda. He lived in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BCE and served the Persian king Darius I.
Mesembria was an important Greek city in ancient Thrace. It was situated on the coast of the Euxine and at the foot of Mount Haemus; consequently upon the confines of Moesia, in which it is placed by Ptolemy. Strabo relates that it was a colony of Dorians from Megara, and that it was originally called Menebria (Μενεβρία) after its founder Menas; Stephanus of Byzantium says that its original name was Melsembria (Μελσημβρία), from its founder Melsas; and both writers state that the termination -bria was the Thracian word for town. According to the Anonymous Periplus of the Euxine Sea, Mesembria was founded by Chalcedonians at the time of the expedition of Darius against Scythia; but according to Herodotus it was founded a little later, after the suppression of the Ionic Revolt, by fugitives from Byzantium and Chalcedon. These statements may, however, be reconciled by supposing that the Thracian town was originally colonized by Megarians, and afterwards received additional colonists from Byzantium and Chalcedon. Mesembria was one of the cities, forming the Greek Pentapolis on the Euxine, the other four being Odessus, Tomi, Istriani and Apolloniatae. Mesembria is rarely mentioned in history, but it continued to exist till a late period, being recorded by Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, and Ptolemy, and appearing in the Peutinger Table. The Dorian colonisation is dated to the beginning of the 6th century BC, and evidence shows that it was an important trading centre from then on and a rival of Apollonia (Sozopol). It remained the only Dorian colony along the Black Sea coast, as the rest were typical Ionian colonies. At 425/4 BC the town joined the Delian League, under the leadership of Athens.
Erineus or Erineos, also known as Erineum or Erineon (Ἐρινεόν) was a town and polis (city-state) in ancient Doris, one of the towns of the Doric Tetrapolis. According to Andron of Halicarnassus, the founders of these cities were coming from an area that was also called Doris, in Thessaly, and that was also called Histiaeotis. It is described by Strabo as lying below the town of Pindus; it probably stood upon the river of the latter name. Recounting the ships in the Battle of Salamis, Herodotus notes the contingents of the Peloponnese, saying that the Dorians and Macedonians were originally from Pindus, Erineus, and Dryopis. Thucydides writes that during First Peloponnesian War, about the year 458 or 457 BCE, the Phocians attacked the cities of Boium, Erineus and Cytinium in Doris. The Lacedemonians came to their defense, with troops commanded by Nicomedes of Sparta and forced the Phocians to retreat.
Gyrton or Gyrtona or Gyrtone (Γυρτώνη) was a town and polis (city-state) of Perrhaebia in ancient Thessaly, situated in a fertile plain between the rivers Titaresius and Peneius. Strabo connects Gyrton with the mouth of the Peneius; but it is evident from the description of Livy, whose account has been derived from Polybius, that it stood in some part of those plains in which Phalanna, Atrax, and Larissa were situated. It was only one day's march from Phalanna to Gyrton. It was an ancient town even in Classical times, mentioned by Homer, and continued to be a place of importance till later times, when it is called opulent by Apollonius Rhodius. It was said to have been the original abode of the Phlegyae, and to have been founded by Gyrton, the brother of Phlegyas.
Meliboea or Meliboia was a town and polis (city-state) of Magnesia in ancient Thessaly, mentioned by Homer, in the Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad, as one of the places subject to Philoctetes. It was situated upon the sea coast, and is described by Livy as situated at the roots of Mount Ossa, and by Strabo as lying in the gulf between Mount Ossa and Mount Pelion.
Demetrium or Demetrion, was a town of Phthiotis in ancient Thessaly, whose name derived from a temple of Demeter near Pyrasus spoken of by Homer in the Iliad, and which Strabo describes as the successor settlement to, and two stadia distant from Pyrasus. Besides Strabo, Demetrium is mentioned by numerous ancient authors: in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, by Livy, Pomponius Mela, and Stephanus of Byzantium.
Acrothoum or Akrothoon or Acrothoi or Akrothooi (Ἀκρόθωοι) or Acroathon or Acrothon was a town of Chalcidice in ancient Macedon, situated near the extremity of the Acte or Akte (Ακτή) peninsula, the easternmost of the three peninsulas forming the ancient Chalcidice. Thucydides says that among the cities of the aforementioned peninsula, Sane was colony of Andros, while Thyssus, Cleonae, Acrothoum, Olophyxus and Dium had a heterogeneous population of bilingual barbarians formed by a few Chalcidians and, the rest, Pelasgians, Bisaltians, Crestonians and Edoni. Strabo points out that its primitive populated was composed of Pelasgians from Lemnos. It was stated by Pomponius Mela and other ancient writers that the inhabitants of the town lived longer than ordinary men.
Pygela or Phygela (Φύγελα) was a small town of ancient Ionia, on the coast of the Caystrian Bay, a little to the south of Ephesus. According to Greek mythology, it was said to have been founded by Agamemnon, and to have been peopled with the remnants of his army; it contained a temple of Artemis Munychia. Dioscorides commends the wine of this town. It was a polis (city-state) and a member of the Delian League. Silver and bronze coins dated to the 4th century BCE bearing the legends «ΦΥΓΑΛΕΩΝ» or «ΦΥΓ» are attributed to the town.
Armene was an ancient Greek city on the Black Sea coast of ancient Paphlagonia. Xenophon in his Anabasis writes that the Ten Thousand on their return anchored their ships here, and stayed five days. The place belonged to the Sinopians. It was 50 stadia west of Sinope, and had a port. A small river, named Ochosbanes by Marcian of Heraclea, and named also Ochthomanes in the Anonymous Periplus, and Ocheraenus in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, falls into the harbour.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Tibareni". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography . London: John Murray.