|Co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire with Constantine IV|
|Co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire|
|Reign||659–681 (22 years)|
|with Constantine III as co-emperor, 613–641|
|with Heraklonas as co-emperor|
|with Tiberius, Martinus, and Constans II as co-emperors (September/October 641 – September/October 641)|
|with Constantine IV (654–668), Heraclius and Tiberius (659–668) as co-emperors|
|with Heraclius and Tiberius (668–681), and Justinian II (681–685) as co-emperors|
|Justinian II||685–695, 705–711|
|with Tiberius as co-emperor, 706–711|
Justinian dynasty and Phocas
Twenty Years' Anarchy
Tiberius (Greek : Τιβέριος, Tiberios) was Byzantine co-emperor from 659 to 681. He was the son of Constans II and Fausta, who was elevated in 659, before his father departed for Italy. After the death of Constans, Tiberius' brother Constantine IV, ascended the throne as senior emperor. Constantine attempted to have both Tiberius and Heraclius removed as co-emperors, which sparked a popular revolt, in 681. Constantine ended the revolt by promising to accede to the demands of the rebels, sending them home, but bringing their leaders into Constantinople. Once there, Constantine had them executed, then imprisoned Tiberius and Heraclius and had them mutilated, after which point they disappear from history.
Tiberius was the youngest son of Constans II. His mother was Fausta, daughter of the Patrician Valentinus.Although his eldest brother Constantine IV had been raised to the rank of co-emperor in 654, in 659, shortly before his father's departure for Italy, Tiberius was also elevated by Constans to the rank of co-emperor, alongside his older brother Heraclius. In 663, Constans tried to have his sons join him in Sicily, but this provoked a popular uprising in Constantinople, led by Theodore of Koloneia and Andrew, and the brothers remained in the imperial capital.
With Constans II's death in 668, Constantine IV became the senior emperor.After ruling alongside Tiberius and Heraclius for thirteen years, Constantine attempted to demote his brothers from the imperial position, but this provoked a military revolt in the Anatolic Theme (in modern Turkey). The army marched to Chrysopolis, and sent a delegation across the straits of the Hellespont to Constantinople, demanding that the two brothers should remain co-emperors alongside Constantine IV. They based their demand on the belief that, since Heaven was ruled by the Trinity, in the same way the empire should be governed by three Emperors. Confronted by this situation, Constantine kept a close eye on his brothers, and sent across a trusted officer, Theodore, the captain of Koloneia. Constantine gave Theodore the delicate task of praising the soldiers for their devotion and agreeing with their reasoning, with the objective of persuading them to return to their barracks in Anatolia. He also invited the leaders of the rebellion to come over to Constantinople and consult with the Senate in order that they may begin the process of confirming the army's wishes. Happy with this apparently positive outcome, the army departed back to Anatolia, while the instigators of the movement entered the city. With the military threat now gone, Constantine moved against the leaders of the revolt, captured them and had them hanged at Sycae.
Because he was the focus of a plot to curtail Constantine's power, both he and his brother were now suspect in the senior emperor's eyes; also, the emperor was keen to raise up his own son, the future Justinian II.Sometime between 16 September and 21 December 681, Constantine ordered the mutilation of his brothers by slitting their noses, and ordered that their images no longer appear on any coinage, and that their names be removed from all official documentation; likely to ensure that his son, Justinian II would, succeed him. After this point, neither are mentioned again by history.
Year 681 (DCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 681 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
Constantine Heraclius, commonly known by the diminutive Heraklonas or Herakleonas, or rarely, Heraclius II, was the son of Heraclius and his niece Martina. His father had stipulated in his will that both of his sons should rule jointly upon his death. Heraclius also specified that his wife, Martina, was to be called "Mother and Empress" insofar as she might have influence at court as well. The emperor Heraclius died in February 641 from edema. When Martina did make the late Emperor's will public she faced staunch resistance to her playing any active role in government, but both Heraklonas and Constantine III were proclaimed joint-emperors in February 641 without incident. After Constantine died of tuberculosis in April/May 641, Heraklonas became sole emperor, under the regency of his mother due to his young age. He reigned from April/May – September/October 641, when he was overthrown by Valentinus, a general and usurper of Armenian extract, who installed Constans II, the son of Constantine III. Valentinus had Heraklonas' nose cut off, then exiled him to Rhodes, where he is believed to have died in the same year.
Constans II, also called Constantine the Bearded, was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. Constans is a nickname given to the Emperor, who had been baptized Herakleios and reigned officially as Constantine. The nickname established itself in Byzantine texts and has become standard in modern historiography.
Constantine IV, sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatos (Πωγωνάτος), "the Bearded", out of confusion with his father, was Byzantine Emperor from 668 to 685. His reign saw the first serious check to nearly 50 years of uninterrupted Islamic expansion, while his calling of the Sixth Ecumenical Council saw the end of the monothelitism controversy in the Byzantine Empire.
Leontios or Leontius was Byzantine emperor from 695 to 698. Little is known of his early life, other than that he was born in Isauria. He was given the title of patrikios, and made strategos of the Anatolic Theme under Emperor Constantine IV. He led forces against the Umayyads during the early years of Justinian II's reign, securing victory and forcing the Umayyad caliph, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, to sue for peace.
Tiberius III was Byzantine emperor from 15 February 698 to 21 August 705. Little is known of Tiberius' early life, other than that he was droungarios of Cibyrrhaeot, and that his birth name was Apsimar. In 696, Tiberius was part of an army led by John the Patrician sent by Byzantine Emperor Leontios to retake the city of Carthage in the Exarchate of Africa, which had been captured by the Arab Umayyads. After seizing the city, This army was pushed back by Umayyad reinforcements and retreated to the island of Crete; some of the officers, fearing the wrath of Leontios, killed John and declared Tiberius emperor. Tiberius swiftly gathered a fleet, sailed for Constantinople, and deposed Leontios. Tiberius did not attempt to retake Byzantine Africa from the Umayyads, but campaigned against the Umayyads along the eastern border with some success. In 705 former Emperor Justinian II, who had been deposed by Leontios, led an army of Slavs and Bulgars to Constantinople, and after entering the city secretly, deposed Tiberius. Tiberius fled to Bithynia, but was captured several months later and beheaded between August 705 and February 706. His body was initially thrown into the sea, but was later recovered and buried in a church on the island of Prote.
John III Rizocopus was an Exarch of Ravenna (710).
Mizizios was an Armenian noble who served as a general of Byzantium, later usurping the Byzantine throne in Sicily from 668 to 669.
Plato was the Exarch of Ravenna from 645 to 649. He is known primarily for his monothelitism and his opposition to the Pope Theodore I. He convinced the Patriarch Paul II of Constantinople to break with the Pope.
Fausta was the Byzantine empress as the wife of Constans II.
Valentinus was a Byzantine general and usurper.
Arsaber, was a Byzantine noble who attempted an unsuccessful usurpation of the Byzantine imperial throne in 808.
Niketas was the eldest son of the Byzantine general and usurper Artabasdos. He served as a general during his father's usurpation against Emperor Constantine V.
Heraclius was Byzantine co-emperor from 659 to 681. He was the son of Emperor Constans II and Fausta, who was elevated in 659, before his father departed for Italy. After the death of Constans Heraclius' brother, Constantine IV, ascended the throne as senior emperor. Constantine attempted to have both Heraclius and Tiberius removed as co-emperors, which sparked a popular revolt in 681. Constantine ended the revolt by promising to accede to the demands of the rebels, sending them home, but bringing their leaders into Constantinople. Once there, Constantine had them executed, then imprisoned Tiberius and Heraclius and had them mutilated, after which point they disappear from history.
Heraclius was the brother of the Byzantine emperor Tiberius III and the Byzantine Empire's leading general during his reign. He scored a number of victories against the Umayyads, but was unable to halt the Arab conquest of Armenia, nor able to prevent the deposition of his brother by Justinian II, who later captured and executed both Tiberius and Heraclius.
Constantine Kontomytes or Contomytes was a Byzantine general and nobleman.
Saint Antony the Younger was a Byzantine military officer who became a monk and saint. He is commemorated by the Eastern Orthodox Church on 1 December.
Heraclius was born between 667 and 685, and was the son, and second of two children, of Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV and his wife, Empress Anastasia.
Martinus or Marinus was briefly co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire from September/October 641–September/October 641. Martinus was the son of Emperor Heraclius and Empress Martina. After the death of Heraclius, the Byzantine Empire was left to two of Martinus' brothers, Constantine III and Heraklonas. Heraklonas was left the sole emperor, under the regency of Martina, after Constantine died of tuberculosis, although partisans of Constantine alleged that Martina had Constantine poisoned. One such partisan, Valentinus, led troops to Chalcedon to force Martina to make Constans II, the son of Constantine, co-emperor. In late September/October 641, Martina raised Martinus to co-emperor, as well as Tiberius and Constans. Valentinus seized Constantinople regardless, and deposed Martina and Heraklonas, and cut off Martinus' nose and emasculated him, before exiling him to Rhodes.
David, known to history by his regnal name of Tiberius was one of three co-emperors of Byzantium in a period beginning in September or October 641 and ending probably in January 642. David was the son of Emperor Heraclius and his wife and niece Empress Martina. He was born after the emperor and empress had visited Jerusalem and his given name reflects a deliberate attempt to link the imperial family with the Biblical David. The David Plates may likewise have been created for the young prince or to commemorate his birth. David was given the senior court title Caesar at the age of 7 in a ceremony where he received the kamelaukion cap previously worn by his older brother Heraklonas.